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- Age- and Gender-Specific Smoothed Waist Circumference Percentiles for Kuwaiti Adolescents.
- Abstract OBJECTIVE
- Social and Health Factors Associated with Physical Activity among Kuwaiti College Students.
- Associated Cutaneous Diseases in Obese Adult Patients: A Prospective Study from a Skin Referral Care Center.
- Impact of Obesity on Nuclear Medicine Imaging.
- Comparison of Obesity and Its Relationship to Some Metabolic Risk Factors of Atherosclerosis in Arabs and South Asians in Kuwait.
- Abstract BACKGROUND
- Can Breastfeeding and its Duration Determine the Overweight Status of Kuwai Children at the Age Of 3-6 Years.
CONCLUSION: A majority of Kuwaiti mothers were unable to correctly
perceive their children's weight status, especially for their male, overweight
children. Two-thirds of the mothers had a plan to control their weight if the
children become obese. The child's age, the child and mother's body
weight, and the mother's correct perception mainly affected the selection
of the plan.
Asia Pac J Public Health. 2011 Jun 28. [Epub ahead of print]
Factors Associated with Overweight and Obesity among
Naser Al-Isa A, Campbell J, Desapriya E.
University of Kuwait, Saffat, Kuwait.
Obesity is a global epidemic and has become a critical issue in Gulf
countries such as Kuwait. The objective of this study is to assess the factors
that are associated with overweight and obesity among Kuwaiti adult men.
Weights and heights of a random sample of 464 men and their companions
were collected to obtain body mass index (BMI). The overall levels of
overweight and obesity were 48.5% and 19.8%, respec vely. Logis c
regression analysis of significantly associated factors revealed that factors
contributing to risk of overweight and obesity included increasing age,
having an obese mother or brother(s) and/or other obese relatives, having
a lower grade point average, not being physically active, and being in poor
health. Having a higher income and feeling tired were risk factors for
obesity only. Family history is an important predictor of overweight and
obesity in Kuwaiti men; however, this study identified several modifiable
factors. It is recommended that factors that contribute to the development
of overweight and obesity in Kuwait be targeted with behavioral change
and/or health education interventions.
Med Princ Pract. 2010;19(4):269-74. Epub 2010 May 26.
Age- and Gender-Specific Smoothed Waist Circumference
Percentiles for Kuwaiti Adolescents.
Jackson RT, Al-Hamad N, Prakash P, Al-Somaie M.
Department of Nutrition and Food Science, University of Maryland, College
Park, MD 20742, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
OBJECTIVE: To ascertain abdominal obesity prevalence (waist
circumference, WC) in adolescents and to develop smoothed WC percentile
charts for Kuwaiti adolescents for public health use.
SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A cross-sec onal study of 4,219 healthy Kuwai
male and female secondary school students between the ages of 11-19
years was examined. Adolescents were drawn from all geographical regions
of the country, as part of the Kuwait Nutrition Surveillance Program (KNSP).
The KNSP consists of yearly data collections of variables, including weights,
heights, and WCs and several sociodemographic variables. LMS regression
was used to develop smoothed WC percentile curves. The final percentile
curves presented are the result of smoothing three age-specific curves,
termed lambda (L), mu (M), and sigma (S) for each gender.
values > or = 90th percen le. Moreover, the mean WC of males was
consistently higher than those of females at each age and the percent of
adolescents who exceed the 90th percen le increased with age in males,
but not in females.
In most cases, two to three times greater percentages of males, compared
to females, equaled or exceeded the 90th percen le, a value frequently
associated with higher cardiovascular risk. These results indicate the urgent
need to reduce abdominal obesity, an important indicator of the metabolic
syndrome, in Kuwaiti adolescents.
J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich). 2010 Apr;12(4):301-8.
Higher Levels of Alanine Aminotransferase within the
Reference Range Predict Unhealthy Metabolic Phenotypes
of Obesity in Normoglycemic First-Degree Relatives of
Pa ents with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.
Mojiminiyi OA, Abdella NA, Al Mohammedi H.
Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Kuwait University, Kuwait.
Obesity is a heterogeneous disorder with metabolically healthy and
unhealthy phenotypes and varying degrees of cardiometabolic
complications. To evaluate whether alanine aminotransferase (ALT) could
be used for identification of obese phenotypes, the authors measured ALT,
adiponectin, leptin, leptin receptor, free leptin index, high-sensitivity C-
reac ve protein, fas ng insulin, glucose, and full lipid proﬁle in 486 (176
men and 310 women) normoglycemic first-degree relatives of patients with
type 2 diabetes mellitus with nega ve medica on history and hepa
screen. Patients were classified into obesity phenotypes on the basis of the
degree of adiposity and the International Diabetes Federation criteria for
the metabolic syndrome. One hundred and thirty-seven (28%) pa ents
were posi ve for the metabolic syndrome, 32 (7%) had normal weight but
metabolically unhealthy phenotype, and 201 (41%) were obese but
metabolically healthy. ALT showed significant positive correlations with
body mass index, waist circumference, beta-cell function, insulin,
homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance, high-sensitivity C-
reactive protein, total cholesterol, and triglycerides and increased with
increasing number of metabolic syndrome components. Binary logistic
regression analyses showed that higher ALT levels within the normal range
were significantly associated with the metabolic syndrome. ALT could be
used for identification of the metabolically obese phenotype. Lowering the
ALT upper normal reference limit will facilitate earlier detection of risky
phenotypes of obesity.
J Obes. 2011;2011:512363. Epub 2011 Apr 27.
Social and Health Factors Associated with Physical Activity
among Kuwaiti College Students.
Al-Isa AN, Campbell J, Desapriya E, Wijesinghe N.
Department of Community Medicine and Behavioural Sciences, Faculty of
Medicine, Kuwait University, P.O. Box 24923, 13110 Safat, Kuwait.
Our aim was to explore the social and health factors that are associated
with the level of physical activity among Kuwaiti college students. A random
sample of 787 students (48% males and 52% females) was chosen and
weight and height were measured to obtain body mass index (BMI,
kg/m(2)). Associated social and health factors were obtained using a
questionnaire. Those reporting being physically inactive numbered 354 and
the remaining 433 were ac ve. Obesity among males was 13% and was
10.5% among females. The social and health factors that were found to be
significantly associated with physical activity among the students were
gender (P < .001), marital status (P < .05), BMI category (obese or
nonobese) (P < .05), last dental and health checkup (P < .01), desiring a
higher degree (P < .001), and countries preferred for visi ng (P < .01). Males
significantly exceeded females in the practice of physical activity. In
conclusion, behavioural modifications, intervention studies, and health
education touting the benefits of being physically active should be
instituted to increase the practice of sports and other physical activities in
order to control and decrease obesity-related morbidity and mortality.
Med Princ Pract. 2011;20(3):248-52. Epub 2011 Mar 29.
Associated Cutaneous Diseases in Obese Adult Patients: A
Prospective Study from a Skin Referral Care Center.
Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Health Sciences Centre,
Kuwait University, Jabriya, Kuwait. email@example.com
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to determine the spectrum
of skin diseases seen among adult obese patients referred to Farwaniya
men and 237 women) aged 18-74 years were enrolled in the study, which
was conducted from October 2008 to November 2009. Demographic details
such as age, sex, occupation, personal and family history of diabetes
mellitus, hypertension, and obesity were recorded. A thorough examination
was performed by an experienced dermatologist (N.A.M.). Blood
investigations such as complete blood count, fasting and postprandial blood
sugar levels, liver function tests, kidney function tests, lipid profile, and
thyroid function tests were done for all patients in addition to hormonal
assay and abdominal sonar to exclude polycystic ovary disease for indicated
hyperkeratosis: n = 197; acanthosis nigricans: n = 144; skin tags: n = 131;
striae cu s distensae: n = 102; intertrigo: n = 97; acne vulgaris: n = 94.
Diabetes mellitus was diagnosed in 87 pa ents, polycys c ovary
syndrome/hyperandrogenism in 74 female pa ents, and hyperlipidemia in
209 pa ents.
CONCLUSION: This study shows that certain dermatoses such as plantar
hyperkeratosis, acanthosis nigricans, skin tags, striae cutis distensae, and
intertrigo are more common among obese persons. Some, such as plantar
hyperkeratosis, could serve as markers of obesity and its severity, while the
presence of acanthosis nigricans and skin tags may point to underlying
internal disease such as diabetes and polycystic ovary syndrome.
J Nucl Med Technol. 2011 Mar;39(1):40-50. Epub 2011 Feb 14.
Impact of Obesity on Nuclear Medicine Imaging.
Ghanem MA, Kazim NA, Elgazzar AH.
Department of Nuclear Medicine, Mubarak Al Kabeer Hospital, Jabriya,
Obesity, with its alarming increase among adults and children, represents a
significant health problem with serious medical, social, psychologic, and
economic reverberations. The burden of this problem significantly affects
the medical care system, including medical imaging. The effect of obesity
on nuclear medicine imaging spans many aspects, from preimaging patient
preparation to radiotracer administration, image acquisition, and image
interpretation. The acquired images may be suboptimal because of artifacts
due to soft-tissue attenuation and incomplete whole-body coverage, and
quantification may be suboptimal, especially for PET. Other difficulties
include mechanical problems such as the weight limit of the imaging table
and the bore size of the PET or SPECT/CT scanner and the need to alter the
timing, duration, or protocol of many imaging procedures. These issues are
discussed in this review, which clarifies the impact of this epidemic health
problem on nuclear medicine services and proposes possible solutions to
overcome obesity-related difficulties encountered in nuclear medicine
Int J Pediatr. 2010;2010. pii: 459261. Epub 2010 Sep 22.
Factors Associated with Overweight and Obesity among
Kuwai Elementary Male School Children Aged 6-10
Al-Isa AN, Campbell J, Desapriya E.
Department of Community Medicine and Behavioral Sciences, Faculty of
Medicine, University of Kuwait, 24923 Safat 13110, Kuwait.
Background. Childhood obesity is becoming a global epidemic which may
result in increased morbidity and mortality during young adulthood.
Objectives. To identify factors associated with overweight and that of
obesity among Kuwai elementary male school children aged 6-10 years.
Methods. Weights and heights of 662 students at a randomly selected
school were collected to obtain body mass index (BMI). Results. The
prevalence of overweight and obesity among the students were 20.2% and
16.8%, respec vely. There were a variety of factors associated with
overweight and obesity; however, having one or more obese brother, an
unemployed father, or a high (>11) number of persons living at home was
significantly associated with higher risk of overweight and obesity.
Increased age and school level as well as having a chronic disease were
associated with the risk of overweight. Conclusion. Health education
programs for families should be implemented to help control overweight
and obesity in Kuwaiti children.
Med Princ Pract. 2010;19(4):275-80. Epub 2010 May 26.
Comparison of Obesity and Its Relationship to Some
Metabolic Risk Factors of Atherosclerosis in Arabs and
South Asians in Kuwait.
Babusik P, Duris I.
Department of Internal Medicine, Al Rashid Hospital, Kuwait.
OBJECTIVE: The aims of the study were to compare obesity and its
association with risk factors of atherosclerosis in Arabs and South Asians in
Kuwait and to define which of the anthropometric parameters is best suited
for clinical purposes in general.
SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Two hundred eighty adults, patients of Al-
Rashid Hospital, a private general hospital in Kuwait, were enrolled in the
study. Of the 280 pa ents, 144 were Arab and 136 were South Asian. Basic
anthropometric parameters for obesity, fasting blood glucose, total
cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein and high-density lipoprotein
cholesterol and triglycerides (TG) were determined. The relationship
between anthropometric variables and relevant metabolic variables, as well
as a comparison between the different groups, was estimated using
standard statistical methods.
mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and hip circumference (HC)
and p = 0.001 for waist-to-hip ra o (WHR); in females, p < 0.001 for BMI, p
= 0.004 for WC and p = 0.041 for HC], but also developed obesity at a
younger age than did South Asians, even though, in South Asians, all
anthropometric parameters were posi vely correlated with age (p = 0.004
for BMI, p = 0.001 for HC and p < 0.001 for WC and WHR). South Asians,
however, were more prone to develop adverse effects in both lipid and
glucose metabolism than Arabs were. In South Asian males, ethnicity was
an independent predictor of triglycerides, according to the multiple linear
regression analysis. The WHR appeared to be the most suitable predictor of
dyslipidemia and impaired glucose metabolism.
CONCLUSION: The degree of adiposity was different between Arabs and
South Asians in Kuwait. Abdominal obesity had a different impact on
cardiovascular risk factors in these two ethnic groups in Kuwait.
Angiology. 2010 Feb-Mar;61(1):42-8. Epub 2009 Apr 26.
Prevalence of Overweight, Obesity, and Metabolic
Community-Based National Survey.
Al Rashdan I, Al Nesef Y.
Chest Diseases Hospital. i.alrashdan@Kuwaitheart.org , Faculty of Medicine,
Kuwait University, Kuwait. i.alrashdan@Kuwaitheart.org
BACKGROUND: Although, metabolic syndrome and obesity are
cardiovascular risk factors, little systematically collected community-based
data are available from the Arabian Gulf region.
METHODS: We report a nationwide cross-sectional study from Kuwait. A
random sample was selected. Demographic and clinical data were
collected. Blood tests including fasting blood glucose, high-density
lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides were collected. Metabolic
syndrome was defined according to International Diabetes Federation
criteria. Overweight and obesity were deﬁned as body mass index >or=25,
and body mass index >or=30, respec vely.
adult Kuwai popula on were 80.4%, 47.5%, and 36.2%, respec vely.
Overweight and obesity rates were higher in women 81.9% and 53%
compared to men 78% and 39.2%, respec vely (P = .02, P > .001). MetS was
equally distributed between men and women at 36.2% and 36.1%.
syndrome is alarmingly high in Kuwait. This requires urgent and active
community-based public health intervention.
Obes Surg. 2010 Feb;20(2):168-72. Epub 2008 Oct 7.
Reduction of Circular Stapler-Related Wound Infection in
Patients Undergoing Laparoscopic Roux-En-Y Gastric
Bypass, Cleveland Clinic Technique.
Alasfar F, Sabnis A, Liu R, Chand B.
Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Kuwait University, Kuwait City,
BACKGROUND: Circular-stapled anastomosis with trans-oral anvil insertion
for the creation of the gastrojejunostomy in laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric
bypass (LRYGBP) is associated with frequent infections at the abdominal
wall site where the circular stapler is inserted.
METHODS: Pa ents who underwent rou ne LRYGBP over a 1.5-year period
at The Cleveland Clinic Foundation without any concomitant procedures
were included. After our initial experience with circular-stapled
anastomosis-related wound infections, we implemented measures to
reduce the infection rate. Prevention measures included chlorhexidine
"swish and swallow," a plastic barrier device over the stapler, wound
irrigation, loose skin approximation, and placement of loose packing. We
compared wound infection rates in patients before ("no prevention") and
after ("prevention") implementing these measures.
RESULTS: Ninety-one pa ents with mean age of 42 years and average body
mass index of 48 kg/m(2) underwent laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass.
The infec on rate was 30% among the "no preven on" (n = 10) group and
1% in the "preven on" (n = 81) group (p < 0.05).
CONCLUSIONS: Trocar site infection related to the circular-stapled
anastomosis technique can be significantly reduced with simple prevention
Eur J Clin Nutr. 2009 Aug;63(8):1041-3. Epub 2009 Apr 1.
'Can Breastfeeding and its Duration Determine the
Overweight Status of Kuwai Children at the Age Of 3-6
Al-Qaoud N, Prakash P.
Administration of Food and Nutrition, Ministry of Health, Sulaibikhat,
The objective of this study was to determine whether breastfeeding and its
duration are associated with a reduced risk of overweight and obesity
among 2291 Kuwai pre-school children. No significant association of
breastfeeding or its duration was found with either overweight or with
obesity a er adjus ng for the eﬀects of confounders. Girls were at 32%
higher risk of becoming obese than were boys. Children of 4 and 5 years
were nearly three times at higher risk of overweight or obese than a child of
less than 4 years. Children with higher birth weight had double the risk of
obesity than a child of normal birth weight. Maternal obesity was a strong
predictor of obesity in their children. A child with an obese mother was
nearly twice at higher risk of being overweight and thrice at higher risk of
being obese compared with a child born to a mother of normal weight.
Med Princ Pract. 2009;18(2):123-9. Epub 2009 Feb 10.
Which Obesity Index Best Explains The Link between
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