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- Abstract OBJECTIVES
- Childhood Obesity and Pakistan.
- Hypertension in Relation to Obesity, Smoking, Stress, Family History, Age and Marital Status among Human Population of Multan, Pakistan
- Abstract OBJECTIVE
- Evaluation of Body Mass Index for a Reference Pakistani Man and Woman.
CONCLUSIONS: Unmeasured environmental or genetic factors account for
ethnic variations in diabetes and central obesity, and deserve further study.
Trop Med Int Health. 2004 Apr;9(4):526-32.
Assessing Obesity and Overweight in a High Mountain
Shah SM, Nanan D, Rahbar MH, Rahim M, Nowshad G.
Department of Community Health Sciences, Aga Khan University, Karachi,
OBJECTIVES: To estimate the prevalence of obesity and overweight among
adults in a high mountain rural population of Pakistan, and to determine
the correlates of excess body weight. Design Cross-sectional study.
selected by stratified random sampling from 16 villages in north Pakistan.
Trained medical students measured height, weight and blood pressure.
Trained interviewers obtained information from participants on
sociodemographic variables, use of snuff, daily cigarette consumption,
hypertension and family history of hypertension. Body mass index (BMI)
calculated as kg/m(2) was used to deﬁne overweight (BMI > or = 25
kg/m(2)) and obesity (BMI > or = 30 kg/m(2)).
RESULTS: Using weight and height data available for 1391 men and 2754
women, mean BMI was 22.4 (95% CI 21.9, 22.9) for men and 22.6 (95% CI
21.9, 23.2) for women. The age-adjusted prevalence of BMI > or = 25
(overweight/obesity) was 13.5% for men and 14.1% for women.
Overweight/obesity increased with age and the increase per year was
iden cal for both men and women [adjusted odds ra o (AOR) = 1.01, 95%
CI 1.01, 1.03]. Overweight/obese men and women were more likely to be
hypertensive (men, AOR = 3.32, 95% CI 2.16, 5.09; women, AOR = 1.70, 95%
CI 1.21, 2.39). Overweight/obese women were more likely to work in
business or as skilled workers (AOR = 6.24, 95% CI 1.18, 32.83) while
overweight/obese men were more likely to work as government employees
(AOR = 2.59, 95% CI 1.66, 4.03). Family history of hypertension was a
significant correlate of overweight/obesity in men (P value 0.004) and
women (P value 0.000). Overweight/obese men and women were less likely
to use smokeless tobacco (men, AOR = 0.65, 95% CI 0.43, 0.97; women,
AOR = 0.54, 95% CI 0.35, 0.85).
CONCLUSION: The prevalence of risk factors for non-communicable
diseases (NCDs) in Pakistan is expected to increase as further
epidemiologic, nutritional and demographic changes occur. The assessment
of excess body weight, and patterns and determinants of other risk factors
for NCDs is important to provide useful guidelines in the planning of
interventions to counter a growing problem.
J Coll Physicians Surg Pak. 2004 Mar;14(3):189-92.
Childhood Obesity and Pakistan.
Afzal MN, Naveed M.
Department of Basic Health Sciences, Shifa College of Medicine, Islamabad.
email@example.com Erratum in J Coll Physicians Surg Pak. 2004
Obesity and overweight have become a problem of public health magnitude
associated with substantial economic burden not only in the developed
countries but also in the developing countries. The number of overweight
children and adolescents has doubled in the last two decades in the United
States and worldwide, including developing countries. No study on
childhood obesity and overweight is available in Pakistan. Obesity in
children impacts on their health in both short and long-term and obesity
and its preventive strategies are poorly understood. Increasing number of
these children and adolescents all over the world demand not only a
substantial political will but also an investment for primary and secondary
preventive measures and novel approaches in the treatment modalities.
Journal of Medical Sciences, 2004; 4(1):30-35
Hypertension in Relation to Obesity, Smoking, Stress,
Family History, Age and Marital Status among Human
Population of Multan, Pakistan
Kamran Tassaduqe , Muhammad Ali , Abdus Salam , Muhammad Latif ,
Nazish Afroze , Samra Masood and Soban Umar
The present study was carried out to assess hypertension in relation to
obesity, smoking stress, family history, age and marital status among
human population of Multan, Pakistan. The present data was collected
randomly from the male popula on aging from 16 to 85 years. The male
popula on was divided into three age groups i.e old male (age above 50
years), mature male (age 31 to 50 years) and young male (age 16 to 30
years). The study revealed that there was a strong relationship between
hypertension and obesity in all age groups. Hypertensive patients had
association with age, smoking, stress, family history and marital status.
When comparison was made between mild, moderate and severe
hypertensive patients, it was found that old married males were suffering
from severe hypertension. Family history of hypertension and myocardial
infarction also had a strong association with hypertension. The prevalence
of hypertension was found to be maximum (17.08%) in males of age group
>50 as compared to mature males (14.16%) and young males (13.48%) in
observed sample population. The results from the observed population
suggested that prevalence of obesity was (11.49%). The obesity was
maximum (12.19%) in males of age group >50 as compared to mature
males (11.51%) and young males (10.64%). In the normotensive individuals
the prevalence of obesity was (8.74%) as compared to (26.99%) in
JPMA (Journal Of Pakistan Medical Association), July 2003;53(7)
Obesity in Adolescents of Pakistan
T. Rehman, Z. Rizvi, U. Siddiqui, S Ahmad, A. Sophie, M. Siddiqui, O. Saeed,
Q. Kizilbash, A. Shaikh , A. Lakhani, A. Shakoor.
Final Year Medical Students, The Aga Khan University Medical College,
Karachi's school going teenagers regarding healthy eating and body weight
and to determine the extent of obesity in these individuals by measuring
their Body Mass Index (BMI).
SETTING: Tenth grade O' level students from six schools in Karachi.
METHOD: A cross sectional study design with a convenience sample of
students who were provided with a self-administered questionnaire. In
order to compute BMI, the height and weight of each student was
measured after completion of the questionnaire.
RESULTS: Seventeen percent students were underweight (below the 5th
percen le), 65% were normal weight (5th to 85th percen le) and 18% were
overweight (above the 85th percentile). Regarding knowledge about health
problems arising due to being overweight, 90% knew being overweight was
harmful to health. When asked about what one can do to lose weight, 96%
listed exercise among their answers. The results also showed that
underweight people were more likely to have 1 or more snacks daily,
whereas overweight respondents were less likely to snack between meals.
(OR 0.2, p-value <0.01).
important that work be done with regard to tackling this health issue, which
is of significant consequence in the long term. Emphasis should be on
promoting low intensity long duration physical activity that can be
conveniently incorporated into daily life. There is a need for more based
studies be conducted in schools and in the general population so as to
establish guidelines on nutrition and weight status for the Pakistani people
J Pak Med Assoc. 2002 Aug;52(8):342-6.
The Obesity Pandemic--Implications for Pakistan.
Department of Community Health Sciences, Aga Khan University, Karachi.
and obesity. In February 2000, the WHO Regional Oﬃce for the Western
Pacific, the International Association for the Study of Obesity and the
International Obesity Task Force published provisional recommendations
for adults for the Asia-Pacific region: overweight at Body Mass Index (BMI)
> or = 23 and obesity at BMI > or = 25.
METHODS: Data from the National Health Survey of Pakistan, 1990-94
were reanalyzed using BMI cut-offs recommended for Asians to reassess
prevalence of overweight and obesity in the adult Pakistani population.
areas was 9% for men and 14% for women; in urban areas, prevalence was
22% and 37% for men and women, respec vely. For 45-64 year olds,
prevalence was 11% for men and 19% for women in rural areas, and 23%
and 40% in urban areas for men and women, respec vely. Obesity
prevalence was directly associated with SES, regardless of residence.
CONCLUSION: In South Asia, including Pakistan, social and environmental
changes are occurring rapidly, with increasing urbanization, changing
lifestyles, higher energy density of diets, and reduced physical activity. The
coexistence of underweight in early life with obesity in adults may presage
both a higher prevalence and incidence for noncommunicable diseases
(NCDs) such as hypertension and diabetes. Use of BMI > or = 23 for
overweight, and BMI > or = 25 for obesity, may provide a more accurate
determination of the health of Pakistanis, especially in those with more
than one risk factor for NCDs.
Eur J Clin Nutr. 2001 May;55(5):400-6.
Socio-Economic Differences in Height and Body Mass
Index of Children and Adults Living In Urban Areas of
Department of Food and Nutrition, Rana Liaqat Ali Khan Government
mass index (BMI) in urban areas of Karachi.
DESIGN: A comparative study was undertaken to compare the heights and
BMIs of adults and children belonging to three distinctively different
income groups living in urban areas of Karachi.
large houses located in the authorised urban residential areas of Karachi.
SUBJECTS: A total of 600 families, 200 from each income group, were
included in the study. Anthropometric measurements of 1296 females and
1197 males of different ages were taken.
demographic information. Height and weight of all the available family
members were measured. In order to determine the socio-economic
difference in height status, the mean height in cm of adults was compared.
For children (2-17 y) means of height-for-age Z-scores determined on the
basis of NCHS reference values were compared. For studying the weight
status the BMI of all the respondents was calculated and they were
grouped into categories of under-, normal or overweight according to the
NCHS recommended cut-off points. For adult men and women BMI values
overweight. Among children, those having BMI values below the 5th
percentile of the NHANES III reference values were categorised as
underweight and those above the 95th percen le were termed overweight.
RESULTS: Height status improved with income level among adults and
children of both sexes. Among males the difference in weight status was
signiﬁcant only among 2 to 18-y-olds (P<0.05 in each case). The rate of
overweight among 2 to 18-y-old males was signiﬁcantly higher (P=0.004) at
the middle-income level (15%) as compared to low or high income. The rate
of underweight was signiﬁcantly higher (P=0.025) at the low-income level
among 2 to 18-y-old males (31%, 21% and 22% at low-, middle- and high-
income levels, respectively). Among females, rates of underweight were not
significantly different at any age. Rates of overweight increased significantly
(P=0.048) with income level among 41 to 60-y-old women (38%, 53% and
60% at low-, middle- and high-income levels, respectively).
decreased with increasing income level. Socio-economic differences in
weight status were not uniform among various age-sex groups. The
influence of increasing affluence is likely to be seen both in the form of
increased obesity among older females and underweight among children.
Differing patterns of association between income and weight status among
male and female children need to studied further with more accurate birth
records, so as to further clarify the situation. In terms of prevention of
nutrition-related disorders both problems of under- and over-nutrition
need to be addressed.
Health Phys. 2001 Mar;80(3):274-7.
Evaluation of Body Mass Index for a Reference Pakistani
Man and Woman.
Akhter P, Aslam M, Orfi SD.
Health Physics Division, Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science and
Technology, Islamabad. firstname.lastname@example.org
To strengthen the radiation protection infrastructure, a pilot study on
physical characteristics for Reference Asian Man was carried out in
Pakistan. Physical data on height and weight of Pakistani men and women
were collected and compiled for all age groups to establish a Reference
Pakistani Man/Woman which contributed toward the Reference Asian
Man/Woman. A correlation between Age and Body Mass Index (BMI) of
Pakistani MALES (i.e., rm = +0.89) and FEMALES (i.e., rf = +0.71) was
observed. Average BMI of Pakistani males and females for the age group of
20-50 y was found to be 21.95 kg m(-2) and 21.20 kg m(-2), respec vely.
From recent literature and work of others BMI for Reference Asian Male
(RAM) and Reference Asian Female (RAF) has been found to be 20.79 kg m(-
2) and 20.81 kg m(-2). Results of our study fall within BMI ranges for
male/female adults of Asian countries, i.e., 19.14-22.98 kg m(-2) and 19.38-
22.71 kg m(-2), respec vely. However, no signiﬁcant sex speciﬁc diﬀerence
has been noted.
nt J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2003 Jan;27(1):140-6.
Obesity in a Rural and an Urban Palestinian West Bank
Abdul-Rahim HF, Holmboe-Ottesen G, Stene LC, Husseini A, Giacaman R,
Jervell J, Bjertness E.
Institute of Community and Public Health, Birzeit University, West Bank,
Palestinian Authority. email@example.com
consumption patterns, physical activity patterns and smoking between a
rural and an urban community in the Palestinian West Bank and to describe
the associations of the latter factors with body mass index (BMI).
DESIGN: A population-based cross-sectional survey in a rural and an urban
Palestinian West Bank community.
SUBJECTS: A total of 549 women and 387 men aged 30-65 y, excluding
MEASUREMENTS: Obesity was deﬁned as BMI >/=30 kg/m(2).
and men, respectively, compared with 49.1 and 30.6% in urban women and
men, respec vely. The mean diﬀerence (s.e) in BMI levels was 1.6 (0.52)
kg/m(2) between urban and rural women and 0.9 (0.46) kg/m(2) in men. At
the household level, the mean energy consump on from 25 selected food
items was 13.8 MJ (3310 kcal)/consump on unit/day in the rural
community compared to 14.5 MJ (3474 kcal)/consump on unit/day in the
urban community (P=0.021). BMI was posi vely associated with age in both
men and women and with urban residence in women. BMI was negatively
associated with smoking and physical activity in men and with educational
level in women.
adjusting for age, smoking, education, physical activity and nutrition-related
variables, suggesting that the differences in the conventional determinants
of obesity could not fully explain the difference in the prevalence of obesity
between the two communities. Among men, the measured determinants
explained the rural-urban differences in BMI
Int J Food Sci Nutr. 2011 Feb;62(1):60-2. Epub 2010 Jul 21.
Obesity and Low Vision as a Result of Excessive Internet
Use and Television Viewing.
Bener A, Al-Mahdi HS, Ali AI, Al-Nufal M, Vachhani PJ, Tewfik I.
Department of Medical Statistics & Epidemiology, Hamad Medical
Corporation, Hamad General Hospital, Qatar. firstname.lastname@example.org
The technological age has resulted in children spending prolonged hours in
front of television (TV) and computer screens (on the Internet). The aim of
this prospective cross-sectional study is to determine the effect of this
phenomenon on both childhood obesity and low vision in the State of
Qatar. A total of 3000 school students aged 6 to 18 years were approached
from September 2009 to March 2010 and 2467 (82.2%) students agreed to
participate. Face-to-face interviews based on a designed questionnaire
were conducted. The highest proportion of obese children were aged
between 15-18 years (9.4%; p < 0.001); spent ≥ 3 hours on the Internet
(5.6%; p < 0.001), and spent between 5-7 hours or less sleeping (4.1%; p <
0.001). Forty-six (1.9%) children spent ≥ 3 hours/day on the Internet, and
were either overweight/obese and had low vision. The study findings
confirmed a positive association between obesity and low vision as a result
of excessive time spent on the TV view and Internet use.
Qatar Founda on Annual Research Forum Proceedings, 2010
Developing a Childhood Obesity Prevention Program for
Children in the State of Qatar.
Amal Essa Al-Muraikhi, Hamad Medical Corporation, Primary Health Care,
worldwide that requires preventive action. Prevention is best targeted at
children, but relatively few research studies have focused on obesity
prevention and most of those were conducted in western countries. Qatar
has undergone rapid industrialization and childhood obesity is emerging as
a health problem. However, there is little information on the determinants
and its prevention. The aims of this study was to describe the prevalence of
obesity among 6-7 years old school children, inves gate contribu ng
factors and identify potential components for an intervention program to
prevent obesity amongst children.
children in grade 1 from 12 primary schools randomly selected from the
state of Qatar and 2) focus groups with a range of stakeholders. Topic
guides were used to explore concepts on overweight and obesity, the
causes of childhood obesity, and perceptions on potential prevention
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