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- Abstract BACKGROUND
- Adolescents: A National Reference and Comparison with International Standards
- Abstract BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES
- SUBJECTS AND METHODS
- Prevalence of Obesity in a Saudi Obstetric Population
- Abstract OBJECTIVE
- Associa on of The UCP2 –866G/A Polymorphism with Type 2 Diabetes and Obesity in Saudi Popula on
- Nullchildhood Obesitynull: A Growing Threat to Public Health in Saudi Arabia
Conclusion: Saudi Arabian dietetic practice for the management of obesity
does incorporate most best practice recommendations, but some specific
elements are rarely used.
Braz J Med Biol Res. 2009 Jun;42(6):501-5.
Changes in the Hormone and Lipid Profile of Obese
Adolescent Saudi Females with Acne Vulgaris.
Biochemistry Department, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University,
Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. email@example.com
Acne vulgaris is a multifactorial disease affecting a majority of the
adolescent population. The objective of this study was to test for a
correlation between fasting serum lipid profiles and levels of testosterone,
insulin, lep n, and interleukin 1-beta (IL-1beta) and the incidence of severe
acne vulgaris in obese adolescent females. Four groups of adolescent
females were studied: obese with acne, obese without acne, non-obese
with acne, and non-obese without acne. Obese females with acne,
compared to obese females without acne and non-obese subjects, had
significantly higher serum triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol
and apolipoprotein-B (apo-B) (mean +/- SD: 197 +/- 13.7 vs 171 +/- 11.5,
128 +/- 8.3 vs 116 +/- 7.7, 96 +/- 13.7 vs 85 +/- 10.3 mg/dL, respec vely) but
significantly lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and apo-A1 levels
(40 +/- 3.3 vs 33 +/- 3.5 and 126 +/- 12 vs 147 +/- 13 mg/dL). Serum
testosterone, insulin and leptin levels were significantly higher in obese
subjects with or without acne compared to non-obese females with or
without acne (3 +/- 0.5 vs 2.1 +/- 0.47, 15.5 +/- 3.3 vs 11.6 +/- 3, 0.9 +/- 0.2
vs 0.6 +/- 0.15 nmol/mL, respec vely). Serum IL-1b was significantly
elevated in obese and non-obese subjects with acne compared to subjects
without acne; in those without acne, these levels were higher in obese than
non-obese subjects (2.4 +/- 0.2, 1.4 +/- 0.1 vs 1.8 +/- 0.12 and 1.3 +/- 0.11
pg/mL, respectively). Our results indicate that there is a relationship
between obesity (BMI >27) and acne. By early recogni on, the e ology and
treatment protocol of acne may prevent unwanted conditions.
Reprod Biol Endocrinol. 2009 May 27;7:52.
Infertility Treatment Outcome in Sub Groups of Obese
Awartani KA, Nahas S, Al Hassan SH, Al Deery MA, Coskun S.
Reproductive Medicine, Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology, King Faisal
Specialist Hospital and Research Centre, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
IVF treatment outcome. It is not clear whether morbidly obese women (BMI
>= 35 kg/m2) respond to treatment diﬀerently as compared to obese
women (BMI = 30-34.9 kg/m2) in IVF. Our aim was to compare the outcome
of IVF or ICSI treatments in obese patients to that in morbidly obese
METHODS: This retrospective cohort study was conducted in a tertiary care
centre. Patients inclusion criteria were as follows; BMI >or= 30, age 20-40
years old, first cycle IVF/ICSI treatment with primary infertility and long
follicular pituitary down regulation protocol.
RESULTS: A total of 406 obese pa ents (group A) and 141 morbidly obese
patients (group B) sa sﬁed the inclusion criteria. Average BMI was 32.1 +/-
1.38 kg/m2 for group A versus 37.7 +/- 2.99 kg/m2 for group B. Pa ent age,
cause of infertility, duration of stimulation, fertilization rate, and number of
transferred embryos were similar in both groups. Compared to group A,
group B had fewer medium size and mature follicles (14 vs. 16), fewer
oocytes collected (7 vs. 9) and required higher doses of HMG (46.2 vs. 38.5
amps). There was also a higher cancella on rate in group B (28.3% vs. 19%)
and lower clinical pregnancy rate per started cycle (19.9% vs. 28.6%).
stratified according to their BMI, morbid obesity is associated with
unfavorable IVF/ICSI cycle outcome as evidenced by lower pregnancy rates.
It is recommended that morbidly obese patients undergo appropriate
counseling before the initiation of this expensive and invasive therapy.
Obes Surg. 2009 Apr;19(4):456-60. Epub 2008 Oct 8.
Inhibition of C-Reactive Protein in Morbidly Obese
Patients after Laparoscopic Sleeve Gastrectomy.
Hakeam HA, O'Regan PJ, Salem AM, Bamehriz FY, Jomaa LF.
King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
BACKGROUND: Obesity is considered a low-grade chronic inflammatory
condition as reflected by increased C-reactive protein (CRP) levels.
Inflammation is emerging as a predictor of cardiovascular disease and it
may be a precursor of the metabolic syndrome. Bariatric surgery is
commonly performed as a treatment for morbid obesity offering significant
reductions in premature myocardial infarction. Laparoscopic sleeve
gastrectomy (LSG) is a relatively new bariatric procedure that is currently
used as a definitive procedure for weight loss. The aim of this study is to
assess the impact of sleeve gastrectomy on CRP levels.
evaluate LSG impact on iron indices. CRP levels were compared
preopera vely and 6 months a er surgery. Similarly, demographics
including body mass index and excess weight were also compared at these
same study points. Data were analyzed using Student paired t test and
Pearson product moment correlation analysis.
RESULTS: Twenty-nine morbidly obese patients were included. There was
significant decrease in body mass index (BMI) between the preoperative
and 6-month period (50.9 +/- 13.2 and 35.1 +/- 6.85, respec vely; P <
0.001). Also CRP levels were sta s cally signiﬁcantly lower at 6 months
after surgery (preopera ve 12.3 +/- 7.53 mg/L and postopera ve 5.6 +/- 4.2
mg/L. P < 0.0001). The signiﬁcant weight loss as reﬂected by change in BMI
was correlated with the difference between preoperative and
postoperative CRP levels.
CONCLUSIONS: Massive weight loss in morbidly obese patients induced by
LSG causes a significant decrease in CRP levels, which could reduce the risk
of cardiovascular diseases in these patients.
Metab Syndr Relat Disord. 2006 Fall;4(3):204-14.
Acomparison of the Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome in
Saudi Adult Females Using Two Definitions.
Al-Qahtani DA, Imtiaz ML, Saad OS, Hussein NM.
Primary Care Physicians, Department of Primary Health Care, Northern Area
Armed Forces Hospital, King Khalid Military City, Hafr Al-Batin, Saudi Arabia.
The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of metabolic
syndrome in Saudi adult women aged 18 years and above using the criteria
of International Diabetes Federation (IDF) and modified National
Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (mNCEPATPIII). A
cross-sectional survey was performed involving a group of 2577 non-
pregnant Saudi women subjects aged 18-59 years residing in a military city
in northern Saudi Arabia recruited from a primary care setting.
Anthropometric data, together with a brief medical history, were obtained
at initial contact, and laboratory investigations were performed on the
following day a er fas ng for 12 h. Data on all variables required to deﬁne
the metabolic syndrome according to IDF and mNCEP-ATPIII criteria were
available for only 1922 subjects who a ended the laboratory for
inves ga ons (response rate of 74.6%). Non-respondents were excluded
from data analysis. Prevalence rates were estimated according to both
definitions. Age-adjusted prevalence of metabolic syndrome was found to
be 16.1% and 13.6% by IDF and mNCEP-ATPIII definitions, respectively.
Abdominal obesity was the most common component in the study
popula on (44.1% by mNCEP-ATPIII and 67.9% by IDF cut-off points). It was
followed by low serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (36.0%). About
two-thirds of the subjects (66.4% by mNCEP-ATPIII and 67.9% by IDF
definitions) exhibited at least one criterion for metabolic syndrome by both
definitions. Mean values and prevalence of individual components of the
syndrome showed a steady rise with increase in age, general and abdominal
obesity, and the presence of diabetes. Since the cut-off values for waist
circumference by IDF definition were lower, prevalence rates by this
definition were higher than those defined by mNCEP-ATPIII. High
prevalence rates in this young sample predict a sharp rise in the prevalence
rates of this syndrome among Saudi women over the next few years.
Dis Markers. 2009;27(2):97-102.
Methylene Tetrahydrofolate Reductase and Angiotensin
Converting Enzyme Gene Polymorphisms Related to
Overweight/Obesity among Saudi Subjects from Qassim
Settin AA, Algasham A, Dowaidar M, Ismail H.
Molecular Biology Research Center, College of Medicine, Qassim University,
Buraydah, Saudi Arabia. firstname.lastname@example.org
BACKGROUND: This work was planned to check for the association of
polymorphisms related to methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR)
and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) genes with overweight/obesity
among Saudi subjects from Qassim region.
METHODS: This work included 130 subjects having overweight or obesity
and 111 normal controls. Their age mean +/- SD was 27 +/- 9.8 and 24 +/-
8.8 years respec vely. Their DNA was analyzed for polymorphisms of
MTHFR; 677C/T and 1298 A/C and ACE; I/D genes using real-time PCR.
RESULTS: Genotype and allele frequencies of studied polymorphisms in
cases of overweight/obesity showed no significant statistical difference
compared to that of controls. However, on analysis of body mass index
(BMI), cases showed slightly higher but statistically nonsignificant mean +/-
SD values among those carrying the mutant MTHFR 677 T allele (CT + TT vs.
CC, 30.7 +/- 4.5 vs. 29.9 +/- 4.9), 1298 C allele (AC + CC vs. AA, 29.9 +/- 4.1
vs. 29.7 +/- 5.5) and ACE D allele (ID + DD vs. II, 30.0 +/- 5.1 vs. 29.1 +/- 2.8).
In addition controls having the DD and ID genotypes showed higher
sta s cally signiﬁcant values of BMI than those of the II genotype (22.0 +/-
1.9, 21.7 +/- 2.6 and 19.5 +/- 2.3 respec vely, p < 0.05).
CONCLUSION: There is no solid association of polymorphisms related to
MTHFR and ACE genes with non-complicated overweight or obesity among
Saudi subjects from Qassim Region.
Annals of Saudi Medicine, 2009;29(5):342-347
Body Mass Index in Saudi Arabian Children and
Adolescents: A National Reference and Comparison with
Abdullah S Al Herbish
, Mohammed I El Mouzan
, Abdullah A Al Salloum
, Ahmed A Al Omar
, Peter J Foster
Department of Pediatrics, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
Ministry of Health, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
School of Mathematics, Manchester University, United Kingdom
Abdullah S Al Herbish
2965 Abdulaziz Aba Husain Street-Al Morsalat, Riyadh 12461-6591
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Because there are no reference
standards for body mass index (BMI) in Saudi children, we established BMI
reference percentiles for normal Saudi Arabian children and adolescents
and compared them with international standards.
SUBJECTS AND METHODS : Data from a stratified multistage probability
sample were collected from the 13 health regions in Saudi Arabia, as part of
a nationwide health profile survey of Saudi Arabian children and
adolescents conducted to establish normal physical growth references.
Selected households were visited by a trained team. Weight and
length/height were measured and recorded following the WHO
recommended procedures using the same equipment, which were
subjected to both calibration and intra/interobserver variations.
RESULTS: Survey of 11 874 eligible households yielded 35 275 full-term and
healthy children and adolescents who were subjected to anthropometric
measurements. Four BMI curves were produced, from birth to 36 months
and 2 to 19 years for girls and boys. The 3
, and 97
percentiles were produced and compared with the
WHO and CDC BMI charts. In the higher percentiles, the Saudi children
differed from Western counterparts, indicating that Saudi children have
equal or higher BMIs.
CONCLUSION: The BMI curves reflect statistically representative BMI values
for Saudi Arabian children and adolescents.
Journal of Nephrology and Renal Transplanta on, 2009;2(3)
Obesity and Metabolic syndrome in Saudi Hemodialysis
Sameh A elsaid, Mahmoud A Hamada, khalid A Alsaran
Overweight & obesity has increased rapidly in an epidemic proportions as
two-thirds of adults are obese or overweight. Recent evidence highlights
the relationship between metabolic syndrome (MS) and increased risk of
cardiovascular (CV) diseases.The overall prevalence of the metabolic
syndrome was reported as high up to 70% in hemodialysis popula on and
was especially prevalent among diabetic, female, and white end stage renal
disease patients. Aim of the study: To examine the relation between end
stage renal disease (ESRD) patients and metabolic syndrome and / or
obesity in a sample of Saudi hemodialysis patients and to Identify the most
common element of the metabolic syndrome among patients receiving
dialysis. Pa ents and methods: 200 hemodialysis pa ents in Prince Salman
Center for Kidney Diseases (PSCKD). Metabolic syndrome was the main
exposure for this study and was defined using The International Diabetes
Federation (IDF) proposal for diagnosis of metabolic syndrome criteria in
2004. Body mass index (BMI) for dialysis pa ents was classiﬁed as
The European Journal of Nutrition, 2009;2(4)
Prevalence of Obesity in a Saudi Obstetric Population
Community Medicine Department, College of Medicine, Mansoura
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of obesity and its determinants
during the first month of gestation in Saudi women.
METHODS: Retrospective chart review of measured BMI in Al-Hassa, the
largest province in Saudi Arabia, in 2007. Data were collected from records
of 791 (72.6% of 1,089) pregnant women registered for prenatal care.
skewed posi vely (skewness of 0.77). The prevalence of underweight,
normal weight, overweight, obesity, and extreme obesity (BMI > 40 kg/m
were 8.5, 39.3, 23.6, 23.9, and 4.7%, respec vely. Logis c regression
revealed that the most important significant independent predictors of
obesity are parity of 4 and more (odds ra o (OR) = 5.8) and urban residence
(OR = 4.9).
CONCLUSION: Overweight, obesity, and extreme obesity are common
(>52%) among pregnant women in Saudi Arabia. Health educa on to
control body weight before pregnancy is warranted.
Egyptian Journal of Medical Human Genetics, 2009;10(2)
Associa on of The UCP2 –866G/A Polymorphism with
Type 2 Diabetes and Obesity in Saudi Popula on
BACKGROUND: Diabetes mellitus is emerging as a major public health
problem all over the world particularly Saudi Arabia. Recent studies
reported that Uncoupling Protein 2 (UCP2) was associated with obesity
and type 2 diabetes (T2D).
AIM OF THE STUDY: This study was conducted to clarify the contribution
polymorphism in UCP2 in obesity and T2D in the Saudi popula on.
SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The distribution of the –866G/A
examined in a case-control study including samples from 110 obese
pa ents, 81 T2D pa ents, 96 obese-T2D pa ents and 100 healthy
The –866G/A polymorphism were determined by using PCR/RFLP
(polymerase chain reaction/restriction fragment length polymorphism)
genotype was signiﬁcantly higher in both obese and T2D pa ents (p-
value= 0.0001, p-value= 0.014, respec vely) compared with healthy
control. The G allele was significantly associated with increased risk of
obesity (odd ra o, OR: 3.3; 95% conﬁdence interval, CI: 1.37-7.98), but
not with T2D (OR, 1.97; Cl, 0.80-4.87). In obese-T2D pa ents group, no
significant correlation with –866G/A polymorphism (p= 0.067; OR, 1.21;
Cl, 0.25-2.80). This unreeled study suggested that the G allele of UCP2 –
866G/A polymorphism was related to obesity, which indicated the
possible role of this polymorphism in causing metabolic syndrome.
CONCLUSION: This study concluded that the G allele of UCP2 –866G/A
polymorphism might be related to obesity and T2D which might be used
as a predic ve marker for obesity and T2D.
Int J Pediatr Obes, 2009;4, Pages: 6
Nullchildhood Obesitynull: A Growing Threat to Public
Health in Saudi Arabia
Saudi children and adolescents 15 years of age and younger cons tute
about 40% of the Saudi popula on (1). Early na onal Saudi medical
literature referred to the existence of obesity and its health consequences
as a feature of social aﬄuence and economic prosperity (2,3,4).
Unfortunately, the majority of reviewed studies were sporadic and did not
represent the whole population. At the present time and until evidence-
based conclusions can be reached regarding the exact prevalence of
childhood obesity, the increasing demand on bariatric surgical interventions
in Saudi Arabia could be an indica on of the magnitude of the problem (5).
The observation of obesity among school children has raised many concerns
among educational and medical activists. Legislation has been implemented
to restrict the purchase of junk food in school premises, and the
consumption of fresh milk and dates as sources of energy and natural
sweets were encouraged. The concept of adopting health promotion in
schools was endorsed in different localities in Saudi Arabia; however,
measurable outcomes of such actions are far from being recorded or have
been completely evaluated (6). In an eﬀort to exercise the epidemiological
sense of the problem, a cross-sectional study including four private female
primary schools in Riyadh city was conducted in 2007 and included about 1
072 students within the age group of 8 to 12 years. The majority belonged
to above average socioeconomic status. The study revealed an almost 15%
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