Public Health Nutr. 2006 Dec;9(8):996-1000. Prevalence of Obesity, Food Choices and Socio-Economic
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- Abstract AIM
- Obesity and Associated Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Iranian Children: A Cross-Sectional Study.
- Abstract BACKGROUND
- Metabolic Syndrome and Leptin Concentrations in Obese Children.
- Abstract OBJECTIVE
- Abstract OVERVIEW
- MATERIALS AND METHODS
- DISCUSSIONS AND CONCLUSIONS
- Coronary Artery Disease in Iranian Overweight Women.
- The Effect Of Pre-Pregnancy Body Mass Index and Gestational Weight Gain on Pregnancy Outcomes in Urban Care Settings in Urmia-Iran.
Public Health Nutr. 2006 Dec;9(8):996-1000.
Prevalence of Obesity, Food Choices and Socio-Economic
Status: A Cross-Sectional Study in The North-West Of Iran.
Dastgiri S, Mahdavi R, TuTunchi H, Faramarzi E.
School of Nutrition and Public Health, National Public Health Management
Centre (NPMC), Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.
obesity in the north-west of Iran, to provide baseline information for setting
up a regional population-based centre to control and prevent obesity-
related disorders in the area.
METHODS: In this cross-sec onal study, a total of 300 subjects were
selected/studied in Tabriz, one of the major cities in Iran. Data on basic
characteristics, anthropometric measurements, dietary assessment and
physical activity were collected. Obesity was defined as body mass index >
or =30 kg m(-2) for both women and men.
conﬁdence interval (CI): 18.0-27.6). The prevalence of obesity was 24%
(95% CI: 18.5-31.4) for women and 18% (95% CI: 12.5-25.6) for men. For
both women and men obesity prevalence showed a positive association
with age (P<0.001), while there was a nega ve correla on of obesity with
educa on and income (P<0.001). Fruit consump on decreased the risk of
obesity in both women and men (odds ra o (OR)=0.60, 95% CI: 0.49-0.71
vs. OR=0.62, 95% CI: 0.51-0.74, respec vely). The same signiﬁcant pa ern
was observed for the consump on of green vegetables (OR=0.71, 95% CI:
0.57-0.63 vs. OR=0.86, 95% CI: 0.77-0.98 for women and men, respec vely),
legumes (OR=0.70, 95% CI: 0.59-0.84 vs. OR=0.78, 95% CI: 0.66-0.91 for
women and men, respec vely) and dairy products (OR=0.73, 95% CI: 0.61-
0.91 vs. OR=0.77, 95% CI: 0.63-0.93 for women and men, respectively).
income and consumption of certain food groups (i.e. vegetables, fruits,
legumes and dairy products) may decrease the risk of obesity. Our findings
also indicate the crucial necessity of establishing a population-based centre
for obesity in the area. The essential information is now achieved to
propose to local health authorities to act accordingly. However, more
population-based investigations on dietary choices are needed to develop
effective preventive strategies to control overweight and obesity disorders
in different regions.
Pediatr Int. 2006 Dec;48(6):566-71.
Obesity and Associated Cardiovascular Risk Factors in
Iranian Children: A Cross-Sectional Study.
Hamidi A, Fakhrzadeh H, Moayyeri A, Pourebrahim R, Heshmat R, Noori M,
Rezaeikhah Y, Larijani B.
Endocrinology and Metabolism Research Center, Doctor Shariati Hospital,
Tehran University of Medical Science, Tehran, Iran.
countries considering its association with cardiovascular risk factors.
Relationship between childhood obesity and these risk factors has not been
attested in the Iranian population before. The aim of the present study was
to investigate frequency of cardiovascular risk factors and their association
with severity of obesity in a sample of Iranian obese children.
METHODS: A total of 13 086 children aged 7-12 years were screened and
those with waist circumference = 90th percen le of their age were invited
for further evaluations. Participants were divided into two groups of
overweight or obese according to International Obesity Task Force criteria.
Cardiovascular risk factors were defined as high fasting total cholesterol,
high low density lipoprotein, low high density lipoprotein, high triglycerides,
and systolic or diastolic hypertension. These factors were compared
between obese and overweight children and their correlations with body
mass index and other measures of obesity were tested.
study, 194 were overweight and 338 were obese. Mean levels of
triglyceride and Apo-lipoprotein B in obese children were significantly
higher than overweight par cipants. A total of 81.9% of obese children and
75.4% of overweight children had at least one cardiovascular risk factor.
There were significant correlations between body mass index and systolic
blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, serum triglyceride, and Apo-
lipoprotein B levels (P values <0.01).
CONCLUSION: The high prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in
overweight and obese children and positive correlation of these factors
with severity of obesity emphasizes the need for prevention and control of
childhood obesity from early stages.
Indian J Pediatr. 2006 Jul;73(7):593-6.
Metabolic Syndrome and Leptin Concentrations in Obese
Hamidi A, Fakhrzadeh H, Moayyeri A, Heshmat R, Ebrahimpour P, Larijani B.
Endocrinology and Metabolism Research Center, Tehran University of
Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
OBJECTIVE: Obesity and its complications including metabolic syndrome
has been increased in children and adolescents recently. Leptin is known to
play an important role in the pathogenesis of obesity.
leptin and metabolic syndrome in obese Iranian children. A cross sectional
study was carried out in 65 primary schools in Tehran. The children with
waist circumferences equal or above 90th percen le for their height and
age were chosen for further evalua ons. 505 children aged 7-12 years
participated in the study. Anthropometric variables measurements, blood
pressure, fasting plasma glucose, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein
cholesterol and serum leptin were obtained from the study sample.
RESULTS: Serum leptin levels were significantly higher in girls in
comparison to the boys (with median 11.0 Vs 8.25 ng/dl; P value = 0.007).
Serum level of leptin were higher in children with metabolic syndrome
(median 11.3 Vs 8.9 ng/dl; P value = 0.045). However, a er adjustment for
sex, this association was removed.
syndrome, even though it was strongly associated with obesity parameters.
More studies evaluating the relationship between leptin and metabolic
syndrome in various ethnic groups are recommended.
Eur J Pediatr. 2006 Jul;165(7):489-93. Epub 2006 May 5.
Overweight and Obesity and Their Associated Factors in
Adolescents in Tehran, Iran, 2004-2005
Moayeri H, Bidad K, Aghamohammadi A, Rabbani A, Anari S, Nazemi L,
Gholami N, Zadhoush S, Hatmi ZN.
Immunology, Asthma and Allergy Research Institute, Children Medical
Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, No 62, Dr. Gharib St,
Keshavarz Blvd., Tehran, Tehran, 14194, Iran.
OVERVIEW: Obesity is a significant health crisis around the world. Of great
concern are the data pointing to the recent increase in the prevalence of
obesity irregardless of age group and country. Overweight and obesity in
adolescence are markers of overweight and obesity in adults, respectively.
Very little data are currently available on the prevalence of childhood
obesity in Iran, and more research on the risk factors is required before
preventive public health programs can be formulated and put into practice.
overweight and obesity and their associated factors in adolescent children
living in Tehran.
sampling, 2900 students (1200 males and 1700 females) aged 11-17 years
were selected from 20 secondary schools in the school year of 2004-2005. A
questionnaire was filled, and weight and height were measured.
DISCUSSIONS AND CONCLUSIONS: The body mass index (BMI) was
calculated and adjusted for age and sex. Prevalences of overweight and
obesity were 17.9 and 7.1%, respec vely. BMI increased with age, and it
was higher in those who had lower levels of physical activity. Age at
menarche was negatively associated with BMI. There was no relationship
between macro- and micronutrient intake and overweight and obesity. This
study highlights the high prevalence of overweight and obesity in
adolescent children in Tehran.
Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes. 2006 Jun;114(6):310-5.
Waist/Height Ra o as A Be er Predictor of Type 2
Diabetes Compared to Body Mass Index in Tehranian
Adult Men--A 3.6-Year Prospective Study.
Hadaegh F, Zabetian A, Harati H, Azizi F.
Endocrine Research Center, Shaheed Beheshti University of Medical
Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether central obesity variables are more
important than general obesity variables in predicting the incidence of type
2 diabetes in Iranians.
sample of 1852 males aged > or = 20 years, par cipants of the Tehran Lipid
and Glucose Study, were followed for a mean dura on of 3.6 years.
Demographic data were collected; blood pressure and anthropometric
variables such as body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist-
to-hip ratio (WHR), and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) were measured
according to a standard protocol. Biochemical analyses including
measurements of plasma glucose in the fas ng state and 2 hours a er
inges on of 75 g glucose as well as fas ng serum lipids were done. Diabetes
and abnormal glucose tolerance (impaired fasting glucose or impaired
glucose tolerance) were defined according to ADA criteria. Logistic
regression models with the stepwise conditional method were used to
estimate the relative risk (RR) of developing diabetes associated with each
quartile of each anthropometric variable in a multivariate model adjusted
for age, hypertension, smoking, family history of diabetes (model 1), and a
full model adjusted for all the variables in model 1 plus abnormal glucose
tolerance (model 2). Receiver opera ng characteris c (ROC) curves were
used to determine the predictive power of each variable for development
of type 2 diabetes, a er adjustment for age.
during 3.6 years of follow-up, with an incidence rate of approximately one
percent per year. The RR of developing diabetes associated with the highest
quar le of anthropometric variables, was highest for WHtR in model 1.
A er further adjustment for abnormal glucose tolerance (model 2) only
WHtR and WC were signiﬁcantly associated with type 2 diabetes. According
to the ROC curve analysis, among central obesity variables only WHtR had a
higher ROC curve than BMI. WHtR also continued to be the best predictive
central obesity variable compared to BMI, even when the analysis was
restricted to subjects with BMI < 27 kg/m2 (0.678 vs. 0.631, p < 0.05). In
those with BMI > or = 27 kg/m2, none of the central obesity variables
proved to be superior to BMI.
CONCLUSION: Among abdominal obesity variables, WHtR appears to be
stronger than BMI in identifying men with type 2 diabetes in the future.
BMC Public Health. 2006 Jun 20;6:158.
Obesity and Hypertension in an Iranian Cohort Study;
Iranian Women Experience Higher Rates of Obesity and
Hypertension than American Women.
Bahrami H, Sadatsafavi M, Pourshams A, Kamangar F, Nouraei M, Semnani
S, Brennan P, Boffetta P, Malekzadeh R.
Digestive Disease Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences,
Tehran, Iran. email@example.com
developed countries, obesity has become a major problem throughout the
world and developing countries, like Iran, are joining the global obesity
pandemic. We determined the prevalence of overweight, obesity, and
hypertension in a large cohort of Iranians and compared age-adjusted rates
with the rates in the US.
METHODS: Golestan Cohort Study is a population-based study of 8,998
men and women, aged 35-81 years, from urban and rural areas.
Anthropometric parameters were measured by interviewers. Prevalence
rates were directly adjusted to the 2000 United States standard popula on.
RESULTS: The age-adjusted prevalence rates of overweight (BMI > or = 25
kg/m2) and obesity (BMI > or = 30 kg/m2) in this Iranian popula on were
62.2% and 28.0%, respec vely. Both overweight and obesity were more
common in women than men. Age-adjusted prevalence of overweight was
significantly higher in Iranian women compared to the American women
(68.6% vs. 61.6%), while the age-adjusted prevalence of obesity is closer in
these two popula ons (34.9% vs. 33.2%). Iranian men-compared to
American men-had significantly lower age-adjusted prevalence of
overweight (53.7% vs. 68.8%) and obesity (16.2% vs. 27.5%). Age-adjusted
prevalence of hypertension was higher in Iranian women than American
women (35.7% vs. 30.5%). Diabetes mellitus was reported in 6.2% of
participants. Mean waist-to-hip ra o (WHR) among women was 0.96.
Smoking rates in men and women were 33.2% and 2.2%, respec vely.
Iran is as high as the US. However, Iranian women are more obese than
American women and Iranian men are less obese than their American
counterparts. This discrepancy might be due to the low rate of smoking
among Iranian women. Iranian women have higher mean WHR than what
WHO has deﬁned in 19 other popula ons.
Int J Cardiol. 2006 Nov 18;113(3):391-4. Epub 2006 May 5.
Coronary Artery Disease in Iranian Overweight Women.
Chinikar M, Maddah M, Hoda S.
Department of Cardiology, School of Medicine, Iran.
Iran. This study aimed to evaluate coronary risk factors in Iranian
overweight and obese women.
in the main heart clinic in Rasht city, Iran, between 2000 and 2003, those
with angiographically approved coronary artery disease (n=180) and
overweight normal coronary women (n=224) par cipated in this study. The
subjects in both groups had body mass index above 25 kg/m(2). Data on
age, educational level, cigarette smoking, alcohol drinking and current drug
therapy were collected using questionnaires. Total serum cholesterol, high
density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglyceride, apoprotein B, apoprotein A1,
lipoprotein (a), blood glucose, body weight, height, and waist
circumference were measured in both groups.
RESULTS: The ﬁndings indicated that mean age (57.3+/-10.9 vs 40.3+/-10.1
p<0.0001) was signiﬁcantly higher in coronary artery diseased group than
normal overweight and obese subjects. Other measured risk factors
including waist circumference, blood lipids and blood pressure were higher
in overweight patients with coronary artery disease than overweight
normal subjects. Results of logistic regression analysis showed that age
(OR=1.16, 95% CI 1.10-1.21) and diabetes (OR=6.31, 95% CI 1.95-20.3) were
the only predictors of coronary artery disease in this population of coronary
obese patients. The proportion of low educated level was remarkably
higher in overweight women with coronary artery disease than normal
CONCLUSION: The findings suggested that advancing age and diabetes are
independent predictors for development of coronary artery disease in this
group of overweight and obese Iranian women. The high proportion of low
educated people in these patients with coronary artery disease implicates
an important public health message for targeted preventive measures in
lower social groups.
Int J Cardiol. 2007 May 16;118(1):111-2. Epub 2006 Aug 28.
Obesity and Dyslipidemia among Young General
Physicians in Iran.
This study describes overweight, obesity and dyslipidemia in young general
physicians aged 26-40 years in Rasht City, northern Iran. A random sample
of 272 physicians (137 men and 135 women) was studied. Data on age,
body weight, height and original weight were collected; and blood lipid
levels were measured. The findings showed that the prevalence of
overweight/obesity among men and women were 54.5% and 13.3%
respectively. High serum LDL-c levels (54.5%) and low serum level of HDL-c
(66.7%) was the main feature of dyslipidemia in the study men and women,
respectively. These data showed that overweight and blood lipid
abnormality is highly prevalent in this group of young physicians. The
increasing prevalence of obesity in the Iranian medical professions is a
cause for concern.
Eur J Pediatr. 2007 May;166(5):453-4. Epub 2006 Oct 17.
Prevalence of Asthma Related to BMI in Adolescents in
Tehran, Iran, 2004-2005.
Bidad K, Anari S, Aghamohammadi A, Pourpak Z, Moayeri H.
Immunology, Asthma and Allergy Research Institute, Tehran University of
Medical Sciences, No 62, Dr Gharib st, Keshavarz Blvd., Tehran, 14194, Iran.
Both asthma and obesity have become more common in affluent societies
during the recent decades, and several studies have shown a correlation
between the presence of asthma and obesity.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2006 Apr 20;6:15.
The Effect Of Pre-Pregnancy Body Mass Index and
Gestational Weight Gain on Pregnancy Outcomes in Urban
Care Settings in Urmia-Iran.
Yekta Z, Ayatollahi H, Porali R, Farzin A.
Community Medicine Department, Faculty of Medicine, Urmia University of
Medical Sciences,, Urmia, Iran. firstname.lastname@example.org
BACKGROUND: Nutritional status of women has been considered an
important prognostic indicator of pregnancy outcomes. Few studies have
evaluated patterns of weight gain and pre-pregnancy body mass index in
developing regions where malnutrition and poor weight gain as well as
maternal obesity have significant influences on the pregnancy outcome.
This study aims to show effect of pregnancy body mass index and the
corresponding gestational weight gain on the outcome of pregnancy.
seventy women from urban areas of Northwest Iran were recruited for
participation during their first eight weeks of pregnancy. Body mass index
(BMI) was categorized and gestational weight gain was divided into two
groups of normal and abnormal based on recommendations of Institute of
Medicine (IOM) published in 1990. Chi square and one way ANOVA were
used in the univariate analysis of the association between weight gain and
corresponding adverse outcomes including cesarean, preterm labor and
low neonatal birth weight. Adjusted odds ratios for adverse outcomes were
determined by multiple logistic regression models, while controlling for the
following factors: maternal age, parity, and education.
RESULTS: Both pre-pregnancy BMI < 19 and abnormal weight gain during
pregnancy were found to be associated with low neonatal birth weight
deﬁned as < 2500 g. Abnormal weight gain, during pregnancy was not
related to an increased risk of preterm labor or cesarean delivery but it was
highly associated with low birth weight (LBW)(P < 0.05).
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