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- Vitamin D, Parathyroid Hormone Levels and Insulin Sensitivity among Obese Young Adult Saudis.
- Abstract OBJECTIVES
- Abstract BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES
- DESIGN AND SETTING
- Abstract BACKGROUND/AIM
- Abstract BACKGROUND
- MATERIALS AND METHODS
- CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
- Prevalence of Helicobacter Pylori Infection in a Group of Morbidly Obese Saudi Patients Undergoing Bariatric Surgery: A Preliminary Report.
- Abstract OBJECTIVE
in pre- and postmenopausal women with 25(OH)D<50 nmol/L. Serum
25(OH)D was lower (P<0.001) and intact PTH higher (P<0.001) in the upper
quintiles of body mass index (BMI) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR). Multiple
linear regression analysis showed that BMI, sun exposure index, poor
dietary vitamin D supplementation, WHR, and age were independent
posi ve predictors of serum 25(OH)D values.
CONCLUSIONS: Vitamin D deficiency is highly prevalent among healthy
Saudi pre-and postmenopausal women and largely attributed to obesity,
poor exposure to sunlight, poor dietary vitamin D supplementation, and
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 2011 Feb;15(2):135-47.
Vitamin D, Parathyroid Hormone Levels and Insulin
Sensitivity among Obese Young Adult Saudis.
Al-Sultan AI, Amin TT, Abou-Seif MA, Al Naboli MR.
Department of Internal Medicine, Endocrinology Section, College of
Medicine, King Faisal University, Saudi Arabia.
OBJECTIVES: To determine alterations of vitamin D and parathyroid
hormone levels and their relationship to insulin resistance among a sample
of healthy young adult obese Saudis and to identify factors that might
predict these alterations.
METHODS: Age and gender matched obese young (aged 18-25 years) adult
Saudis (N = 76) with body mass index of > or = 30 and their lean controls (N
= 84) were recruited a er fulﬁlling exclusion and inclusion criteria from
attendees of health facility at King Faisal University, Saudi Arabia. Selected
participants were invited to a personal interview to gather information
regarding socio-demographics. Fasting blood samples were assessed for the
following essays: serum calcium, 25 OH vitamin D, inorganic phosphorus,
intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH), serum insulin, fasting glucose, renal and
liver function tests.
showed significant decline in relation to obesity classes, hypovitaminosis D
was found in 30% (38.2% obese vs. 22.7% in lean) and deﬁciency in 17.5%
of subjects; (19% vs. obese 15.8%). iPTH was signiﬁcantly higher in obese
subjects. Secondary hyperparathyroidism was found in 48.1% (60.5% obese
vs. 36.9% controls). Regression analysis showed that body mass index,
serum calcium and creatinine levels were the main predictors for vitamin D
level. Vitamin D is positively associated with fasting blood sugar (r = -.133, P
= 0.09) and beta cell func on index (r = .192, P = 0.08), nega vely
associated with HOMA-IR (r = -.122, P = .34) but without sta s cal
significance after controlling of possible confounders.
associated by body mass index and classes of obesity. Negative associations
between vitamin D, iPTH levels and HOMA-IR exist but without statistical
Ann Saudi Med. 2011 Jan-Feb;31(1):19-23.
Prevalence of Diabetes Mellitus in A Saudi Community.
Alqurashi KA, Aljabri KS, Bokhari SA.
Division of Endocrinology, Department of Internal Medicine, King Fahad
Armed Forces Hospital, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Quantifying the prevalence of diabetes
mellitus is important to allow for rational planning and allocation of
resources. Therefore, we designed this study to determine the prevalence
of diabetes among Saudi nationals.
DESIGN AND SETTING: A cross-sectional study among patients attending a
primary care clinic in June 2009.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients were interviewed with structured
questionnaires to determine the presence of diabetes by questioning for
history of the disease, and charts were reviewed to document any diabetic
therapies that the patients may have undergone in the past or were
undergoing at that time.
patients. The mean (SD) age of the patients was 55.3 (13.2) years. The
prevalence of diabetes was 34.1% in males and 27.6% in females (P<.0001).
The mean (SD) age for onset of diabetes in males and females was 57.5
(13.1) and 53.4 (13.1) years, respec vely (P<.0001). Females <50 years old
had a higher prevalence than males in the corresponding age range-34.1%
and 25.1%, respec vely (P<.0001). The prevalence of diabetes decreased in
pa ents older than 70 years. The prevalence of body mass index of ≥25 was
72.5%. Among pa ents with diabetes, the prevalence of body mass index of
≥25 was 85.7% (P<.0001). There was a higher prevalence of obesity (body
mass index, ≥25) in females (87.7%) as compared to males (83.1%) (P=.008).
CONCLUSION: The prevalence of diabetes is high among the Saudi
population and represents a major clinical and public health problem. A
national prevention program to prevent diabetes and address the
modifiable risk factors at the community level, targeting high-risk groups,
should be implemented soon.
Saudi Journal of Gastroenterology, 2011;17(5):318-322
Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Gender Risks for
Adolescent Obesity in Southwestern Saudi Arabia
Ahmed A Mahfouz
, Abdullah S Shatoor
, Mohamed Y Khan
, Asim A
, Osama A Mostafa
, Mervat A Hassanein
Department of Family and Community Medicine, College of Medicine, King
Khalid University, Abha, Saudi Arabia
Department of Internal Medicine, College of Medicine, King Khalid
University, Abha, Saudi Arabia
BACKGROUND/AIM: The aim of the study was to investigate gender
differences in obesity and related behavior among adolescent school boys
and girls in southwestern Saudi Arabia.
1,249 adolescent boys and 620 adolescent girls, was conducted in
southwestern Saudi Arabia. They were interviewed and examined for
weight and height using standardized techniques.
RESULTS: The prevalence of obesity and overweight in the present study
amounted to 23.2% among boys and 29.4% among girls. The following
significant risk factors were identified; being a female [adjusted odds ratio
(aOR) =1.372, 95% conﬁdence interval (CI) =1.099-1.753] and lack of class
physical exercise (aOR =1.452, 95% CI =1.149-2.117).
Southwestern Saudi Arabia. The problem is more prevalent among girls.
Thus, there is a need for a national programme in the country to prevent
and control obesity among adolescents.
J Egypt Public Health Assoc. 2011;86(3-4):56-62.
Relationship between Obesity and Other Risk Factors and
Skin Disease among Adult Saudi Population.
Khalil GM, Al Shobaili HA, Alzolibani A, Al Robaee A.
aDepartment of Public Health, Preventive and Social Medicine, Faculty of
Medicine, Zagazig University, Egypt bDepartments of Public Health
cDermatology, College of Medicine, Qassim University, Kingdom of Saudi
BACKGROUND: Obesity is accused for a wide spectrum of dermatologic
diseases; no previous follow-up study has been conducted to investigate
these conditions in adult male and female Saudi population.
association between obesity and certain skin diseases among adult Saudi
duration was conducted. The study sample was randomly selected from
dermatology clinics at Qassim. Male cohorts were 61 obese adults and 48
nonobese adults. Female cohorts were 32 obese adults and 36 nonobese
adults. Measurement of BMI, waist-hip ratio, fasting glucose, blood
pressure, and dermatological examination was performed.
RESULTS: Skin disease incidence was significantly increased among
exposed rather than nonexposed cohorts with a rela ve risk of 2.3 in male
cohort and 2.3 in female cohort. Acanthosis nigricans and striae distensae
incidence increased in exposed men and women with highly significant
difference from nonexposed groups. Skin tag incidence significantly
increased in the exposed male cohorts only but not the female cohort.
Hirsutism, dry skin, pruritis, and planter keratosis all showed nonsignificant
differences. The most frequently reported infections in obese men were
nea pedis (18%), intertrigo (14.7%), and bacterial folliculi s (13.1%) with
significant difference. BMI was the only risk factor that regresses on skin
disease occurrence in study groups.
acanthosis nigricans and striae distensae to obesity in both female and
male adult population but showed sex difference for other skin diseases,
which raised many questions and requires further longer duration follow-up
J Trop Pediatr. 2010 Nov 25. [Epub ahead of print]
Cardiovascular Risk Factors among Adolescent Secondary
School Boys in Ahad Rufeida, Southwestern Saudi Arabia.
Shatoor AS, Mahfouz AA, Khan MY, Daffalla AA, Mostafa O, Hammad RK.
Departments of Internal Medicine (Cardiology), College of Medicine, King
Khalid University, Abha, Saudi Arabia.
A cross-sectional stratified sample of 1249 adolescent secondary school
boys was studied. More than 25% of boys did not prac ce any physical
exercise. More than half of the parents (54.5%) were consanguineous. High
prevalence of parental history of hypertension, diabetes and high blood
lipids was found. Smoking amounted to 11.8%. The prevalence of obesity
was 23.3%. The study showed that 6.8% had a high systolic blood pressure
and 13.0% (162) had high diastolic blood pressure. There is a need for a
national programme to prevent and control cardiovascular risk factors
Saudi J Gastroenterol. 2010 Oct-Dec;16(4):264-7.
Prevalence of Helicobacter Pylori Infection in a Group of
Morbidly Obese Saudi Patients Undergoing Bariatric
Surgery: A Preliminary Report.
Department of Medicine, King Abdulaziz Hospital, National Guard Health
Affairs, Saudi Arabia. firstname.lastname@example.org
BACKGROUND/AIM: Earlier reports from Saudi Arabia have shown high
prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection. However, recent studies have
documented a reduction in the infection prevalence. No prior study has
assessed the prevalence in morbidly obese Saudi patients. We aimed to
study the prevalence of H. pylori infection in a group morbidly obese Saudi
patients referred for endoscopy prior to bariatric surgery.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the medical
records of all patients who were referred for upper endoscopy prior to
bariatric surgery from June 2006 to September 2008. All data were
recorded including patient's demographics, comorbid conditions,
endoscopic and histological findings.
RESULTS: There were 62 pa ents included, 20 males and 42 females. The
mean age was 34 years (range 18-51) with a mean BMI of 55 Kg/m 2 (range
35-92). H. pylori were present in 53 pa ents (85.5%) with chronic ac ve
gastritis. All patients with positive H. pylori had chronic gastritis of variable
severity. Intes nal metaplasia was present in 5%. The prevalence of H.
pylori infection was similar in patients with and without co-morbid
condi ons. Main endoscopic ﬁndings were gastri s in 67.7%, hiatus hernia
in 13%, and gastric erosions in 13%. No pa ent had duodenal or gastric
obese Saudi patients undergoing bariatric surgery being referred for upper
GI endoscopy. Further prospective studies are needed to evaluate the
clinical implication and benefit of eradication treatment of infection in
ur J Endocrinol. 2010 Oct;163(4):601-7. Epub 2010 Aug 2.
Adiposity and Insulin Resistance Correlate with Telomere
Length in Middle-Aged Arabs: The Influence of Circulating
Al-Attas OS, Al-Daghri NM, Alokail MS, Alfadda A, Bamakhramah A, Sabico
S, Pritlove D, Harte A, Tripathi G, McTernan PG, Kumar S, Chrousos G.
Department of Biochemistry, Obesity Research Center, King Saud
University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
development of insulin resistance, which in turn may lead to accelerated
aging. In this study, we determined associations of chromosomal telomere
length (TL) to markers of obesity and insulin resistance in middle-aged adult
male and female Arabs with and without diabetes mellitus type 2 (DMT2).
DMT2 subjects without complica ons (97 males and 96 females)
participated in this cross-sectional study. Clinical data, as well as fasting
blood samples, were collected. Serum glucose and lipid profile were
determined using routine laboratory methods. Serum insulin, leptin,
adiponectin, resistin, tumor necrosis factor-α, and PAI-1 were quan ﬁed
using customized multiplex assay kits. High sensitive C-reactive protein
(hsCRP) and angiotensin II (ANG II) were measured using ELISAs. Circulating
leukocyte TL was examined by quantitative real-time PCR.
RESULTS: Circulating chromosomal leukocyte TL had significant inverse
associations with body mass index (BMI), systolic blood pressure, fasting
insulin, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR),
low-density lipoprotein (LDL)- and total cholesterol, ANG II and hsCRP
levels. Adiponectin, BMI, systolic blood pressure, and LDL cholesterol
predicted 47% of the variance in TL (P<0.0001). HOMA-IR was the most
signiﬁcant predictor for TL in males, explaining 35% of the variance
(P=0.01). In females, adiponec n accounted for 28% of the variance in TL
chromosomal TL among adult Arabs. Evidence of causal relations needs
further investigation. The positive association of adiponectin to TL has
clinical implications as to the possible protective effects of this hormone
from accelerated aging.
Ann Saudi Med. 2010 Sep-Oct;30(5):376-80.
Body Mass Index And Obstetric Outcomes In Pregnant In
Saudi Arabia: A Prospective Cohort Study.
and Sabry Hammad
College of Medicine, King Faisal University, Al-Hassa, Saudi Arabia
Ministry of Health, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
Correspondence: Abdel-Hady El-Gilany, MD · Professor of Public Health,
College of Medicine, Mansoura University, Mansoura 35516, Egypt; Email:
email@example.com ; Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
index in early pregnancy on pregnancy outcome since no study in Saudi
Arabia has addressed this question.
antenatal care during the first month of pregnancy at primary health care
centers in Al-Hassa, Saudi Arabia. Data was collected from records and by
RESULTS: The study included 787 women. Compared to normal weight
women (n=307), overweight (n=187) and obese (n=226) women were at
increased risk for pregnancy-induced hypertension (RR=4.9 [95% CI 1.6-
11.1] and 6.1 [95% CI 2.1-17.8], respec vely), gesta onal diabetes (RR=4.4
[95% CI 1.2-16.3] and 8.6 [95% CI 2.6-28.8]), preeclamptic toxemia (RR=3.8
[95% CI 1.1-14.6] and 5.9 [95% CI 1.7-20.4]), urinary tract infec ons (RR=1.4
[95% CI 0.5-3.9] and 3.7 [95% CI 1.7-6.2]), and cesarean delivery (RR=2.0
[95% CI 1.3-3.0] in obese women). Neonates born to obese women had an
increased risk for postdate pregnancy (RR=3.7 [95% CI 1.2-11.6]),
macrosomia (RR=6.8 [95% CI 1.5-30.7]), low 1-minute Apgar score (RR=1.9
[95% CI 1.1-3.6]), and admission to neonatal care units (RR=2.1 [95% CI 1.2-
2.7]). On the other hand, low birth weight was less frequent among obese
women (RR=0.5 [95% CI 0.3-0.9]) while the risk was high among
underweight women (RR=2.3 [95% CI 1.4-3.8]).
CONCLUSION: Even with adequate prenatal care, overweight and obesity
can adversely affect pregnancy outcomes.
East Mediterr Health J. 2010 Sep;16(9):1003-8.
Obesity In Saudi Children: A Dangerous Reality.
Al-Dossary SS, Sarkis PE, Hassan A, Ezz El Regal M, Fouda AE.
Department of Poediatrics, Saad Specialist Hospital, Al-Khobar, Saudi
Obesity among children is an increasing concern. This cross-sectional study
in 2006 determined the prevalence and demographic characteris cs of
overweight and obesity in children in the Eastern province of Saudi Arabia.
A total of 7056 children (aged 2-18 years) were selected from schools and
the outpatient department of a hospital. The overall prevalence of
overweight was 19.0% and of obesity was 23.3%. More than 50% of
children between 14 and 18 years had weight above the 85th percen le.
More males than females were obese by ages 14-18 years (35.6% versus
19.2%). Saudi and non-Saudi nationalities had the same distribution of body
mass index. Interventions to encourage healthier lifestyles for children are
needed at the national level.
Nutr J. 2010 Sep 19;9:39.
Obesity and Eating Habits among College Students in
Saudi Arabia: A Cross Sectional Study.
Al-Rethaiaa AS, Fahmy AE, Al-Shwaiyat NM.
Department of Clinical Laboratory, College of Health Sciences at Rass,
Qassim University, Saudi Arabia. email@example.com
BACKGROUND: During the last few decades, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
(KSA) experienced rapid socio-cultural changes caused by the accelerating
economy in the Arabian Gulf region. That was associated with major
changes in the food choices and eating habits which, progressively, became
more and more "Westernized". Such "a nutritional transition" has been
claimed for the rising rates of overweight and obesity which were recently
observed among Saudi population. Therefore, the objectives of the current
work were to 1) determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity in a
sample of male college students in KSA and 2) determine the rela onship
between the students' body weight status and composition and their eating
chosen from College of Health Sciences at Rass, Qassim University, KSA for
the present study. A Self-reported questionnaire about the students' eating
habits was conducted, and their body mass index (BMI), body fat percent
(BF%), and visceral fat level (VFL) were measured. Data were analyzed using
SPSS statistical software, and the Chi-square test was conducted for
overweight and 15.7% were obese. The total body fat exceeded its normal
limits in 55.2% of the par cipants and VFL was high in 21.8% of them. The
most common eating habits encountered were eating with family, having
two meals per day including breakfast, together with frequent snacks and
fried food consumption. Vegetables and fruits, except dates, were not
frequently consumed by most students. Statistically, significant direct
correla ons were found among BMI, BF% and VFL (P < 0.001). Both BMI
and VFL had significant inverse correlation with the frequency of eating
with family (P = 0.005 and 0.007 respec vely). Similar correla ons were
also found between BMI and snacks consump on rate (P = 0.018), as well
as, between VFL and the frequency of ea ng dates (P = 0.013).
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