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- MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE
- Abstract OBJECTIVE
- Abstract AIM
- MATERIALS AND METHODS
- Clinically-Defined Maturity Onset Diabetes of the Young in Omanis: Absence of the Common Caucasian Gene Mutations.
- Abstract OBJECTIVES
- Implications of the Use of the New WHO Growth Charts on the Interpretation of Malnutrition and Obesity In Infants and Young Children in Oman.
- Prevalence and Heritability of Clusters For Diagnostic Components of Metabolic Syndrome: The Oman Family Study.
- Abstract BACKGROUND
- Body Mass Index, Waist Circumference and Waist-To-Hip Ratio Cut-Off Points for Categorization Of Obesity among Omani Arabs.
|PARTICIPANTS: Data were obtained on 249 non-pregnant urban women
aged 15 and older, who live in the city of Laayoune in South Morocco. Only
subjects identified as Sahraoui origin were eligible for this investigation.
weight, height, circumference of waist and hip, calorie intake, physical
activity, marital status, education level, and desire to lose weight.
49%, respec vely, and was found to be very high in younger age groups.
The prevalence of abdominal obesity was also high and increased with age.
Sixty-eight percent of women had a waist-to-hip ra o (WHR) > 0.85 and
76% had a waist circumference (WC) > or = 88. The calorie intake, the me
spent in a walking activity, and the time spent in traditional sedentary
occupation were associated with obesity. The prevalence of obesity was
higher among married women compare to unmarried women and was not
influenced by education level. A very small percentage of the female
population expressed a desire to lose weight.
CONCLUSION: High prevalence of obesity, even in young adult women,
needs immediate attention in terms of prevention and health education
among the urban Sahraoui women.
Public Health Nutr. 2004 Jun;7(4):523-30.
Anthropometry of Women of Childbearing Age in
Morocco: Body Composition and Prevalence of
Overweight and Obesity.
Laboratory of Physiology Applied to Nutrition and Feeding, Training and
Research Unit on Food Sciences, Chouaib Doukkali University, School of
Sciences, BP 20, El Jadida 24000, Morocco. firstname.lastname@example.org
OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of obesity and body fat
distribution of Moroccan women of childbearing age, using a panel of
agricultural community, El Jadida province of Morocco. Weight, height,
waist and hip circumferences and triceps, biceps, subscapular and supra-
iliac skinfold thicknesses were measured. Body mass index (BMI), waist/hip
ratio (WHR), sum of all and sum of trunk skinfold thicknesses were
SUBJECTS: In total, 1269 women aged 15-49 years from urban and rural
areas were surveyed.
RESULTS: The means of all anthropometric measurements including body
fat were higher in urban than in rural women and increased with age. Trunk
fat contributed 50% of total fat. Globally, 4.7% of women were
underweight (BMI<18.5 kg m(-2)), 35.2% were overweight or obese (BMI>
or =25 kg m(-2)), 10.1% were obese (BMI> or =30 kg m(-2)) and 16.8% had
central obesity (WHR>0.85). The prevalence of overweight and obesity was
higher in the urban than in the rural area. Underweight prevalence
decreased with age, whereas that of overweight and obesity increased. All
anthropometric parameters adjusted for age increased with the increase of
BMI and WHR.
CONCLUSIONS: Although undernutrition is still prevalent, there is an
alarming prevalence of overweight and obesity in Moroccan women of
childbearing age. The results indicate a shift in this country from the
problem of dietary deficiency to the problem of dietary excess, and alert
one to the necessity of establishing an intervention to prevent obesity-
related diseases. It is necessary to address which of the anthropometric
variables studied here is the best predictor of obesity-related diseases in
Public Health Nutr. 2002 Feb;5(1A):135-40.
Nutrition Transition in Morocco.
Département des Sciences Alimentaires et Nutritionnelles, Institut
Agronomique et Vétérinaire Hassan II, Rabat, Morocco. email@example.com
OBJECTIVE: To analyse the nutritional transition in Morocco.
DESIGN: Examination of Moroccan national survey data.
RESULTS: Morocco is undergoing a demographic, epidemiological and social
transi on. The urban popula on increased from 29% in 1960 to 53% in
1997. Per capita gross domes c product increased steadily from 1972 to
1999. Life expectancy at birth increased to 70 years in 1999 from 47 years
in 1962. Both infant and juvenile mortali es have decreased, from 92/1000
and 69/1000 in 1982-87 to 46/1000 and 37/1000 in 1992-97, respec vely.
In parallel, the diet changed considerably: the intake of animal products
increased while that of cereals and sugar remained relatively high,
reflecting the specificity of Moroccan dietary habits. The rise in the
consumption of meats and vegetables was accompanied by a steady
consumption of bread, used to eat the sauce in which the meat and
vegetables are cooked. Sugar is mainly used in tea, the very sweet, national
drink consumed throughout the day. Under-nourishment persists among
children under ﬁve (23% stun ng and 10% underweight in 1997) while
overweight is rising (9% in 1997 compared with 3% in 1987 for children
under three). Among adults, overweight (body mass index (BMI) > 25 kg m(-
2)) increased from 26% in 1984 to 36% in 1998. It is higher among women
(32% in 1984 and 45% in 1998) than among males (19% in 1984 and 25% in
1998). It is also higher among urban popula ons (30% in 1984 and 40% in
1998) than rural popula ons (20% in 1984 and 29% in 1998). Obesity (BMI >
30kg m(-2)) increased from 4% in 1984 to 10% in 1998. Overweight seems
to be positively associated with economic status but negatively with
J Nutr. 2001 Mar;131(3):887S-892S.
Diet Culture and Obesity in Northern Africa.
Mokhtar N, Elati J, Chabir R, Bour A, Elkari K, Schlossman NP, Caballero B,
Laboratory of Physiology and Nutrition, Ibn Tofaïl University, Kenitra,
The etiology of obesity in North Africa is not well understood and few
studies shed any light on its development among women. This study
compiles what is known about the prevalence of obesity and its
determinants in Morocco and Tunisia. Results from the authors' two
surveys on nutrition-related disease among reproductive-age women
(sample size: 2800) and their children (1200 children under 5 y and 500
adolescents) were combined with data from four national income and
expenditure surveys (dating from 1980) to assess obesity trends and
development in Morocco and Tunisia. Overall levels of obesity, identified by
body mass index (BMI) > or = 30 kg/m(2), were 12.2% in Morocco and
14.4% in Tunisia. Obesity is signiﬁcantly higher among women than among
men in both countries (22.7% vs. 6.7% in Tunisia and 18% vs. 5.7% in
Morocco) and prevalence among women has tripled over the past 20 y. Half
of all women are overweight or obese (BMI > 25) with 50.9% in Tunisia and
51.3% in Morocco. Overweight increases with age and seems to take hold in
adolescence, par cularly among girls. In Tunisia, 9.1% of adolescent girls
are at risk for being overweight (BMI/age > or = 85th percen le).
Prevalence of overweight and obesity are greater for women in urban areas
and with lower education levels. Obese women in both countries take in
significantly more calories and macronutrients than normal-weight women.
The percentage contribution to calories from fat, protein and carbohydrates
seems to be within normal limits, whereas fat intake is high (31%) in Tunisia
and carbohydrate intake (65-67%) is high in Morocco. These are alarming
trends for public health professionals and policy makers in countries still
grappling with the public health effects of malnutrition and micronutrient
deficiencies. Health institutions in these countries have an enormous
challenge to change cultural norms that do not recognize obesity, to
prevent significant damage to the public's health from obesity.
International Journal of Nutrition, Pharmacology, Neurological Diseases,
Mood Dysfunction and Health-Related Quality of Life
Among Type 2 Diabe c Pa ents in Oman: Preliminary
Masoud Y Al-Maskari
, Karin Petrini
, Ibrahim Al-Zakwani
, Sara S.H. Al-
, Atsu S.S. Dorvlo
, Samir Al-Adawi
Department of Medicine, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, sultan
Qaboos University, P. O. Box 35, Al-Khoudh 123, Muscat, Oman
Department of Psychology, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, United
Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Pharmacy, College of Medicine
and Health Sciences, sultan Qaboos University, P. O. Box 35, Al-Khoudh 123,
Sciences, sultan Qaboos University, P. O. Box 35, Al-Khoudh 123, Muscat,
Department of Mathematics and Statistics, College of Science, Sultan
Qaboos University, P. O. Box 35, Al-Khoudh 123 Muscat, Oman
disturbance, poor glycaemic control and complications in people with type-
2 diabetes. The objec ve of this study is to compare the performance of
patients diagnosed with type-2 diabetes and normoac ve group on indices
of mood functioning and indices of health-related quality of life.
diabetics from Oman were screened for the presence of propensity towards
psychiatric distress using Self-Reporting Questionnaire during their routine
consultation at the diabetic clinic at a tertiary care hospital in an urban area
of Oman. Those who fulfilled presently operationalised criteria for
subclinical propensity towards affective disorders were further screened for
affective functioning (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale) and indices of
general well-being or health-related quality of life (Nottingham Health
Profile). The age- and sex-matched controls group (n=40) underwent the
that the diabetic group had significantly poorer quality of life and higher
distress level than the non-diabetic group, with the exception of emotional
reaction for which the non-diabetics showed poorer health than the
diabetics. Additionally, no difference between groups was found when
compared for social isolation.
CONCLUSIONS: In agreement with previous studies from different
populations, people with diabetes in Oman appear to have marked
affective functioning and impairment based on the indices of quality of life.
The present finding is discussed within a sociocultural context that has a
direct bearing on the situation in Oman.
Sultan Qaboos Univ Med J. 2010 Apr;10(1):80-3. Epub 2010 Apr 17.
Clinically-Defined Maturity Onset Diabetes of the Young in
Omanis: Absence of the Common Caucasian Gene
Woodhouse NJ, Elshafie OT, Al-Mamari AS, Mohammed NH, Al-Riyami F,
Department of Medicine, College of Medicine & Health Sciences, Sultan
Qaboos University, Muscat, Oman.
patients with clinically defined maturity onset diabetes of the young
(MODY) having a family history suggestive of a monogenic cause of their
disease and no evidence of autoimmune type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM).
The aim of this study was to determine whether or not muta ons in the 3
commonest forms of MODY, hepa c nuclear factor 4α (HNF4α), HNF1α and
glucokinase (GK), are a cause of diabetes in young Omanis.
(SQUH), Oman. Twenty young diabetics with a family history suggestive of
monogenic inheritance were iden ﬁed in less than 18 months; the median
age of onset of diabetes was 25 years and the median body mass index
(BMI) 29 at presenta on. Screening for the presence of autoimmune
antibodies against pancreatic beta cells islet cell antibody (ICA) and
glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) was negative. Fourteen of them
consented to genetic screening and their blood was sent to Prof. A.
Hattersley's Unit at the Peninsular Medical School, Exeter, UK. There, their
DNA was screened for known muta ons by sequencing exon 1-10 of the
GCK and exon 2-10 of the HNF1α and HNF4α genes, the three commonest
forms of MODY in Europe.
CONCLUSION: In this small sample of patients with clinically defined
MODY, mutations of the three most commonly affected genes occurring in
Caucasians were not observed. Either these patients have novel MODY
mutations or have inherited a high propor on of the type 2 diabetes
mellitus (T2DM) suscep bility genes compounded by excessive insulin
resistance due to obesity.
East Mediterr Health J. 2009 Jul-Aug;15(4):890-8.
Implications of the Use of the New WHO Growth Charts
on the Interpretation of Malnutrition and Obesity In
Infants and Young Children in Oman.
Alasfoor D, Mohammed AJ.
Department of Nutrition, Ministry of Health, Muscat,
We examined the difference in the prevalence estimates of the outcome
indicators for the new World Health Organization (WHO) child growth
standard reference (WHO 2006) and the Na onal Center for Health
Statistics (NCHS)/WHO reference using the National Protein-Energy
Malnutrition Survey dataset. Based on the NCHS/WHO reference, overall
prevalence estimates of underweight, wasting, stunting and overweight
were 17.8%, 7.4%, 10.9% and 1.3% compared to 11.3%, 7.6%, 13.0% and
1.9% respec vely calculated according to the WHO 2006 reference:
stunting and overweight showed statistically significantly higher estimates,
whereas underweight was statistically significantly lower. The differences
were not consistent across age groups.
World Hosp Health Serv. 2009;45(1):26-31.
Epidemiological Transition of Some Diseases in Oman: A
Ganguly SS, Al-Lawati A, Al-Shafaee MA, Duttagupta KK.
Department of Family Medicine and Public Health, College of Medicine and
Health Sciences, Sultan, Qaboos University, Muscat,
During the past 35 years Oman has undergone a rapid socioeconomic and
epidemiological transition leading to a steep reduction in child and adult
mortality and morbidity due to the decline of various communicable
diseases, including vaccine-preventable diseases. Good governance and
planning, together with leadership and commitment by the government,
has been a critical factor in this reduction. However, with increasing
prosperity, lifestyle-related noncommunicable diseases have emerged as
new health challenges to the country, with cardiovascular diseases,
diabetes and obesity in the lead among other chronic conditions.
Appropriate prevention strategies for reducing the burden of
noncommunicable diseases are discussed.
Metab Syndr Relat Disord. 2008 Jun;6(2):129-35.
Prevalence and Heritability of Clusters For Diagnostic
Components of Metabolic Syndrome: The Oman Family
Lopez-Alvarenga JC, Solís-Herrera C, Kent JW, Jaju D, Albarwani S, Al
Yahyahee S, Hassan MO, Bayoumi R, Comuzzie AG.
Department of Genetics, Southwest Foundation for Biomedical Research,
San Antonio, TX, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
vary between populations according to the currently used criteria. We
examined combinations for joint probabilities and heritabilities of MetS
criteria from the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment
Panel III (NCEP), World Health Organization (WHO), and International
Diabetes Federation (IDF) in a sample of Omani families.
METHODS: We included 1277 subjects from 5 pedigrees. The likelihood
ratio of diagnostic cluster dependence over clustering by chance was LDep
= P(dependent)/P(independent). Heritabilities were adjusted by sex and
RESULTS: The highest LDep were central obesity (CO) + high glucose level
(HGl) + triglycerides (IDF, 3.08; NCEP, 4.38; WHO, 3.17; P < 0.001).
Triglycerides combined with any other component were the most common
cluster. The lowest LDep for IDF were high blood pressure (HBP) + CO + low
HDL-C (1.21, P < 0.025); for NCEP were HBP + HGl + low HDL-C (1.21, P <
0.07). These components were gathered almost by chance alone. In
contrast, the lowest LDep for WHO were HGl + CO + low HDL-C (2.01, P <
0.001). The WHO criteria yielded the highest heritability for a MetS
diagnosis (h(2) = 0.9), followed by NCEP (0.48) and IDF (0.38). The ra onale
of the MetS diagnostics is based on insulin resistance. This base would be
lost if we continue lowering cut-off points for diagnosis for increasing the
sensitivity. The WHO showed the highest values for LDep for all
components because they used the highest cut-off points.
Public Health Nutr. 2008 Jan;11(1):102-8. Epub 2007 Jun 18.
Body Mass Index, Waist Circumference and Waist-To-Hip
Ratio Cut-Off Points for Categorization Of Obesity among
Al-Lawati JA, Jousilahti P.
Department of Non-communicable Diseases Surveillance & Control, Muscat
113, Ministry of Health, Oman. email@example.com
BACKGROUND: There are no data on optimal cut-off points to classify
obesity among Omani Arabs. The existing cut-off points were obtained from
studies of European populations.
mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR)
associated with elevated prevalent cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk among
DESIGN: A community-based cross-sectional study.
SETTING: The survey was conducted in the city of Nizwa in Oman in 2001.
SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The study contained a probabilistic random
sample of 1421 adults aged > or =20 years. Prevalent CVD risk was deﬁned
as the presence of at least two of the following three risk factors:
hyperglycaemia, hypertension and dyslipidaemia. Logistic regression and
receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve analyses were used to
determine optimal cut-off points for BMI, WC and WHR in relation to the
area under the curve (AUC), sensitivity and specificity.
hyperglycaemia, 19% hypertension and 34.5% had high total cholesterol).
All three indices including BMI (AUC = 0.766), WC (AUC = 0.772) and WHR
(AUC = 0.767) predicted prevalent CVD risk factors equally well. The op mal
cut-off points for men and women respec vely were 23.2 and 26.8 kg m-2
for BMI, 80.0 and 84.5 cm for WC, and 0.91 and 0.91 for WHR.
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