Nutr J. 2008 Oct 30;7:32. Eating Habits And Obesity Among Lebanese University
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- Abstract BACKGROUND
- Obesity in the Lebanese Elderly: Prevalence, Relative Risks and Anthropometrical Measurements.
- Abstract OBJECTIVE
- Abstract CONTEXT
- Abstract AIM
- Abstract PURPOSE
Nutr J. 2008 Oct 30;7:32.
Eating Habits And Obesity Among Lebanese University
Yahia N, Achkar A, Abdallah A, Rizk S.
Natural Science Division, Lebanese American University, Beirut, Lebanon.
BACKGROUND: In the past year Lebanon has been experiencing a
nutritional transition in food choices from the typical Mediterranean diet to
the fast food pattern. As a consequence, the dietary habits of young adults
have been affected; thus, overweight and obesity are increasingly being
observed among the young. The purpose of this study is to assess the
prevalence of overweight and obesity on a sample of students from the
Lebanese American University (in Beirut) and to examine their eating
METHODS: A cross-sec onal survey of 220 students (43.6% male and 56.4%
female), aged 20 +/- 1.9 years, were chosen randomly from the Lebanese
American University (LAU) campus during the fall 2006 semester. Students
were asked to fill out a self-reported questionnaire that included questions
on their eating, drinking and smoking habits. Also, their weight, height,
percentage body fat and body mass index were measured. Body mass index
(BMI) was used to assess students' weight status. Statistical analyses were
performed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences software
(version 13.0) to determine overweight and obesity among students and to
categorize eating habits.
RESULTS: This study showed that the majority of the students (64.7%) were
of normal weight (49% male students compared to 76.8% female students).
The prevalence of overweight and obesity was more common among male
students compared to females (37.5% and 12.5% vs. 13.6% and 3.2%,
respec vely). In contrast, 6.4% female students were underweight as
compared to 1% males. Ea ng habits of the students showed that the
majority (61.4%) reported taking meals regularly. Female students showed
healthier eating habits compared to male students in terms of daily
breakfast intake and meal frequency. 53.3% of female students reported
ea ng breakfast daily or three to four mes per week compared to 52.1%
of male students. There was a significant gender difference in the frequency
of meal intake (P = 0.001). Intake of colored vegetables and fruits was
common among students. A total of 30.5% reported daily intake of colored
vegetables with no gender diﬀerences (31.5% females vs. 29.2% males).
Alcohol intake and smoking were not common among students.
CONCLUSION: In spite of the overall low prevalence of overweight and
obesity in the studied sample, results indicate that university students
would possibly benefit from a nutrition and health promotion program to
reduce the tendency of overweight and obesity, especially among male
students, and to improve students' eating habits.
J Med Liban. 2008 Jul-Sep;56(3):174-80.
Obesity in the Lebanese Elderly: Prevalence, Relative Risks
and Anthropometrical Measurements.
El Bcheraoui C, Chapuis-Lucciani N.
Service UMR 6578/CNRS, Faculté de Médecine Nord, Université de la
Méditerranée, Marseille, France. firstname.lastname@example.org
OBJECTIVE: To measure the prevalence of obesity in the Lebanese elderly
population and to compare it to another sample studied 10 years ago; to
investigate the best anthropometrical measurement related to obesity
relative risks in this age group.
DESIGN: Cross-sectional study about aging and obesity in the Lebanese
SUBJECTS: 237 Lebanese elderly (60-85 yr.) selected randomly from an
urban and a rural community.
MEASUREMENTS: Height, weight, waist and hips circumferences.
RESULTS: 47% of the studied sample is obese and obesity is related to
gender, educational level and age. Body mass index (BMI) is a good
indicator for diabetes 2. Central obesity did not correlate with obesity
CONCLUSION: Obesity is more prevalent in 2005 than it was in 1995.
Prevention programs should be installed in schools and work places in
Lebanon to fight against the epidemic of obesity.
JOP. 2008 Jul 10;9(4):468-76.
The Impact of Obesity On Surgical Outcome after
Noun R, Riachy E, Ghorra C, Yazbeck T, Tohme C, Abboud B, Naderi S,
Chalhoub V, Ayoub E, Yazbeck P.
Department of Digestive Surgery, Hôtel-Dieu de France Hospital, Beirut,
increasingly relevant issue given the growing rate of obesity worldwide.
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the specific impact of obesity on
DESIGN: A retrospective comparative study of a prospectively maintained
database was carried out to investigate the specific impact of obesity on
PATIENTS: Between 1999 and 2006, 92 consecu ve pa ents underwent
pancreaticoduodenectomy using a standardized technique. The study
population was subdivided according to the presence or absence of obesity.
were non-obese. The two groups were comparable in terms of
demographics, American Society of Anesthesiology (ASA) score as well as
nature and type of pancreatico-digestive anastomosis. The rate of clinically
relevant pancrea c ﬁstula (36.8% vs. 15.1%; P=0.050) and hospital stay
(23.1+/-13.9 vs. 17.0+/-8.0 days; P=0.015) were signiﬁcantly increased in
obese vs. non-obese patients, respectively. Pancreatic fistula was
responsible for one-half of the deaths (2/4) and two ruptured
pseudoaneurysms. The incidence of the other procedure-related and
general postoperative complications were not significantly different
between the two groups. Intrapancrea c fat was increased in 10 obese
pa ents (52.6%) and correlated posi vely both with BMI (P=0.001) and with
the occurrence of pancrea c ﬁstula (P=0.003).
pancreatic fistula after pancreaticoduodenectomy. Special surgical caution
as well as vigilant postoperative monitoring are therefore recommended in
Ann Nutr Metab. 2008;52(3):188-95. Epub 2008 Jun 11.
Varia on of Postprandial PYY 3-36 Response Following
Ingestion of Differing Macronutrient Meals in Obese
Helou N, Obeid O, Azar ST, Hwalla N.
Department of Nutrition and Food Science, Faculty of Agriculture and Food
Sciences, American University of Beirut, Beirut, Lebanon.
AIM: This study investigated the effect of macronutrient composition of
meals on postprandial pep de YY(3-36) (PYY(3-36)) response in obese
different macronutrient composition, high carbohydrate (HC; 60% CHO,
20% protein, 20% fat), high fat (HF; 30% CHO, 20% protein, 50% fat) and
high protein (HP; 30% CHO, 50% protein, 20% fat), on three separate
occasions, 1 month apart. PYY(3-36), insulin and glucose were measured
before and 15, 30, 60, 120 and 180 min following each meal.
RESULTS: PYY(3-36) levels increased signiﬁcantly following the three meals,
with the HC meal resul ng in a sustained postprandial increase in PYY(3-36)
level throughout the experimental period. Comparing the three meals, the
HF meal induced a signiﬁcantly higher increase in postprandial PYY(3-36)
levels, at 15 and 30 min as compared to the HP meal (p < 0.05), whereas the
postprandial increase following the HP meal became significantly higher
than that following the HF meal at 120 min. Postprandial increase in PYY(3-
36) was highest in the ﬁrst hour following the HF meal, while that following
the HP meal was delayed by 1 h.
induce an immediate and prolonged increase in PYY(3-36), resul ng in
increased satiety and its maintenance for a longer period of time.
Obes Surg. 2008 May;18(5):573-7.
Ten Years Experience with Laparoscopic Adjustable
Biagini J, Karam L.
Department of Surgery, Saint Joseph Hospital, Dora, Lebanon.
BACKGROUND: Gastric banding is a safe and efficient bariatric procedure.
We report here the results of 591 consecu ve gastric bandings in terms of
excess weight loss with up to 10 years follow-up and the complications.
underwent laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB) by the same
surgeon (JB). Of these pa ents, 69.2% were women. Mean age was 33.6
years +/- 10.7 and mean BMI was 41.95 kg/m2 +/- 8.7. Pa ents were
reviewed monthly for the ﬁrst 6 months, every 2 months for the next 6
months, and yearly therea er. Excess weight loss was calculated at 6
months and 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 years.
one pa ents (8.6%) had band removal due to a complica on. Mean follow-
up was 35 +/- 2 months. Percentage of excess weight loss was 45.8% +/-
27.4 at 6 months, 66.7% +/- 30.3 at 1 year, 72.6% +/- 28.8 at 2 years, 75.9%
+/- 27.4 at 4 years, 82.8% +/- 32.6 at 6 years, 82.3% +/- 25.1 at 8 years, and
82.7% +/- 4.2 at 10 years. Complica ons encountered were band failure
(9.3%), slippage (5.3%), erosion (4.6%), infec on (2.4%), high band posi on
(1.9%), and others (2.8%). Complica on rate was 23.3% overall but dropped
to 2.5% when calculated on the second half of the pa ents.
experience, the complication rate drops to a very low level. Close follow-up
can further increase its efficacy.
British Journal of Diabetes & Vascular Disease, March 2008; 8(2): 80-83
Vascular Complications of Diabetes in Lebanon:
Experience at the American University of Beirut
Nadine Taleb , Internal Medicine, Endocrinology American University of
Beirut Medical Centre. Haytham Salti, Ophthalmology, American University
of Beirut Medical Centre. Mona Al-Mokaddam, Internal Medicine,
Endocrinology American University of Beirut Medical Centre. Marie
Merheb, Internal Medicine, Endocrinology American University of Beirut
Medical Centre. Ibrahim Salti, Internal Medicine, Endocrinology American
University of Beirut Medical Centre. Mona Nasrallah, Internal Medicine,
AIM: To examine the metabolic control and presence of
COMPLICATIONS: among a cohort of diabetic patients in Lebanon. Method
A total of 313 diabe c pa ents presen ng for their usual care were
screened in a cross-sectional manner for metabolic control and presence of
complications at the American University of Beirut.
RESULTS: Only 235 subjects completed their data of whom 220 (93%) had
type 2 diabetes with mean dura on of disease of 8.2 (±6.6) years. Only 30%
had haemoglobin A
< 7%, and 35.5% had low-density lipoprotein
Cholesterol < 2.6 mmol/L. About 50.5% were obese, 34.9% current
smokers, and 40.7% had blood pressure ≥ 140/90 mmHg. Microvascular
complica ons were present as 46.3, 39.9 and 33% for albuminuria,
neuropathy, 33% for albuminuria, neuropathy, and re nopathy,
respec vely. Macrovascular complica ons were as follows: 19.3, 18.3 and
4.1% for coronary artery disease, peripheral vascular disease and
cerebrovascular disease, respectively.
CONCLUSIONS: This study highlights the poor control and high prevalence
of vascular complica ons among adult type 2 diabe c pa ents in Lebanon.
Obes Surg. 2007 Nov;17(11):1482-6.
Mini-Gastric Bypass by Mini-Laparotomy: A Cost-Effective
Alternative in the Laparoscopic Era.
Noun R, Riachi E, Zeidan S, Abboud B, Chalhoub V, Yazigi A.
Department of Digestive Surgery, Hôtel-Dieu de France Hospital, Beirut,
BACKGROUND: Laparoscopic mini-gastric bypass (MGB) is being
increasingly performed worldwide. Results of MGB by mini-laparotomy
(minilap MGB) are hereby reported.
October 2006, were reviewed at an academic ins tu on.
RESULTS: Mean age was 35 +/- 11.4 years (range 15-72), preopera ve BMI
was 44 +/- 6.9 kg/m2 (range 35-61.8) and 80 (63.4%) were women. Co-
morbidi es were present in 42 (33.3%). Opera ve me was 144 +/- 15.8
minutes (range 120-160) and length of hospital stay was 3.32 +/- 0.62 days
(range 2-18). There was no hospital mortality, and the in-hospital
complica on rate was 4.7%. No anastomo c leakage occurred, and the
incidence of wound sepsis was 2.3%. The mean total cost of the procedure
was 3408 +/- 547 USD (range 2967-6876). Five pa ents (3.9%) developed
incisional hernias and 3 (2.3%) marginal ulcers. BMI at 6 months was 33.0
+/- 3.1 kg/m2 (range 26.8-43.5, P < 0.001) compared with preopera ve
value. At 1 year, mean excess weight loss was 68.4% and comorbidi es
resolved in 85%.
CONCLUSION: Minilap MGB is a simple, safe, effective and low-cost gastric
bypass. It represents an attractive cost-effective alternative to laparoscopic
Can J Anaesth. 2007 Sep;54(9):744-7.
Noninvasive Bilevel Positive Airway Pressure for
Preoxygenation of the Critically Ill Morbidly Obese
El-Khatib MF, Kanazi G, Baraka AS.
Department of Anesthesiology, American University of Beirut, P.O.Box: 11-
0236, Beirut 1107 2020, Lebanon.
PURPOSE: We describe the use of noninvasive bilevel positive airway
pressure (BiPAP) in a critically ill, hypoxemic and morbidly obese patient for
preoxygenation prior to rapid sequence induction of anesthesia.
index: 49 kg.m(-2)) was scheduled for urgent laparoscopic cholecystectomy.
Preoxygena on with 5 L.min(-1) oxygen ﬂow resulted in a moderate
increase in oxygen satura on (SpO2) from 79% to 90%. Prior to rapid
sequence induction of anesthesia, a trial of noninvasive BiPAP with oxygen
delivery at 5 L.min(-1) increased his SpO2 to 95% ini ally, with full
satura on of 99% achieved when oxygen ﬂow was increased to 10 L.min(-
1). Bilevel posi ve airway pressure with an inspiratory and expiratory
pressures of 17 cm H2O and 7 cm H2O, respec vely, was applied using a full
face mask to achieve a dal volume of 8 mL.kg(-1). Rapid sequence
induction proceeded uneventfully.
with respiratory compromise secondary to factors which reduce FRC,
noninvasive BiPAP in combination with supplemental oxygen may be
indicated whenever traditional preoxygenation does not provide adequate
oxyhemoglobin saturation. Improved oxygenation is most likely attributable
to improved ventilation and alveolar recruitment.
Anaesthesia. 2007 Aug;62(8):769-73.
Supplementation of Pre-Oxygenation in Morbidly Obese
Patients Using Nasopharyngeal Oxygen Insufflation.
Baraka AS, Taha SK, Siddik-Sayyid SM, Kanazi GE, El-Khatib MF, Dagher CM,
Chehade JM, Abdallah FW, Hajj RE.
Department of Anaesthesiology, American University of Beirut, Beirut,
During apnoea following induction of anaesthesia, morbidly obese patients
may suffer a rapid decrease in oxygen saturation. This study compares pre-
oxygenation alone with pre-oxygenation followed by nasopharyngeal
oxygen insufflation on the onset of desaturation occurring during the
subsequent apnoea. A randomised controlled trial was performed in 34
morbidly obese patients undergoing gastric bypass or gastric band surgery.
Seventeen patients received nasopharyngeal oxygen supplementation
following pre-oxygena on (Study group, body mass index = 41.8 (6.9)
kg.m(-2)), and the other 17 pa ents received pre-oxygenation alone
(Control group, body mass index = 42.7 (5.4) kg.m(-2)). Time from the onset
of apnoea un l S(p)o(2) fell to 95% was compared between the two groups
with a cut-oﬀ of 4 min. In the control group, the S(p)o(2) fell from 100% to
95% during the subsequent apnoea in 145 (27) s, with a signiﬁcantly
nega ve correla on (r(2) = 0.66, p < 0.05) between the
desatura on to 95% and the body mass index. In the study group, the
S(p)o(2) was maintained in 16 of 17 pa ents at 100% for 4 min when
apnoea was terminated. In conclusion, nasopharyngeal oxygen insufflation
following pre-oxygenation in morbidly obese patients delays the onset of
oxyhaemoglobin desaturation during the subsequent apnoea.
Trop Med Int Health. 2007 Aug;12(8):907-19.
Morbidity and Associated Factors in Rural and Urban
Populations of South Lebanon: A Cross-Sectional
Community-Based Study Of Self-Reported Health In 2000.
Sabbah I, Vuitton DA, Droubi N, Sabbah S, Mercier M.
PRISMAL Inserm Regional Research Network in Public Health, Université de
Franche-Comté, Department of Biostatistics, Faculty of Medicine and
Pharmacy, Besançon, France.
South Lebanon, with an emphasis on the influence of the habitat location
(urban vs. rural) and gender.
residents >/=14 years sampled from a random sample of households using
a multi-level cluster sampling technique. Data on self-reported morbidity,
lifestyle and socioeconomic status were collected through interviews, using
a standardized questionnaire. To evaluate deprivation, a new index was
created; the modified 'Living Conditions Index'. Stepwise logistic regression
analysis was performed to test the effect of habitat and gender on self-
RESULTS: People in one-fifth of the households lived in precarious
conditions. Illiteracy was significantly higher in rural than urban settings.
Urban residents reported obesity, varicose veins, anxiety/depression and
visual disorders more often. Illiteracy, headaches, lumbar pain, varicose
veins and anxiety/depression were more frequently reported by women,
whereas ulcers, hearing disorders, cardio-vascular diseases and their risk
factors were more frequently reported by men. Precarious living conditions
were associated with headaches, lumbar pains and insomnia. Individuals
covered by a health insurance sought care more often than the uninsured.
morbidity; women perceived their health as poorer than men and a number
of disease conditions were influenced by deprivation. Our study confirms
that the epidemiological transition phenomenon had occurred in South
Lebanon in 2000. Our community-based data can serve as a baseline for
monitoring changes in health in South Lebanon in the future and especially
those because of the war that emerged in July 2006.
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