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- Abstract BACKGROUND
- Abstract AIM
- Abstract BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE
- Abstract BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES
- MATERIAL AND METHODS
- CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
- Sleep Duration and Quality Associated with Obesity among Arab Children.
CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest the need for strategies and
coordinated efforts at all levels to reduce the tendency of overweight,
obesity and elevated body fat, and to promote healthy eating habits in our
Obes Surg. 2010 Sep;20(9):1219-26. Epub 2008 Aug 28.
Bio-Enteric Intragastric Balloon In Obese Patients: A
Retrospective Analysis Of King Faisal Specialist Hospital
Al Kahtani K, Khan MQ, Helmy A, Al Ashgar H, Rezeig M, Al Quaiz M, Kagevi
I, Al Sofayan M, Al Fadda M.
Sec on of Gastroenterology, Department of Medicine (MBC: 46), King Faisal
Specialist Hospital and Research Centre, PO Box: 3354, Riyadh, 11211, Saudi
BACKGROUND: Bio-enteric intragastric balloon (BIB) insertion is gaining
popularity for weight reduction in obese patients. We evaluated the
efficacy, tolerability, and safety of BIB in the treatment of obesity.
11.6 years, 58 (33.5%) were men] who underwent BIB (InaMed
Corporation, California, USA) insertion were followed up clinically,
biochemically, and endoscopically for 6-12 months. The mean+/-SD
baseline body weight, excess weight, and body mass index (BMI) were
123.5 +/- 39.6 and 68.9 +/- 40.0 kg and 46.7 +/- 14.1 kg/m(2), respec vely.
Associated dietary control, exercise, and medical treatment were used in 67
(38.7%), 60 (34.7%), and 3 (1.7%), respec vely.
RESULTS: BIBs were safely and successfully inserted in 15.1 +/- 6.2 min,
filled with 626.2 +/- 41.7 ml methylene blue solu on, removed a er a
period of 189.7 +/- 68.3 days, within 14.1 +/- 6.3 min. BIB was not tolerated
for 6 months in 33 (19.8%) pa ents. Body weight and BMI at 6 and 12
months postinsertion were significantly reduced to 112.5 +/- 35.7 kg and
43.1 +/- 13.1 kg/m(2), and 110.7 +/- 34.5 kg and 42.3 +/- 12.6 kg/m(2),
respec vely (p < 0.01 versus baseline by one-way ANOVA). Furthermore,
the mean absolute weight loss and mean percentage excess weight
reduction (EWR) at 6 and 12 months post-BIB inser on were 13.5 +/- 13.5
kg and 19.5 +/- 21.8, and 14 +/- 18.5 kg and 18.0 +/- 25.8, respec vely. No
mortality or major complica ons has occurred. EWR of >or=25% occurred in
24.1% and 30.1% of pa ents at 6 and 12 months postinsertion, respectively.
CONCLUSION: BIB is a safe, simple, and potentially efficient procedure that
is well-tolerated by the majority of patients.
Pediatr Int. 2010 Aug;52(4):551-6. doi: 10.1111/j.1442-200X.2010.03091.x.
Relationship between Resistin and Apai-1 Levels with
Insulin Resistance in Saudi Children.
Al-Daghri NM, Al-Attas OS, Alokail MS, Alkharfy KM, Draz HM.
Biochemistry Department, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh,
Saudi Arabia. email@example.com
BACKGROUND: Association of resistin with insulin resistance (IR) in
humans is still controversial and few studies have investigated the
association of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) with IR in children.
The purpose of the present study was therefore to evaluate serum levels of
resistin and active PAI-1 (aPAI-1) in Saudi children and their associa on with
the various obesity-related complications.
METHODS: In this cross-sec onal study, 73 boys and 77 girls with varying
body mass index (BMI) were recruited. They were assessed for
anthropometric measures and fasting serum levels of glucose, insulin, lipid
profile, resistin, angiotensin II (ANG II) and aPAI-1.
RESULTS: Resistin was positively correlated with hips (r = 0.33, P < 0.01),
waist (r = 0.23, P < 0.05) and BMI (r = 0.33, P < 0.01). The associa on of
resistin with the markers of obesity was also significant in girls but lost
significance in boys. aPAI-1 was posi vely correlated with total cholesterol
(r = 0.24; P < 0.01), triglycerides (r = 0.2, P < 0.05), HOMA-IR (r = 0.26, P <
0.01) and insulin (r = 0.26, P < 0.01). The signiﬁcant associa on of aPAI-1
with IR was also true in girls but lost significance in boys.
needed to explore the role of resistin especially in childhood obesity. In
contrast, increased levels of PAI-1 may contribute to the risk of
cardiovascular diseases related to obesity and insulin resistance in children.
The observed gender-related differences in the association between
resistin, aPAI-1 with obesity markers and IR could be a ributed to sexual
dimorphism in body fat distribution.
Nutr Res. 2010 Aug;30(8):527-34.
Poor Diet Quality and Food Habits are Related to Impaired
Nutri onal Status In 13- To 18-Year-Old Adolescents in
Washi SA, Ageib MB.
Department of Nutrition and Health, UAE University, Al-Ain, PO Box 17555,
UAE Dietetics Unit, Saudi German Hospitals Group, Jeddah.
In recent decades, diets have changed rapidly in the Kingdom of Saudi
Arabia (KSA) because the Western diet is replacing the traditional Arabic
diet. This has resulted in an alarming increase in the number of overweight
and obese children and adolescents in KSA. It is well documented that
lifestyle is strongly associated with the development of obesity.
Nevertheless, this remains to be demonstrated in adolescents from a
rapidly developing country in the Middle East such as Saudi Arabia. This
study tested the hypothesis that the new current dietary habits are related
to the increase in overweight and obese Saudi Arabian adolescents. In
2006, a cross-sec onal study was conducted among 239 adolescents (13-18
years old) who were selected by cluster sampling from schools in Jeddah,
KSA. The nutritional status was assessed by anthropometric and
biochemical parameters at the Saudi German Hospitals Group, Jeddah.
Dietary habits were evaluated by a 3-day dietary recall (food diary) and a
food frequency ques onnaire. The mean age of the par cipants was 15.5 ±
2.5 years. The mean body mass index was 27.43 ± 4.61 kg/m(2). A total of
44.6% of the adolescents were overweight, and 56.6%, 30.5%, and 13.0% of
energy was derived from carbohydrates, fats, and proteins, respectively.
Compared with the Dietary Reference Intake, carbohydrate and fat intakes
were higher, and calcium, iron, and zinc intakes were lower. Higher
cholesterol and lower hemoglobin levels were found in 30.5% and 53.6% of
the adolescents, respec vely. In summary, increased weight status of 13- to
18-year-old Saudi adolescents was related to their inadequate dietary
habits. This indicates the importance of rapidly promoting a healthier
lifestyle among Saudi Arabian adolescents.
Innate Immun. 2010 Aug 10. [Epub ahead of print]
Obesity and Immune Cells in Saudi Females.
Al-Sufyani AA, Mahassni SH.
Department of Biochemistry, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi
For the past two decades or more, obesity has been increasing in
industrialized and affluent countries. This increase has been shown in
children, adults and the elderly. The latest statistical studies in Saudi Arabia
show that obesity is increasing, with obese Saudi women outnumbering
obese Saudi males, and that these numbers are continuously rising.
Obesity, which leads to many medical risks, affects the immune system in
direct and indirect ways. In this study, the effect of obesity on the immune
system of 119 Saudi female university students was investigated. Using a
blood sample from each subject, the following immune-related parameters
were determined: total and differential white blood cell counts (WBCs),
total lymphocyte and sub-lymphocyte cell counts. Two measures of body
fat were used: the body mass index (BMI) and the waist-to-hip ratio (WHR)
to correlate body weight to the other measured parameters. A significant
correlation was present between BMI and WHR each with total white blood
cells, neutrophils, and CD4 lymphocyte concentra ons. Some other
parameters were only affected by the increase in the BMI but not the WHR,
such as platelets, while others were affected by the WHR only, such as total
T-cells. On the other hand, there were no significant correlations between
BMI or WHR and basophil, eosinophil, monocyte, CD8, B-cell, and NK-cell
counts. The findings indicate that obesity might seriously affect the innate
and adaptive immune systems.
Acta Paediatr. 2010 Jun;99(6):896-9. Epub 2010 Feb 24.
Telomere Length in Relation to Insulin Resistance,
Inflammation and Obesity among Arab Youth.
Al-Attas OS, Al-Daghri N, Bamakhramah A, Shaun Sabico S, McTernan P,
Department of Biochemistry, College of Science, King Saud University,
Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. firstname.lastname@example.org
length to markers of obesity, insulin resistance and inflammation in Saudi
this cross-sectional study. Anthropometrics were measured. Serum glucose
and lipid profile were measured using routine laboratory methods. Serum
insulin, leptin, adiponectin, resistin, tumour necrosis factor-alpha and active
plasminogen ac vator inhibitor 1 were quan ﬁed using customized
multiplex assay kits. C-reactive protein and angiotensin II were quantified
using ELISA. Leucocyte telomere length was examined by quantitative real
time PCR utilizing IQ cycler.
RESULTS: Mean telomere length was significantly shorter in obese boys
compared with their lean counterparts (p = 0.049), not in girls. It was not
associated to insulin resistance, adipocytokines and markers of
inflammation. In girls, the significant predictor of telomere length was waist
circumference, explaining 24% of variance (p = 0.041) while in boys, systolic
blood pressure explained 84% of the variance (p = 0.01).
CONCLUSION: Childhood obesity in boys corresponds to shorter leucocyte
telomere length which is not evident in girls. The association of leucocyte
telomere length to blood pressure and waist circumference in children
suggests clinical implications as to the contribution of these parameters in
Ann Saudi Med. 2010 May-Jun;30(3):203-8.
Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity in Saudi Children
El Mouzan MI, Foster PJ, Al Herbish AS, Al Salloum AA, Al Omer AA, Qurachi
MM, Kecojevic T.
Department of Pediatrics, King Saud University, Saudi Arabia.
overweight and obesity in Saudi children and adolescents. The objective of
this study was to establish the national prevalence of overweight and
obesity in Saudi children and adolescents.
METHODS: The 2005 Saudi reference data set was used to calculate the
body mass index (BMI) for children aged 5 to 18 years. Using the 2007 WHO
reference, the prevalence of overweight, obesity and severe obesity were
defined as the proportion of children with a BMI standard deviation score
more than +1, +2 and +3, respec vely. The 2000 CDC reference was also
used for comparison.
RESULTS: There were 19 317 healthy children and adolescents from 5 to 18
years of age, 50.8% of whom were boys. The overall prevalence of
overweight, obesity and severe obesity in all age groups was 23.1%, 9.3%
and 2%, respec vely. A signiﬁcantly lower prevalence of overweight (23.8
vs 20.4; P<.001) and obesity (9.5 vs 5.7; P<.001) was found when the CDC
reference was used.
CONCLUSIONS: This report establishes baseline national prevalence rates
for overweight, obesity and severe obesity in Saudi children and
adolescents, indicating intermediate levels between developing and
industrialized countries. Measures should be implemented to prevent
further increases in the numbers of overweight school-age children and
adolescents and the associated health hazards.
Ann Saudi Med. 2010 May-Jun;30(3):209-14.
Establishing Abdominal Height Cut-Offs and Their
Association with Conventional Indices of Obesity among
Arab Children And Adolescents.
Al-Daghri N, Alokail M, Al-Attas O, Sabico S, Kumar S.
College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Obesity, particularly childhood obesity is
common in the Middle East, but no studies have examined the relationship
of sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD) or abdominal height to conventional
markers of obesity in this region. This is the first study to document the
association of SAD with measures of obesity among Arab children and
METHODS: Nine hundred sixty-four Saudi children aged 5-17 years (365
prepubertal, including 146 boys and 219 girls; 249 pubertal, including 125
boys and 124 girls; and 350 postpubertal, including 198 boys and 152 girls)
were included in this cross-sectional study.
RESULTS: SAD was significantly correlated with indices of obesity
regardless of gender, but was strongest among pubertal boys. The cut-off
values were as follows: for prepubertal children, 14 cm (equivalent to 50th
percen le among girls and 60th percen le among boys); for pubertal
children, 15 cm for girls (30th percen le) and 16 cm for boys (50th
percen le), and for postpubertal, 21.5 cm for girls (70th percen le) and 22
cm for boys (80th percen le).
children and adolescents in particular. Prospective studies should be done
to determine whether such an association translates to a promising risk
factor for hard endpoints such as diabetes mellitus and coronary heart
BMC Public Health. 2010 May 9;10:234.
Sugar-Sweetened Carbonated Beverage Consumption
Correlates with BMI, Waist Circumference, and Poor
Dietary Choices in School Children.
Collison KS, Zaidi MZ, Subhani SN, Al-Rubeaan K, Shoukri M, Al-Mohanna
Cell Biology & Diabetes Research Unit, Department of Biological & Medical
Research, King Faisal Specialist Hospital & Research Centre, PO BOX 3354,
Riyadh 11211, Saudi Arabia. email@example.com
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of obesity and overweight is increasing
globally. Frequently coexisting with under-nutrition in developing countries,
obesity is a major contributor to chronic disease, and will become a serious
healthcare burden especially in countries with a larger percentage of
youthful popula on. 35% of the popula on of Saudi Arabia are under the
age of 16, and adult dietary preferences are often established during early
childhood years. Our objective was to examine the dietary habits in relation
to body-mass-index (BMI) and waist circumference (W_C), together with
exercise and sleep patterns in a cohort of male and female Saudi school
children, in order to ascertain whether dietary patterns are associated with
obesity phenotypes in this population.
a designed Food Frequency Questionnaire. BMI and W_C measurements
were obtained and correlated with dietary intake.
27.0% respec vely, with boys having higher obesity rates than girls (P 0.001). W_C and BMI was posi vely correlated with sugar-sweetened
carbonated beverage (SSCB) intake in boys only. The association between male BMI and SSCB consumption was significant in a multivariate regression
model (P < 0.0001). SSCB intake was posi vely associated with poor dietary choices in both males and females. Fast food meal intake, savory snacks,
iced desserts and total sugar consumption correlated with SSCB intake in both boys (r = 0.39, 0.13, 0.10 and 0.52 respec vely, P < 0.001) and girls (r =
0.45, 0.23, 0.16 and 0.55 respec vely, P < 0.001). Older children reported eating significantly less fruit and vegetables than younger children; and less
eggs, fish and cereals. Conversely, consumption of SSCB and sugar- sweetened hot beverages were higher in older versus younger children (P <
0.001). BMI and W_C were nega vely correlated with hours of night-time
0.001). W_C and BMI was posi vely correlated with sugar-sweetened
carbonated beverage (SSCB) intake in boys only. The association between
male BMI and SSCB consumption was significant in a multivariate regression
model (P < 0.0001). SSCB intake was posi vely associated with poor dietary
choices in both males and females. Fast food meal intake, savory snacks,
iced desserts and total sugar consumption correlated with SSCB intake in
both boys (r = 0.39, 0.13, 0.10 and 0.52 respec vely, P < 0.001) and girls (r =
0.45, 0.23, 0.16 and 0.55 respec vely, P < 0.001). Older children reported
eating significantly less fruit and vegetables than younger children; and less
eggs, fish and cereals. Conversely, consumption of SSCB and sugar-
sweetened hot beverages were higher in older versus younger children (P <
0.001). BMI and W_C were nega vely correlated with hours of night-time
sleep and exercise in boys, but only with night time sleep in girls, who also
showed the lowest frequency of exercise.
CONCLUSIONS: A higher intake of SSCB is associated with poor dietary
choices. Male SSCB intake correlates with a higher W_C and BMI. Limiting
exposure to SSCB could therefore have a large public health impact.
J Egypt Public Health Assoc. 2010;85(1-2):45-59.
Obesity among Saudi Female University Students: Dietary
Habits and Health Behaviors.
Al Qauhiz NM.
Home Economics (Nutrition and Food Sciences) Department, Princess Nora
Bint Abdul Rahman University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. firstname.lastname@example.org
BACKGROUND: The remarkable economic growth in Saudi Arabia has
affected the population life style negatively. The increasing problem of
obesity has been reported from different regions in the kingdom. The rate
of overweight and obesity reached 65.4% in the eastern region among
females aged 18-74 years old. Although there is considerable amount of
data on prevalence of obesity, yet, data on dietary habits and food
consumption pattern are limited.
at exploring the BMI distribution among university female students. Food
consumption pattern and health related behaviors were also assessed.
were collected using self administered questionnaire. Body weight and
height were measured to calculate the BMI.
47.9%. Marriage, presence of obesity among family members, frequency of
drinking aerated beverages increased the risk of obesity significantly.
Misperception of body image was reported by 17.4% and 54.2% of obese
and overweight students respectively. Analysis of dietary habits and life
styles indicated the predominance of unhealthy behaviors.
CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS: The study results mandate the
need for a national strategy to adopt healthy dietary habits and life styles.
Obesity (Silver Spring). 2009 Dec;17(12):2251-3. Epub 2009 Jun 4.
Sleep Duration and Quality Associated with Obesity
among Arab Children.
Bawazeer NM, Al-Daghri NM, Valsamakis G, Al-Rubeaan KA, Sabico SL,
Huang TT, Mastorakos GP, Kumar S.
Medical Science, Warwick Medical School, University of Warwick, Coventry,
The link between sleep duration and obesity has been well established in
adults, but several epidemiological studies revealed inconsistent findings in
adolescents and younger children. This study aimed to investigate the
relationship between sleep length and obesity in Saudi students. A total of
5,877 Saudi students, boys (55.2%) and girls (44.8%), aged between 10 and
19 years were randomly selected from elementary, intermediate, and
secondary schools in different regions of Riyadh. A questionnaire on sleep
behaviors was given. Anthropometry included BMI and waist and hip
circumferences. Sleeping in both boys and girls (all age categories) (odds ra o = 1.25-1.38, 95%
conﬁdence intervals = 1.02-1.89). Overall prevalence of overweight and obese were higher among those sleeping intermi ently (18.68%) than
those sleeping con nuously (14.5%) (P = 0.024). Short sleep dura on and poor sleep quality are significantly associated with obesity among Arab
youth. Further studies need to employ more objective measures of sleep, such as actigraphy, and examine the mechanism of these associations.
in both boys and girls (all age categories) (odds ra o = 1.25-1.38, 95%
conﬁdence intervals = 1.02-1.89). Overall prevalence of overweight and
obese were higher among those sleeping intermi ently (18.68%) than
those sleeping con nuously (14.5%) (P = 0.024). Short sleep dura on and
poor sleep quality are significantly associated with obesity among Arab
youth. Further studies need to employ more objective measures of sleep,
such as actigraphy, and examine the mechanism of these associations.
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