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RESULTS: Mean (SD) CRP concentra on was 1.07 (0.82) mg/l. A signiﬁcant
correla on was observed between CRP and VO2max (r=-0.45, P= 0.001),
body mass index (r=0.55, P=0.000) and cholesterol (r=-0.35, P=0.04). No
significant relation was found between CRP and physical activity, LDL and
HDL (P> 0.05). Moreover, signiﬁcant associa ons were observed between
body mass index and VO2max (r=-0.33, P=0.02) and physical ac vity (r=-
CONCLUSIONS: Body mass index was the most powerful predictor of serum
concentrations of CRP in schoolchildren. It may be an important factor to
control body weight to prevent an increase in serum CRP in children and to
help the primordial prevention of chronic diseases.
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2010;19(1):22-32.
Dietary Patterns by Reduced Rank Regression Predicting
Changes in Obesity Indices in a Cohort Study: Tehran Lipid
and Glucose Study.
Sherafat-Kazemzadeh R, Egtesadi S, Mirmiran P, Gohari M, Farahani SJ,
Esfahani FH, Vafa MR, Hedayati M, Azizi F.
Nutrition Department, Faculty of Health, Iran University of Medical
Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
obesity indices (BMI, WC, WHR) among Tehranian adults in a 6-year follow-
6.6+/-0.9 years), 141 adults were recruited with: two 24 hour dietary recalls
at the beginning, as well as obesity indices at the beginning and end of the
study period. Dietary intakes were converted into grams of intakes of food
items and categorized into 16 groups. Reduced rank regression analysis
derived five patterns with total and polyunsaturated-to-saturated fat
intake, cholesterol, fiber and calcium intake as response variables. Factors
(dietary patterns) were generated retaining a corresponding factor loading
> or = |0.17| on the food groups. Changes in obesity indices were
scrutinized within quintiles of factor scores.
RESULTS: There were high loadings on refined carbohydrates, whole grain,
starchy vegetables, other vegetables, red and refined meat, saturated/trans
fat, and egg for the first factor named "traditional". All obesity indices had
increasing trend across quintiles of pattern score. The fifth pattern (namely
egg pattern) had high loading for eggs, salty snacks, as well as fruits and dry
fruits, and negative loadings for red and processed meat, saturated and
trans fat, plant oils, and dairy products. This pattern showed increasing
trends for WC and WHR after adjustment for potential confounders. Other
patterns showed non-significant trends for obesity indices.
CONCLUSIONS: The results were indicative of a traditional pattern which is
dominated in the Tehran region and associated with increase in obesity
Journal of Research in Health Sciences, 2010;10(2)
The Prevalence of Obesity and its Related Risk Factor in
the North of Iran in 2006
Gholamreza Veghari, Mehdi Sedaghat, Hamidreza Joshaghani, Ahmad
Hoseini, Farhad Niknezhad, Abdolhamid Angizeh, Ebrahim Tazik, Pooneh
Background: The main objective of this study was to evaluate the
prevalence of the obesity and the related risk factors in the north of Iran.
Methods: This was a population-based cross-sectional study that enrolled
2495 subjects (1247 males and 1248 females) using stra ﬁed cluster
sampling. Interviewers recorded the data using a multidimensional
questionnaire including anthropometric indexes. Body mass index equal to
or greater than 25 was considered as overweight and that of 30 and 40 as
obese and pathologic obese respec vely. SPSS 16.0 so ware was used for
statistical data analysis.
body mass index was 25.3 [95% CI: 25.0, 25.6] kg/m
for men and 27.5 [95%
CI: 27.2, 27.9] kg/m
for women. The prevalence rates of overweight,
obesity and pathologic obesity were 29.9% (745/2495), 22.5% (561/2495)
and 1.8% (44/2495) respec vely. The prevalence of obesity was higher in
urban residents than rural ones, 27.3% versus 18.9% respec vely (P
area compared to rural area; 2.60 [95% CI: 2.14, 3.15] for females
compared to males; 5.95 [95% CI: 3.54, 9.99] for married people compared
to single people; 1.89 [95% CI: 1.44, 2.84] for age group of 55-65 years
compared to age group of 15-24 years; 1.76 [95% CI: 1.17, 2.64] for
illiterate people compared to those who had academic educa on; 1.98
[95% CI: 1.13, 2.49] for poor people compared to people with high
Conclusion: The prevalence of obesity and overweight is very high in the
north of Iran, hence is a signal of serious health problem, and should be the
focus of special attention.
J Sports Sci. 2010;28(9):993-8.
Effects of Aerobic Training on Serum Omentin-1 and
Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in Overweight and Obese
Saremi A, Asghari M, Ghorbani A.
Department of Sport Sciences, University of Arak, Arak, Iran. a-
Omentin-1 is a newly discovered protein expressed and secreted from
visceral adipose tissue that increases insulin sensitivity.We examined the
eﬀects of 12 weeks of aerobic training on serum omen n-1 concentra ons
together with cardiovascular risk factors in overweight and obese men.
Eighteen overweight and obese par cipants (age 43.1 ± 4.7 years, BMI ≥ 25
kg . m ⁻² ) were assigned to exercise training (n = 9) and control (n = 9)
groups. A matched control group of normal weight par cipants (n = 8; age
42.2 ± 3.8 years, BMI < 25 kg . m ⁻² ) were also recruited for baseline
comparison. The obese exercise group par cipated in 12 weeks of
progressive aerobic training 5 days a week. Measures of serum omen n-1,
insulin resistance, lipid profiles, blood pressure, and body composition were
obtained before and a er the 12 weeks. At baseline, normal weight
participants had significantly higher serum omentin-1 concentra ons than
overweight and obese participants, and there were inverse correlations
between omentin-1 and each of waist circumference, fas ng glucose,
insulin resistance, total cholesterol,triglyceride, and systolic blood pressure
(P < 0 .05). A er the aerobic training, waist circumference, percent body
fat, fasting glucose, insulin resistance, triglyceride, total cholesterol, low-
density lipoprotein cholesterol, and systolic blood pressure were all
significantly decreased (P < 0.05). In contrast, serum omen n-1
concentration was significantly increased after the aerobic programme (P <
0.05), and correlated with changes in insulin resistance (r = − 0.67, P= 0.04),
glucose (r = − 0.65, P = 0.05), waist circumference (r = −70, P = 0.03), and
aerobic fitness r = −.68, P = 0.04). Aerobic training resulted in an
improvement in cardiometabolic risk factors in obese participants, and this
improvement was accompanied by increased omentin-1 concentra ons.
h p://hsr.mui.ac.ir/index.php/jhsr/ar cle/view/154
Health System Research, 2010;6(3)
The Prevalence of Obesity and Overweight in Isfahan
Sahar Sarraf Bank, Mahsa Malek Ahmadi, Zahra Sadat Khosravi, Reza
Ghiasvand, Elham Rezaei, Jalal Sabouri
overweight with body mass index. According to these studies, because of
severe complications of obesity and overweight we wanted to indicate the
outbreak rate of obesity and overweight in the certain group of veterans.
Methods: This study was cross-sectional in design. The numbers of subjects
was 106 individuals in Isfahan city. Anthropometric data and medical
history were collected and handled with SPSS 10 sta s cal so ware.
as follow: height, 168.39 ± 8.04 cm, weight, 78.75 ± 13.44 kg, body mass
index, 27.98 ± 4.68 Kg/m
, mid-arm circumference, 33.19 ± 4.12 cm, calf
circumference, 31.96 ± 7.38 cm, mid-arm muscle circumference, 27.34 ±
11.02 cm, biceps skinfold, 12.10 ± 5.47 mm, triceps skinfold, 16.35 ± 6.08
mm, scapular skinfold, 30.17 ± 8.10 mm, suprailiac skinfold, 32.62 ± 7.33
mm, total fat, 89.13 ± 24.16 mm.
Conclusion: According to the findings, more than half of the study
population were obese and overweight, however spinal cord injured
patients with the same body mass index had excessive fat mass compared
to other veterans. The main reason is sedentary life style but, additional
investigations with larger samples size are encouraged.
American Journal of Applied Sciences, 2010, Vol 7, Issue 11, P 1439-1442
Prevalence of Obesity, Overweight and Underweight
among Elementary School Children in Southern Iran, 2009
Elham Ahmadi ; Ali Rikhtegaran Tehrani ; Akbar Ahmadi
STATEMENT: In recent years obesity has become epidemic in children and
adolescents and was one of the main problems in developed and
developing countries. Considering the importance of obesity complications
for the health state of society and its increasing rate, careful evaluation,
monitoring and follow up of obesity in children and adolescents was of a
great importance. The aim of the present study was to determine the
prevalence of obesity, overweight and underweight in elementary
schoolchildren in Kerman, Iran.
schoolchildren aged 7-11 years in Kerman/Iran in 2009. A ques onnaire
consisted of age, sex, type of school, parents’ educational level, family size,
weight and height was filled out for each student. Weight and height were
measured by standard methods. Obesity, overweight and underweight
based on Body Mass Index (BMI) were determined for age and sex and in
comparison to standard percentiles of World Health Organization (WHO).
4.4 and 0.57% respec vely. There was no signiﬁcant rela onship between
BMI and gender. There was an increasing rate of obesity and overweight
risk in children of parents with higher educational levels and the prevalence
of underweight was higher in the students of public schools. No significant
relationship was found between BMI and family size.
CONCLUSION: Based on the results, although obesity was still relatively
uncommon in 7-11 year old urban students, the more important problem
was the increasing rate of obesity and overweight prevalence. Establishing
interventional measures in order to prevent risky behaviors leading to
obesity and overweight seems to be highly necessary
Int J Obes (Lond). 2009 Dec;33(12):1437-45.
Appropriate Cutoff Values of Anthropometric Variables to
Predict Cardiovascular Outcomes: 7.6 Years Follow-Up in
an Iranian Population.
Hadaegh F, Zabetian A, Sarbakhsh P, Khalili D, James WP, Azizi F.
Prevention of Metabolic Disorders Research Center, Research Institute for
Endocrine Science, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran,
predicting incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) in Iranian adults.
DESIGN: It is a population-based longitudinal study.
SUBJECTS: A total of 1614 men and 2006 women, aged > or =40 years, free
of CVD at baseline were included in the study.
MEASUREMENTS: Body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC),
waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) and cardiovascular
risks were assessed. Incident CVD was ascertained over a median of 7.6
years follow-up. The adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for CVD were calculated
for 1 s.d. change in all obesity variables using Cox propor onal hazards
regression analysis. Receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve analysis
was used as the method of defining the points of the maximum sum of
sensitivity and specificity (MAXss) of each variable as a predictor of CVD.
RESULTS: We found 333 CVD events during follow-up. The risk-factor-
adjusted HRs were significant for all anthropometric variables in males and
WHR in females and were 1.19, 1.24, 1.21 and 1.24 for BMI, WC, WHR and
WHtR in males and 1.27 for WHR in females, respec vely (all P<0.05). ROC
analysis showed the highest area under curve (AUC) for WHR, WHtR and
WC, followed by BMI in males and both genders aged< or =60 years. In
females, WHR and WHtR had the highest AUC, followed by WC and BMI.
Among those >60 years old, all the anthropometric variables showed same
CVD predicting power. The cutoff values (MAXss) for CVD prediction in
males and females were BMIs 26.95 and 29.19 kg m(-2),WCs 94.5 and 94.5
cm, WHRs 0.95 and 0.90, and WHtR 0.55 and 0.62, respec vely.
in predicting CVD in males, whereas in females WHR and WHtR were more
appropriate. The cutoff values of anthropometric variables were higher in
the Iranian than in other Asian populations.
BMC Public Health. 2009 Nov 23;9:426.
Trends of Obesity and Abdominal Obesity in Tehranian
Adults: A Cohort Study.
Hosseinpanah F, Barzin M, Eskandary PS, Mirmiran P, Azizi F.
Obesity Research Center, Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences, Shahid
BACKGROUND: Considering the increasing trend of obesity reported in
current data, this study was conducted to examine trends of obesity and
abdominal obesity among Tehranian adults during a median follow-up of
METHODS: Height and weight of 4,402 adults, aged 20 years and over,
participants of the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study (TLGS), were measured
in 1999-2001(phase I) and again in 2002-2005(phase II) and 2006-2008
(phase III). Criteria used for obesity and abdominal obesity defined body
mass index (BMI) >or= 30 and waist circumference >or= 94/80 cm for
men/women respec vely. Subjects were divided into 10-year groups and
the prevalence of obesity was compared across sex and age groups.
31.5, 37.7 and 38.6% in women in phases I, II and III respec vely (p < 0.001).
The prevalence of abdominal obesity in men was 36.5, 57.2 and 63.3% and
in women was 76.7, 83.8 and 83.6% in the three periods men oned (p <
0.001). Men aged between 20-29 years had highest increase rates of
obesity and abdominal obesity in phase III in comparison with phase I (with
a respec ve rates of 2.2- and 3.3-fold). In both sexes, an increased trend
was observed between phases I and II, whereas between phases II and III,
this trend was observed in men, but not in women.
both obesity and abdominal obesity in both sexes especially in young men,
calling for urgent action to educate people in lifestyle modifications.
Indian J Pediatr. 2009 Nov;76(11):1145-50.
Investigation of the Effect of High Dairy Diet on Body
Mass Index and Body Fat in Overweight and Obese
Ghayour-Mobarhan M, Sahebkar A, Vakili R, Safarian M, Nematy M, Lotfian
E, Khorashadizadeh M, Tavallaie S, Dahri M, Ferns G.
Cardiovascular Research Center, Avicenna Research Institute, Mashhad
University of Medical Science (MUMS), Mashhad, Iran.
improves the changes in BMI and adiposity in children on an energy
40 kg/m2) were randomized to receive a calorie restricted diet providing a
500 kcal/d deﬁcit from total energy expenditure and two (n = 40), three (n =
40) or four (n = 40) servings of dairy products/day. Anthropometric
measurements in addition to serum hs-CRP and lipid profile were measured
at baseline and a er 12 weeks.
RESULTS: Among the 96 children who completed the study, signiﬁcant
reductions in overall BMI, BMI z-score, weight, total body fat percentage
and total body fat mass were observed (p < 0.001) but these reduc ons
were not signiﬁcantly aﬀected by increasing dairy intake (p > 0.05). Overall
waist/hip ratio, Serum vitamin D and lipid profile did not change
signiﬁcantly (p > 0.05) apart from a signiﬁcant increase in HDL-cholesterol
(p < 0.001) which was independent of dairy intake (p > 0.05).
augmented change in BMI, weight and body fat in overweight and obese
children beyond what is achieved by calorie restriction.
Exp Diabetes Res. 2009;2009:136501. Epub 2009 Nov 4.
Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome in an Adult Urban
Population of the West of Iran.
Sharifi F, Mousavinasab SN, Saeini M, Dinmohammadi M.
Clinical Endocrinology, Metabolic Diseases Research Center, Zanjan
University of Medical Sciences, Zanjan, Iran.
OBJECTIVES: We determine the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in
an urban population of Zanjan, a province located to the west of Tehran.
METHODS: Randomly selected adults >20 years were studied using
stra ﬁed sampling. Target study sample was 2941 (1396 males and 1545
females). Metabolic syndrome was diagnosed using Adult Treatment Panel-
III (ATP-III) guidelines when any three of the following were present: central
obesity, raised triglycerides > or =150 mg/dl, low high-density lipoprotein
(HDL) cholesterol, blood pressure > or = 130/ > or = 85 mm Hg, and diabetes
or fas ng plasma glucose (FPG) > or = 100 mg/dl.
95%:22%-25%, P = .001), prevalence was 23.1% in men and 24.4% in
women (P : .4). The prevalence increased from 7.5% in the popula on
younger than 30 y to 45.6% in ages more than 50 years. Low HDL was the
most common metabolic abnormality in both sexes. Most of those with
metabolic syndrome had three components of the syndrome (75.6%), 170
subjects (24.4%) had four and none had ﬁve components simultaneously.
The prevalence of obesity (BMI > or = 30 kg/m(2)), hypercholesterolemia (>
or =200 mg/dl) and high LDL cholesterol (> or =130 mg/dl) was greater in
the metabolic syndrome group than normal subjects (P = .00).
CONCLUSIONS: There is a high prevalence of metabolic syndrome in this
urban population of the northern west of Iran. Focus of cardiovascular
prevention should be undertaken in this area.
ScientificWorldJournal. 2009 Nov 18;9:1286-93.
Prevalence of Obesity and its Association with
Socioeconomic Factors in Elderly Iranians from Razavi-
Nematy M, Sakhdari A, Ahmadi-Moghaddam P, Aliabadi M, Kimiagar M,
Ilaty AA, Azimi-Nezhad M, Shakeri MT, Ghayour-Mobarhan M, Sahebkar A,
Department of Nutrition and Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Mashad
University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran. NematyM@mums.ac.ir
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