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- Long Term Effects of Ketogenic Diet in Obese Subjects with High Cholesterol Level.
- Abstract OBJECTIVE
- Body Mass Index of Kuwai Children Aged 3-9 Years: Reference Percentiles and Curves.
- Abstract AIM
- Prevalence and Factors Associated with Obesity and Treatment of Blood Pressure among Kuwaiti Hypertensive Patients in a Primary Health Care Clinic
- ABSTRACT OB JECTIVES
- Abstract AIMS
- Abstract INTRODUCTION
- Abstract OBJECTIVES
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the reasons for attempting to lose weight and
identify weight loss perception and characteristics.
METHODS: A cross-sec onal survey of a sample of 526 Kuwai adults was
carried out at the Central Medical Nutrition Clinic, Kuwait, from August to
December 2003. Heights and weights were measured and body mass index
(BMI) was calculated and classified according to WHO grades of obesity. A
structured questionnaire used for collecting data was analyzed using SPSS
RESULTS: Of the 526 subjects, the most commonly cited reasons for
a emp ng to lose weight were to avoid health problems (n = 248, 47.1%)
followed by improving personal appearance (n = 141, 26.8%). The weight
loss percep ons of 263 (50%) of the subjects were within the accepted
range (2-5 kg/month); 321 (61.0%)had previously a empted to lose weight,
among them 147 (45.8%) followed the advice of doctors and die cians. The
major reason mentioned for stopping the previous dietary regime was
inability to resist sweets and tradi onal foods (n = 99, 31.0%) followed by
dissa sfac on with the dietary outcome (n = 79, 24.8%).
obesity,but an inability among the dieters to maintain a weight loss
program. Hence, behavioral management techniques may be necessary to
develop nutritional education approaches and effective weight
Biol Trace Elem Res. 2006 Nov;113(2):113-23.
Maternal-Fetal Status of Copper, Iron, Molybdenum,
Selenium, and Zinc in Obese Pregnant Women in Late
Al-Saleh E, Nandakumaran M, Al-Harmi J, Sadan T, Al-Enezi H.
Obstetrics & Gynecology Department, Faculty of Medicine, University of
Kuwait, Safat, Kuwait.
Obesity is well known to be a contributory risk factor for several disease
states, including diabetes mellitus. Further, obese women are more prone
to have babies born with congenital abnormalities. Paucity of data on
maternal-fetal disposition of essential trace elements in obese pregnancies
prompted us to undertake this study. Maternal venous and umbilical
arterial and venous samples were collected from obese patients (body mass
index >30) and control pregnant women (body mass index <25) at me of
spontaneous delivery or cesarean sections and concentrations of essential
trace elements such as Cu, Fe, Mo, Se, and Zn determined in various
samples by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Activities of antioxidant
enzymes, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and total
antioxidant activity in maternal and umbilical blood were assessed using
appropriate reagent kits. Maternal-fetal disposition and exchange
parameters of elements studied were assessed using established criteria.
Concentrations of Cu, Fe, Mo, Se, and Zn in the serum of control pregnant
women at time of delivery averaged 2232.6, 2398.1, 10.9, 108.9, and 661.9
microg/L respectively, whereas in the obese group, the values of the above
elements averaged 2150.3, 2446.8, 12.6, 96.8, and 838.9 microg/L
respectively. Umbilical vein/maternal vein ratios of Cu, Fe, Mo, Se, and Zn in
the control group averaged 0.29, 1.93, 1.06, 0.76, and 1.12, respec vely,
whereas in the obese group, their fetal-maternal ra os averaged 0.32, 2.23,
1.06, 0.78, and 1.53, respec vely. The Cu : Zn ra o in the maternal vein of
the obese group (3.60 +/- 0.20) was signiﬁcantly lower (Student's t-test; p <
0.05) than that of the controls (2.50 +/- 0.19); however, Cu : Fe ra o (1.04
+/- 0.08 vs 1.02 +/- 0.09) was not signiﬁcantly diﬀerent (Student's t-test; p >
0.05) in the two groups. Varying differences were noted in the case of
antioxidant enzyme activities between the control and study groups. We
conclude that obesity is associated with alterations in maternal-fetal
disposition of some essential trace elements and antioxidant enzyme status
and that these alterations could pose a potential health risk for the mother
as well as the fetus.
Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2006 Jul;35(7):618-23. Epub 2006 Feb 28.
Perceived Effectiveness and Side Effects of Intermaxillary
Fixation for Diet Control.
Behbehani F, Al-Aryan H, Al-Attar A, Al-Hamad N.
Department of Developmental and Preventive Sciences, Kuwait University,
Weight loss is one of the major side effects associated with intermaxillary
fixation (IMF) following orthognathic surgery or jaw fractures. The aim of
this study was to retrospectively interview patients treated with
intermaxillary fixation for diet control (IMFDC) to collect base-line
informa on regarding: (1) perceived eﬀec veness, pa ents' compliance
and patients' satisfaction with the treatment; (2) the frequency of side
effects associated with IMFDC. The results show that IMFDC significantly
reduced weight by a mean of 6.8 kg during treatment, and a mean of 4.1 kg
at a minimum of 1 month following IMFDC removal (P<0.0001). Only 32.5%
of the patients complied with the planned period of IMFDC treatment while
70% were sa sﬁed with the treatment results. The most common side
effects were speech problems and oral-facial pain with a prevalence of 52.5
and 32.5%, respec vely. IMFDC treatment is not effective for long-term
weight reduction and may only be used for a very short period of time to
initiate weight loss. Exercise and/or special diet programs are healthier and
better means to treat obesity and maintain weight loss.
Mol Cell Biochem. 2006 Jun;286(1-2):1-9. Epub 2006 Apr 21.
Long Term Effects of Ketogenic Diet in Obese Subjects
with High Cholesterol Level.
Dashti HM, Al-Zaid NS, Mathew TC, Al-Mousawi M, Talib H, Asfar SK,
OBJECTIVE: Various studies have convincingly shown the beneficial effect
of ketogenic diet (in which the daily consumption of carbohydrate is less
than 20 grams, regardless of fat, protein and caloric intake) in reducing
weight in obese subjects. However, its long term effect on obese subjects
with high total cholesterol (as compared to obese subjects with normal
cholesterol level is lacking. It is believed that ketogenic diet may have
adverse effect on the lipid profile. Therefore, in this study the effect of
ketogenic diet in obese subjects with high cholesterol level above 6 mmol/L
is compared to those with normocholesterolemia for a period of 56 weeks.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this study, 66 healthy obese subjects with
body mass index (BMI) greater than 30, having high cholesterol level (Group
I; n = 35) and those subjects with normal cholesterol level (Group II; n = 31)
were selected. The body weight, body mass index, total cholesterol, LDL-
cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, urea, creatinine, glucose and triglycerides
were determined before and after the administration of the ketogenic diet.
Changes in these parameters were monitored at 8, 16, 24, 32, 40, 48 and 56
weeks of the treatment.
RESULTS: The body weight and body mass index of both groups decreased
signiﬁcantly (P < 0.0001). The level of total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol,
triglycerides and blood glucose level decreased signiﬁcantly (P < 0.0001),
whereas HDL cholesterol increased signiﬁcantly (P < 0.0001) a er the
treatment in both groups.
following its long term administration in obese subjects with a high level of
total cholesterol. Moreover, this study demonstrates that low carbohydrate
diet is safe to use for a longer period of time in obese subjects with a high
total cholesterol level and those with normocholesterolemia.
Obes Surg. 2006 May;16(5):671-2.
Very Early Onset of Wernicke's Encephalopathy after
Al-Fahad T, Ismael A, Soliman MO, Khoursheed M.
Department of Medicine, Mubarak Al-Kabeer Hospital, Qadisia 35856,
Postoperative complications resulting from bariatric surgery can lead to
severe vitamin-deficiency states, such as Wernicke's encephalopathy (WE).
We present a 29-year-old woman with BMI 41.7 with no history of
alcoholism who developed acute WE after a gastric bypass for morbid
obesity. A er persistent vomi ng for 2 weeks postopera vely, symptoms
began with headache, vertigo, diplopia, nystagmus, tingling and weakness
in both upper and lower extremities, urinary incontinence, and memory
loss to recent events. All investigations, including upper GI endoscopy,
Gastrografin meal and even MRI, were normal. A dramatic improvement
occurred in 24 hrs a er star ng 100 mg thiamine infusion daily. We
recommend that patients undergoing bariatric surgery should be started on
thiamine supplementation once oral intake begins, because this case
showed that postopera ve acute WE can develop before 6 weeks, unlike
J R Soc Promot Health. 2006 Jan;126(1):41-6.
Body Mass Index of Kuwai Children Aged 3-9 Years:
Reference Percentiles and Curves.
Al-Isa AN, Thalib L.
Department of Community Medicine and Behavioural Sciences, Faculty of
Medicine, University of Kuwait, P.O. Box 24923, Safat, Code 13110, Kuwait.
produced in the U.S. by the National Center for Health Statistics, for
assessing overweight and obesity among children in Kuwait and other
Arabian Gulf countries has not been examined. These standards were
obtained from better-nourished and genetically different populations to
those found in Kuwait and in other Gulf region countries. The purpose of
this study was to develop BMI reference percentiles and curves appropriate
for children aged 3-9 in these countries.
METHOD: Attempts were made to include all healthy Kuwaiti kindergarten
and elementary education children in this study The total sample was
113,013, comprising 55,053 males and 57,960 females. The children were
measured for weight and height from which the BMI was calculated.
Appropriate polynomial regression smoothing techniques were used to
obtain the best-fitting percentile curves.
RESULTS: At percen les < or =25th, the BMI of boys exceeded that of girls.
At the 50th percen le, boys' BMI was mostly higher than or equal to that of
the girls except at age nine where it was lower At the 75th percen le, the
BMI of both genders was similar, with exceptions at age six and nine years.
At the 85th and 95th percen les, girls' BMI was consistently higher than
males. At the lowest percentile, the BMI of US children was higher than
Kuwaiti, Saudi (starting at six) and Iranian children. The BMI of Kuwaiti
children at higher percentiles was higher than that of Saudi, Iranian (except
at age < four years) and US children.
CONCLUSION: BMI curves for Kuwaiti children follow almost the same
pattern as their US counterparts but with noticeable variations especially at
the lower and higher percentiles. This study may reflect that western
standards may not be directly applicable to assess the level of BMI in
Kuwait and possibly in the neighbouring Gulf countries, since they may
overestimate the levels of overweight, obesity and underweight.
Kuwait Medical Journal 2006, 38 (4): 284-286
Prevalence and Factors Associated with Obesity and
Treatment of Blood Pressure among Kuwaiti Hypertensive
Patients in a Primary Health Care Clinic
Address correspondence to:Dr. Nadia Yousef Al-Mahmoud, Head, Ehqaqi
Primary Health Care Clinic (Daiya Clinic), Shamiya, P.0. Box 12364, Kuwait
71654. Tel & Fax:4335653
OB JECTIVES: To determine the prevalence of obesity among adult
hypertensive patients and to investigate associated factors and the
differences in drug doses at the Daiya primary care clinic in Kuwait.
medication and attending the Daiya clinic during a period of six months
between January and June 2004 were included in the study.
patients. The multiple logistic regression analysis showed that the
significant associated factors were non- compliance with diet (p = 0 .006)
and age (< 65, p = 0.002). Factors such as intake of evening snacks and
family history of obesity were not found to be significantly associated.
Obese patients needed more than one drug to control their blood pressure.
CONCLUSION: There is a high prevalence of obesity among hypertensive
patients. Hence, intensive programs are recommended to control their
Obes Rev. 2006 May;7(2):147-54.
Prevalence of Obesity in Kuwait and its Relation to
Department of Sociology and Social Work, Kuwait University, Kuwait.
This study ascertains the prevalence of obesity and its relationship with
some sociocultural characteristics in Kuwaiti society. The sample involved
212 men and 212 women, most of whom are overweight and obese. Grades
1 (body mass index [BMI] > 25-30 kg m(-2)), 2 (BMI > 30-40) and 3 (BMI >
40) of obesity characterize 71.2% of the sample. Most individuals are in
grade 2 obesity, 37.2%. Grade 1 obesity is seen in 31.4% of the sample.
Obesity increases with age, especially in women. The heaviest women are
aged 60 years or older (mean BMI of 33.8), about the same mean as in the
50-59-year-old age group. The highest frequency of grades 1 and 2 obesity
occur in women 30-39 years old. Fi y per cent of the underweight women
are 20-29 years old or are over 60 years old. Most women of normal weight
are 20-29 years old. For the men, 60% of the underweight sample are 50-60
years old. Male respondents between 30 and 39 years old are the heaviest;
42.7% of the sample are within grade 1 obesity and 40.7% of the sample
within grade 2 obesity. The smallest percentage of men in grades 1 and 2
obesity are those 50-59 years old. An associa on was found between some
sociocultural variables and obesity. Data show an increasing prevalence of
obesity in Kuwait compared with some previous studies.
Diabet Med. 2005 Mar;22(3):278-85.
Plasma Lep n Concentra on in Pa ents with Type 2
Diabetes: Relationship to Cardiovascular Disease Risk
Factors and Insulin Resistance.
Abdella NA, Mojiminiyi OA, Moussa MA, Zaki M, Al Mohammedi H, Al Ozairi
ES, Al Jebely S.
Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Kuwait University, Kuwait.
leptin, insulin resistance and C-reactive protein (CRP) with coronary heart
disease (CHD) risk factors in pa ents with Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM)
with CHD compared with those with Type 2 DM without CHD.
METHODS: Leptin, CRP (high sensitivity assay), fasting plasma insulin,
glucose, HbA(1c) and full lipid proﬁle were determined in 58 Type 2 diabe c
pa ents with CHD and 87 Type 2 DM pa ents without CHD.
Univariate correlation as well as logistic regression analyses were used to
relate these markers with traditional CHD risk factors.
0.0001), waist circumference (r = 0.45; P < 0.0001), CRP (r = 0.36; P <
0.0001), and fas ng insulin (r = 0.53; P < 0.0001) as well as with systolic (r =
0.23; P = 0.007) and diastolic (r = 0.23; P = 0.007) blood pressure. However,
when those with and without CHD were compared only age (P < 0.0001),
dura on of diabetes (P < 0.001) and degree of microalbuminuria (P = 0.02)
were significantly higher in patients with CHD. Lep n (P = 0.49), CRP (P =
0.19) and lipid parameters were not signiﬁcantly diﬀerent between the two
with CHD risk factors. The lack of significant difference when patients with
and without CHD are compared may be due to the potential confounding
effects of treatment with aspirin and statins.
Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2004 Dec;270(4):205-10. Epub 2003 Aug 29.
The Effect of Obesity on the Outcome of Infertility
Management in Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.
Al-Azemi M, Omu FE, Omu AE.
Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Faculty of Medicine, Kuwait
University, Kuwait. email@example.com
INTRODUCTION: Obesity has become a worldwide epidemic with ever
increasing incidence and public health problems in both developing and
obesity among patients with polycystic ovarian syndrome attending
infertility clinic and the effect on treatment outcome.
syndrome attending the infertility clinic were evaluated clinically,
biochemically, and laparoscopically. They were stratified according to their
body mass index (BMI) as follows: normal weight: 18-24; overweight: 25-29,
obese:30-34, and grossly obese: > or = 35. Therapy included induc on of
ovulation with clomiphene citrate and gonadotrophins. The patients were
followed up through during induction of ovulation and pregnancy.
obese women had oligomenorrhoea (p<0.01) and anovula on (p<0.01)
than women with normal weight. Obesity adversely affected the outcome
of ovula on induc on with clomiphene citrate and gonadotrophins; 79% of
women with BMI 18-24 ovulated at 6 months compared to 15.3% in those
with BMI 30-34 (p<0.001) and 11.8% in women with BMI > or = 35
(p<0.001). The pregnancy rate and outcome were also adversely aﬀected by
CONCLUSION: Obesity has a negative impact on the outcome of treatment
of infertility. Weight reduction programme should be an essential
component of infertility management.
J Egypt Public Health Assoc. 2004;79(5-6):449-60.
Obesity and Personality Types of High School Boys in
Family Health Department, High Institute of Public Health.
among first grade high school male students in Kuwait sand to investigate
the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and personality types.
urban, and a rural governorate in Kuwait was the target population. The
systematic random sampling technique was used. Pre-tested self-
administered questionnaire was used for data collection. Height and weight
measures were performed. Personality testing was done using the Eyzenck
Personality Questionnaire (EPQ).
RESULTS: In a sample of 504 par cipants, 44.4% were overweight and
obese. High neuroticism score, large number of siblings in the family, lack of
exercising, and very low family monthly income significantly predicted
overweight and obesity on multivariate analysis.
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