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- Abstract BACKGROUND
- Metabolically Obese Normal Weight And Phenotypically Obese Metabolically Normal Youths: The CASPIAN Study.
- Abstract OBJECTIVES
- Abstract OBJECTIVE
|PARTICIPANTS: Eighty individuals aged 18 to 34 years (40 normal and 40
overweight and obese subjects) were evaluated in this study.
METHODS: The periodontal examination consisted of: Plaque Index (PLI),
Probing Pocket Depth (PPD) and Clinical Attachment Level (CAL). Body Mass
Index (BMI) and Waist circumference (WC) were used as measures of
overall and abdominal fat content. Socio-demographic variables and
periodontal disease risk factors (age, gender, education, time elapsed since
last dental visit, smoking and diabetes) were evaluated as covariates. The
statistical tests used were: Kolmogorov-Smirnov, Independent Samples T-
test, ANOVA, Exact fisher, Chi-Square test and Spearman's rank correlation
compared to control (2.82 +/- 0.4 versus 2.56 +/- 0.36, P < 0.002 and 1.98
+/- 0.5 versus 1.63 +/- 0.335, P < 0.000 respec vely). Subjects with a high
waist circumference had significant differences of PPD and CAL when
compared to normal waist circumference subjects (P < 0.000). There were
also positive correlations between measures of overall fat content BMI and
PPD (Rsp = 0.33), CAL (Rsp = 0.39) and age (Rsp = 0.42) on one side and the
measure of WC and PPD (Rsp = 0.32), CAL (Rsp = 0.44), age (Rsp = 0.48) and
PLI (Rsp = 0.3) on the other.
associated with the extent of periodontal disease in a sample of Iranian
young individuals and therefore prevention and management of obesity
may be an additional factor for improving periodontal health.
Clin Chem. 2008 Jan;54(1):147-53. Epub 2007 Nov 12.
Association of Changes in Oxidative and Proinflammatory
States with Changes in Vascular Function after a Lifestyle
Modification Trial among Obese Children.
Kelishadi R, Hashemi M, Mohammadifard N, Asgary S, Khavarian N.
Preventive Pediatric Cardiology Department, Isfahan Cardiovascular
Research Centre, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.
proinflammatory states with vascular function after diet and exercise
intervention among obese children has not been previously explored.
children, age 12 to 18 years, we evaluated the relationship between
changes in anthropometric indices, measures of insulin resistance, C-
reactive protein (CRP), oxidized LDL (ox-LDL), and oxidative stress markers
with changes in carotid intima-media thickness (C-IMT) and flow mediated
dilation (FMD) of the brachial artery.
RESULTS: At the end of the study, body mass index (BMI), waist
circumference, and percentage body fat were decreased (P <0.05), but
par cipants remained overweight (BMI > or = 95th percen le). Although
FMD improved (P <0.05), the improvement in C-IMT did not reach statistical
significance. The changes in BMI, waist circumference, fat mass, ox-LDL,
malondialdehyde (MDA), CRP, insulin, and homeostasis model assessment
for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) had an inverse correlation with the
changes in mean FMD after adjustment for age and sex, with the highest
correlations documented for ox-LDL, CRP, and WC. The age- and sex-
adjusted changes in ox-LDL, waist circumference, CRP, MDA, and body fat
mass had the highest correlations with changes in C-IMT.
condition associated with childhood obesity, notably with abdominal fat
deposition, may play a role in the development of the earliest stages of
proatherosclerotic inflammatory processes and subsequent vascular
dysfunction. These changes might be partially reversible by short-term diet
and exercise intervention, even if patients do not reach ideal body weight.
Child Care Health Dev. 2008 Jan;34(1):44-54.
Thinness, Overweight and Obesity in a National Sample of
Iranian Children and Adolescents: CASPIAN Study.
Kelishadi R, Ardalan G, Gheiratmand R, Majdzadeh R, Hosseini M, Gouya
MM, Razaghi EM, Delavari A, Motaghian M, Barekati H, Mahmoud-Arabi
MS, Lock K; Caspian Study Group.
Preventive Pediatric Cardiology Department, Deputy for Research, Isfahan
Cardiovascular Research Centre (WHO-Collaborating Centre in EMR),
Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran. firstname.lastname@example.org
of different grades of nutritional status (underweight, normal weight,
overweight and obesity) among Iranian school-students and to compare the
prevalence of overweight and obesity using three different sets of criteria.
METHODS: This cross-sectional national survey was conducted on a
representa ve sample of 21 111 school students including 10 253 boys
(48.6%) and 10 858 girls (51.4%) aged 6-18 years, selected by mul stage
random cluster sampling from urban (84.6%) and rural (15.4%) areas of 23
provinces in Iran The percentage of subjects in the corresponding body
mass index (BMI) categories of the Centers of Disease Control and
Prevention (CDC), the International Obesity Task Force (IOTF) and the
obtained national percentiles were assessed and compared.
RESULTS: There was no gender differences in BMI, but was higher in boys
living in urban than in rural areas (18.4 +/- 3.88 vs. 17.86 +/- 3.66 kg/m(2)
respec vely, P < 0.05). The prevalence of underweight was 13.9% (8.1% of
boys and 5.7% of girls) according to the CDC percen les, and 5% (2.6% of
boys and 2.4% of girls) according to the obtained percen les. According to
the CDC, IOTF and national cut-offs, the prevalence of overweight was
8.82%, 11.3% and 10.1% respec vely; and the prevalence of obesity was
4.5%, 2.9% and 4.79% respec vely. The prevalence of overweight was
highest (10.98%) in the 12-year-old group and that of obesity (7.81%) in the
6-year-old group. The kappa correla on coeﬃcient was 0.71 between the
CDC and IOTF criteria, 0.64 between IOTF and national cut-oﬀs, and 0.77
between CDC and national cut-offs.
CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this study warrant the necessity of paying
special attention to monitoring of the time trends in child obesity based on
uniform definitions, as well as to design programmes to prevent and control
J Am Diet Assoc. 2008 Jan;108(1):82-90.
Metabolically Obese Normal Weight And Phenotypically
Obese Metabolically Normal Youths: The CASPIAN Study.
Kelishadi R, Cook SR, Motlagh ME, Gouya MM, Ardalan G, Motaghian M,
Majdzadeh R, Ramezani MA.
Preventive Pediatric Cardiology Department, Isfahan Cardiovascular
Research Centre, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.
OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were to estimate the prevalence
and distribution of cardiovascular risk factors and the metabolic syndrome
in children with generalized, central, or combined types of obesity and to
possibly discover if a phenotypically obese metabolically normal and a
metabolically obese normal weight phenotype could be identified in
children and adolescents.
DESIGN: This cross-sectional study is the baseline survey of a national
representa ve children, aged 6 to 18 years, were recruited from the
community through randomly selected schools within six provinces in Iran.
In addition to physical examination, fasting glucose and lipid profile were
variable, cardiovascular risk factors and the metabolic syndrome were
dependent variables. Prevalence of risk factors in different types of obesity
was compared by multivariate analysis of variance and post-hoc tests.
Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the associations between
obesity type and the metabolic syndrome.
RESULTS: Varying with age and sex groups, 6% to 9% of children were
categorized into the isolated central obesity group, 7.5% to 11% into the
isolated generalized obesity, and 14% to 16.5% into the combined type
group. The prevalence of dyslipidemia, high blood pressure, and metabolic
syndrome was higher in those children with combined obesity than in those
with the other two types of obesity, as well as in the central than in the
generalized obesity groups. Phenotypically obese metabolically normal
subjects were more prevalent in the generalized obesity group. The
likelihood of metabolic syndrome was highest in those with combined
obesity (odds ra o 3.7, 95% conﬁdence interval 3.1 to 4), and lowest in
generalized obesity group (odds ra o 2.1, 95% conﬁdence interval 1.8 to
health hazards of abdominal obesity in children. The finding of
metabolically obese normal weight children suggests that additional
investigation for cardiovascular risk factors may be warranted in normal-
weight children with an ethnic predisposition to chronic diseases.
Eur J Clin Nutr. 2008 Jan;62(1):1-9. Epub 2007 Mar 7.
The Associations between Current Recommendation for
Physical Activity and Cardiovascular Risks Associated with
Akbartabartoori M, Lean ME, Hankey CR.
1Nutri on and Biochemistry Department, School of Public Health, Yasuj
University of Medical Sciences, Yasuj, Iran.
OBJECTIVE: To examine associations between current recommended
physical activity levels and body mass index (BMI) with some cardiovascular
disease (CVD) risk factors (total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein
cholesterol (HDL-C), non-HDL-cholesterol (non-HDL-C), C-reactive protein
(CRP), fibrinogen, and blood pressure), general health score (GHQ12) and
predicted coronary heart disease (CHD) risk.
DESIGN: Further analysis of the cross-sec onal Sco sh Health Survey 1998
SUBJECTS: Five thousand four hundred and sixty adults 16-74 years of age.
RESULTS: After controlling for some confounding factors, obesity was
significantly associated with higher odds ratio (OR) for elevated cholesterol,
CRP, systolic blood pressure, non-HDL-C and lower HDL-C (P<0.001), and
with greater predicted CHD risk compared to BMI <25 kg/m(2). Regular self-
reported physical activity was associated with smaller OR of lower HDL-C
and higher CRP, and average predicted 10-year CHD risk in obese subjects,
but did not eliminate the higher risk of the measured CVD risk factors in this
group. The OR of these two risk factors were s ll high 4.39 and 2.67,
respec vely, when compared with those who were inac ve with BMI <25
kg/m(2) (P<0.001). Those who reported being physically ac ve had be er
GHQ scores in all BMI categories (P<0.001).
levels may reduce some CVD risk factors, predicted CHD risk and improve
psychosocial health, but may not eliminate the extra risk imposed by
overweight/obesity. Therefore, increasing physical activity and reducing
body weight should be considered to tackle CVD risk factors.
Arch Iran Med. 2008 Jan;11(1):10-5.
Overweight Adolescents: A Group at Risk for Metabolic
Syndrome (Tehran Adolescent Obesity Study).
Moayeri H, Rabbani A, Keihanidoust ZT, Bidad K, Anari S.
Department of Pediatric Endocrinology, Imam Khomeini Hospital, Tehran
University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. email@example.com
BACKGROUND: Metabolic syndrome not only is a serious problem for
adults, but is also afflicting an increasing number of children and
adolescents. This syndrome is a risk factor for type 2 diabetes mellitus and
cardiovascular diseases. The aim of this study was to estimate the
prevalence of metabolic syndrome in a sample of Iranian adolescents.
participated in a community-based cross sectional survey. Anthropometric
examinations including height, weight, body mass index, and blood
pressure were assessed. A fasting blood sample was taken for
measurement of glucose and lipid profile. Metabolic syndrome was
determined by the definition released by the National Cholesterol
Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III, which was modified for age.
was no gender difference in the distribution of metabolic syndrome. When
stra ﬁed by body mass index, 22.5% were overweight (BMI> or =95th
percentile) besides having the criteria for metabolic syndrome, while the
remaining 4.1% of the adolescents were at risk for overweight (BMI
between 85th and 95th percen le) together with metabolic syndrome.
Hypertriglyceridemia was the most common and high-density lipoprotein
was the least common constituent of metabolic syndrome.
CONCLUSION: This study suggests a high prevalence of metabolic
syndrome among overweight Iranian adolescents. This poses a serious
threat to the current and future health of Iranian youth.
Prevalence of Obesity among School Children in
A R Dorosty
, F Baygi and M R Eshraghian
BACKGROUND: At present, the prevalence of obesity among children and
youngsters is rapidly increasing in developed countries. Few studies have
been carried out on childhood obesity in Iran using standard references.
Neishabour using several references including Iranian reference, CDC 2000
and IOTF 2000.
selected by a two-stage cluster sampling. Height and weight of students
were measured and BMI was calculated. Obesity was defined as having a
BMI≥95th percen le of Iranian reference or CDC. Also, the students with
BMI greater than IOTF values were identified as obese.
CDC and IOTF were 8.5% (CI 95%, 7.1-10.0%), 4.6% (CI 95%, 3.5-6.0%), and
7.3% (CI 95%, 6.0-9.0%), respec vely. Using CDC reference, a signiﬁcant
diﬀerence in prevalence of obesity between girls and boys (5.8% vs. 3.1%)
was found (p<0.05). When the Iranian reference was applied, the
prevalence of obesity was shown to be signiﬁcantly higher in boys aged 7
and 8 compared to girls (15.2% vs. 6.4% and 12.5% vs. 4.0%), respec vely
(p<0.05). Finally, the applica on of IOTF reference produced no significant
difference in prevalence of obesity between girls and boys.
prevalence of obesity were not the same, use of relevant BMI percentile is
Iranian Journal of Pediatrics, 2008;18(1):38-46
Longitudinal Pattern and Reference Values of Obesity
Indices of Infants in Jahrom (Southern Region of), Iran
Seyed Taghi Heidari, Mohammad Ali Vakili, Fatemeh Emamghorashi
OBJECTIVE: Obesity (scaled weight-by-height index) charts of a cohort of
597 healthy infants (391 boys and 206 girls) living in Jahrom (Southern Iran)
develop power type obesity indices, I
. Polynomial modeling was
used by applying HRY (Healy, Rasbash, Yang) nonparametric method to
estimate age-related smoothed centiles of obesity.
FINDINGS: The op mal value of p was found to be 2.5 for girls and 2 for
boys. No more than cubic and quadratic polynomials were needed to fit
obesity-for-age smoothly for infants. Infant's obesity increases from birth to
six months of age and decreases later on to the age of 20 months when it
is an appropriate index which explores the degree of fatness. A local
standard for assessing obesity in clinical practice as well as community
health programs in Iran is of urgent need; our data serve this purpose.
World applied Science Jornal, 2008;5(2):193-198
Total Calcium Intake and Metabolic Syndrome in Middle
Aged Women, Babol, Iran
1Mouloud Agajani Delavar, 2Lye Munn Sann, 3Khor Geok Lin, 4Syed
Tajuddin B. Syed Hassan and 5Parichehr Hanachi.
1Department of Midwifery, Babol University of Medical Sciences, Babol,
Islamic Republic of Iran
2Community Health Department, UPM, Malaysia
3Nutri on Department, UPM, Malaysia
4Community Health Department, UPM, Malaysia
5Women Research, Alzahra University, Iran
The metabolic syndrome is an increasingly common condition, especially in
women. The objective was to examine the relationship between total
calcium and metabolic syndrome in Babolian middle aged women. A
systema c random sampling method was used to select 984 women aged
30-50 years of age from urban area in Babol, Mazandaran, Iran. The ATP III
criteria were used to classify study participants as having metabolic
syndrome. We evaluated eating and drinking patterns by a food frequency
questionnaire. Dairy products significantly were consumed in women with
metabolic syndrome lower than women without metabolic syndrome (p
=0.0001). Those in the highest quar le of calcium intake were lower fasting
glucose (p =0.0001), less likely to be abdominal obese (p = 0.0001) and had
higher HDL- cholesterol (p = 0.0001), lower triglyceride (p =0.0001 and
lower prevalence of the metabolic syndrome (p =0.0001). The risk of
metabolic syndrome for women in the first quartile category of calcium was
higher than for those in the highest quar le (OR= 13.200; 95% CI =0.12,
21.93). This study showed that an inverse favorable associa on of total
calcium intake and the metabolic syndrome. It may be supported current
dietary recommendations to increase intakes of foods contain calcium but
still ambiguous, suggests that high calcium intake has benefits on traits of
the metabolic syndrome.
Gastroenterology and Hepatology from bed to bench. 2008, 1(2).
Association of Body Mass Index with Digestive
Symptoms and Signs in Northwest of Iran
Aim: To evaluate the association between body mass index (BMI) and
certain digestive symptoms and signs.
Background: Obesity is of substantial health significance all over the world,
and it is categorized by the world health organization among top ten global
health problems. There is much evidence that indicates a higher prevalence
of digestive symptoms in obese people.
Patients and methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in city of
Tabriz in north-west of Iran. One-thousand and seventy-one families with
4225 members were randomly selected. The associa on of diges ve
symptoms and signs with BMI was assessed.
Results: Of 4225 family members, 2485 who were above 18 years old
agreed to par cipate in the study. The prevalence of obesity was 20.1%,
and 33.3% were overweight. There was a positive relation between
increased BMI and speciﬁc diges ve symptoms. Cons pa on (P=0.043),
bloa ng (P=0.03), dysphagia (P=0.024), protruding anal mass (P
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