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|PARTICIPANTS: 118 obese pregnant females with a body mass index >32
undergoing CS were divided into two groups: group I (n = 78) with closed
subcutaneous drainage system and group II (n = 40) without drainage
system. Incision closure technique was standardized. Prophylactic
antibiotics were given routinely to both groups.
breakdown in both groups together with rate of hematoma formation and
occurrence of fever. Secondary outcomes were amount of fluid drained,
need for redressing.
RESULTS: Wound breakdown occurred in 9 cases in group I (11.5%), while
it happened in 5 cases in group II (12.5%) (p > 0.05). Rela ve risk was 0.92
(95% CI 0.26-3.75). Hematoma forma on was observed in only 1 case in the
nondrainage group (group II). Fever was observed in 18 cases in group I
(23.1%) in the ﬁrst 24 h postopera ve while in group II, 13 cases developed
fever (32.5%) (p > 0.05). The need for redressing within the ﬁrst 24 h was
only in 2.5% of cases in group I while it was 17.9% in group II (p < 0.05).
drain as a prophylactic measure against wound breakdown in obese
pregnant females undergoing CS as long as they received a prophylactic
J Egypt Public Health Assoc. 2002;77(1-2):29-49.
Impact of Life Style on the Nutritional Status of Medical
Students at Ain Shams University.
Bakr EM, Ismail NA, Mahaba HM.
Department of Community, Occupational, and Environmental Medicine,
Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt.
This cross sectional study was carried out to assess the nutritional status of
medical students and to determine its relation to their life style. The study
involved 317 students at, Am Shams University. Anthropometric
measurements such as weight, height, mid-arm circumference, triceps skin
fold thickness and body mass index were measured. The students
completed a self-administered questionnaire including data about some life
style factors and food-frequency consumption. The study revealed that
41.3% of the students were of normal weight while 9.5% of the sample
were underweight, 36.9% were overweight and 12.5% were obese. The
mean mid upper arm circumference (MUAC) and mid arm muscle
circumference (MAMC) of males was significant higher than that of females,
while the mean triceps skin fold (TSF) of females was significant higher than
that of males. The food frequency questionnaire analysis showed that most
of students consume all food groups items faire. There was no statistical
significant difference between the body mass index (BMI) of students and
different types of food consumption. About two thirds of the students used
to prac ce exercise, 26.9% of the students prac ced exercise for less than 2
hours per week, while 33.9% of them for more than 2 hours. There was no
statistical significant difference between the BMI of students and different
types of exercise. However, there was significant higher percentage of
males play sports and prac ce running (44.7% and 19.4% respec vely)
compared to (11.7% and 8.1%) of females. Sixty four percent of the
students usually have regular meals. About 87.2% of obese compared to
64.9% of normal weight students eat snacks between meals, the difference
was statistically significant. Obese individuals eat more during watching
television and during feeling of stress compared to non-obese and the
difference was statistically significant. The duration of practicing exercise,
sports and playing computer was significantly higher in males than females.
However, the duration of watching television was significantly higher in
females than males. Logistic regression analysis results showed that family
history of obesity and some life style factors as duration of computer use,
eating more during stress time and snacking between meals were
important risk factors for obesity. We concluded that about half of medical
students were overweight and obese. The most important life style factors
responsible for obesity were longer time spent using computer, eating
more during time of stress and snacking between meals. Also, genetic
factors played an important role in development of obesity. It is
recommended to develop nutritional education and physical activities
programs to face the problem of increasing the rate of overweight and
obesity among university students.
Public Health Nutrition (2002),5:141-148.
The Nutrition Transition in Egypt: Obesity, Undernutrition
and The Food Consumption Context
Osman M Galal
School of Public Health, University of California, Box 951772, Los Angeles,
CA 90095, USA
High Institute of Public Health, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt
OBJECTIVES: To describe changing food consumption patterns in Egypt over
the last several decades, current levels of overweight and obesity, and
current data on obesity-related morbidity.
level food consumption surveys, large recent surveys of hypertension and
diabetes, and documentation of historical and policy context.
Results and conclusions: The nutrition transition in Egypt has occured in the
context of abundant dietary energy availability, urbanisation and moderate
fat intakes. The prevalence of obesity in adults is very high, particularly
among women. The prevalences of diabetes mellitus and of hypertension
parallel that of obesity, and both are very high. Little information is
available on physical activity, but it is likely that a large proportion of the
population is quite sedentary, particularly in the cities. At the same time,
rates of early childhood malnutrition remain stubbornly stable and
relatively high. Public awareness of the increasing prevalence of obesity and
of diet-related chronic disease is increasing, and attention has turned to
documenting the problem(s).
East Mediterr Health J. 2001 Jul-Sep;7(4-5):716-24.
Central Obesity in Elderly Individuals in South-Western
Saudi Arabia: Prevalence and Associated Morbidity.
Abolfotouh MA, Daffallah AA, Khan MY, Khattab MS, Abdulmoneim I.
Department of Family Health, High Institute of Public Health, University of
Alexandria, Alexandria, Egypt. email@example.com
Central obesity in all individuals aged 65 years and over (n = 810) in the
catchment areas of three primary health care centres in Abha was
determined from the waist circumference (WC) and waist-to-hip ratio
(WHR). The age-adjusted prevalence of central obesity was 32.4% and
43.5% based on the WC and WHR indicators respec vely. WC was
significantly associated with the risk of diabetes and hypertension, while
WHR was significantly associated with the risk of diabetes only. These
findings suggest that reducing the prevalence of central obesity in old age
would decrease the risk of diabetes and hypertension. WC is a powerful
independent predictor mainly of hypertension risk, while WHC is a good
predictor of the risk of diabetes.
Obes Surg. 2001 Jun;11(3):271-5.
el Fiky KA.
Surgical Department, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, Abbasia
Square, Cairo, Egypt. firstname.lastname@example.org
BACKGROUND: The tremendous development of laparoscopic surgery in
the last decade is being applied to bariatric surgery. Laparoscopic vertical
banded gastroplasty (LVBG) is technically feasible by laparoscopy.
LVBG. The technical difficulties are discussed.
RESULTS: Opera ng me ranged from 105 to 420 minutes. 11 pa ents
have lost 45-55% of their original weight. Inser ng an esophageal bougie
no. 11 from the beginning of the opera on and using the laparoscopic set-
up described, made the procedure shorter, safer and easier for patients and
surgeon who is experienced in the handling and control of laparoscopic
instruments and hand-eye coordination. The early results are satisfactory.
Preoperative counseling is an integral step for the operation.
Obes Surg. 2001 Feb;11(1):70-5.
Egyptian Experience in Laparoscopic Adjustable Gastric
Banding (Technique, Complications And Intermediate
Cairo University, Egypt. email@example.com
morbid obesity. The purpose of this study is to present an Egyptian
experience of laparoscopic adjustable silicone gastric banding (LASGB) as a
safe and effective treatment.
METHODS: 108 morbidly obese pa ents having body mass index (BMI) >
40 kg/m2 were studied. 26 pa ents had a BMI > 50 kg/m2 and < 60 kg/m2,
while 21 pa ents had a BMI > or = 60 kg/m2. The procedure was performed
through a 4 or 5 trocar technique.
RESULTS: Mean age was 32.3 years. Mean BMI was 48.9 kg/m2. All except
two procedures were completed by laparoscopy. Mean hospital stay was
2.2 days. Mean BMI a er 12 months was 37.2 kg/m2 and a er 24 months
was 34.3 kg/m2. Mean follow-up was 2.1 years and included 87 pa ents
(81%). Complica ons included: gastric perfora on (1), pleural injury (1),
liver injury (1), port complica ons (6), periband sepsis (1) and slippage (3).
There were no mortalities in this series.
morbid obesity in Egyptian patients.
Obes Surg. 2000 Dec;10(6):525-9.
Bariatric Re-Operations: Are They Preventable?
Ain-Shams School of Medicine, Cairo, Egypt. firstname.lastname@example.org
and every procedure appears to have advantages, drawbacks and failures.
Re-operation is a part of bariatric surgery practice that is necessary in the
event of failure. We analyzed the reasons for failure in the bariatric re-
a bariatric re-opera on. Of 203 bariatric operations performed in our
ins tu on, 12 pa ents had a re-opera on (5.9%), and 5 pa ents had their
primary procedure performed elsewhere. Mean age was 36.5 +/- 11 years,
mean original weight 151.3 +/- 44.3 kg, mean BMI 58.4 +/- 16.9 kg/m2 and
mean excess body weight (EBW) 94.4 +/- 43.5 kg. Mean height was 161 +/-
7.7 cm, and 15 pa ents were female (88.2%). The primary bariatric
opera on was ver cal banded gastroplasty (VBG) in 15 pa ents (88.2%),
Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGBP) in 1 pa ent (5.9%), and gastric banding in
1 pa ent (5.9%). Dura on since the primary surgery was a mean of 15.6
months (range 1-72 months).
food intolerance (53%). 11 pa ents had VBG converted to RYGBP, 1 pa ent
had a gastric banding converted to a BPD, 4 pa ents had their VBG
converted to a gastro-gastrostomy, and 1 pa ent had a RYGBP staple
super-obese patients, older patients, and sweets-consuming individuals
undergo RYGBP or BPD as the primary operation rather than VBG or gastric
banding. The use of staplers transecting and separating the gastric pouch
from the remaining stomach can decrease staple dehiscence.
J Egypt Public Health Assoc. 2000;75(5-6):437-59.
Nutritional Status of Institutionalized and Free-Living
Elderly in Alexandria.
Shabayek MM, Saleh SI.
Department of Nutrition, (CLFF) Agriculture Research Center.
Because of an increase in the number of elderly and the problems of
nutrition associated with them, it is of interest to study the nutritional
status of elderly persons in Alexandria City. The purpose of this study was
to assess the nutritional status of elderly population and to compare
between the nutritional status of those institutionalized and those living
free. The study was conducted on 240 elderly persons (120 ins tu onalized
and 120 free living) selected randomly from institutions and from different
sites. The basic data, weight, height, body mass index (BMI) of each were
recorded. Dietary intake study was done by using 24 hours recall for 3
consecutive days and food frequency were used to obtain the best estimate
of food intake. Energy and nutrient intakes were obtained and compared
with the recommended dietary allowance (RDAs). The main findings of the
study revealed that the mean age of the institutionalized elderly was
greater than those living free. Percent of obesity among females was 71.7%
among free living and 45% among ins tu onalized. Under-nutrition was
present in 11.7% and 8.3% of ins tu onalized males and females
respectively. Food habits showed that institutionalized subjects consume
more amounts of many food items than free-living. Total daily energy
intake was found to be below the recommendation for all subjects, with
higher intake among institutionalized than free living. Nutrient intakes
among institutionalized and free living elderly were inadequate except
thiamin, riboflavin, vitamin C and iron. The nutrients least adequately
supplied in the diets of elderly are vitamin A and calcium along with energy
deficits. In conclusion both institutionalized and free living are at risk for
developing nutrient deficiencies. Deficient energy, calcium and vitamin A
are common problems among most subjects. The composition of the diet
among free living subjects seem to be also poor in some micronutrients. We
recommended a nutrition intervention program and nutrition education to
improve nutritional status of elderly people.
Kajbaf et al. Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2011, 37:1
Relationship between Obesity and Asthma Symptoms
among Children in Ahvaz, Iran: A Cross Sectional Study
Tahereh Ziaei Kajbaf1*, Shideh Asar2†, Mohammad Reza Alipoor3†
Background: Obesity has been identified as a risk factor for higher
prevalence of asthma and asthma-related symptoms in children. The
objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between the
prevalence of asthma symptoms and obesity among school-age children in
the city of Ahvaz, Iran.
study through cluster sampling. The International Study of Asthma and
Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) questionnaire was used to identify the
children who were currently suffering from asthma. Height and weight
were measured and body mass index (BMI) was calculated in kg/m2.
Overweight was defined as BMI greater than the age- and sex-speciﬁc 85th
percen le, and obesity as BMI greater than the 95th percen le. We
determined the relationship between obesity and asthma symptoms by chi-
overweight was 21.56%, 8.7%, 6.87%, and 9.5%, respec vely. The current
prevalence of wheezing among obese and overweight children was 68.75%
and 37%, respec vely, and there was a sta s cal associa on between
obesity and the prevalence of current wheezing (p < 0.001), night cough (p
not associated with eczema and allergic rhinoconjunctivitis, so it seems that
the pathophysiology of asthma in obese and overweight children is not
related to allergy.
both overweight and obesity in both sexes among school-age children.
Journal of Isfahan Medical School, Special Issue on Health Promotion
Prevalence of Obesity and Some Related Factors in 30-
70 Year- Old Population of Semnan Province, Iran
Ali Rashidy Pour, Mojtaba Malek, Rahimeh Eskandarian, Raheb Ghorbani
BACKGROUND: Nowadays, obesity is one of the most common diseases
and its prevalence has been increased in recent years. As obesity is a risk
factor for many diseases, we aimed to determine the prevalence of obesity,
central obesity, and some related factors in Semnan province, Iran.
METHODS: This epidemiologic cross-sec onal study was conducted on 3799
of 30-70 years old persons in Semnan, Iran. Mul stage cluster sampling was
performed and subjects were selected from the affiliated cities of Semnan
province. Data was collected using a specific questionnaire. Body weight,
height, and waist circumference (WC) were measured. Body mass index
(BMI) and waist to hip ra o (WHR) were calculated, too. 25≤BMI.
From this Link:
h p://www.journals.mui.ac.ir/index.php/jims1/ar cle/viewAr cle/3365
Prevalence of Underweight, Overweight and Obesity in
Preschool Children of Tehran, Iran
Abbasali Gaeini1, Majid Kashef2, Ali Samadi1, Aliasghar Fallahi1
BACKGROUND: It is reported that prevalence of overweight and obesity
have increased in all age groups, but little is known about prevalence of
overweight and obesity in preschool children. Therefore, the purpose of
this study was to survey the prevalence of underweight, overweight and
obesity in 3-6 year-old Tehranian children in 2009-2010.
boys and 378 girls) preschool children aged 3-6. Subjects were selected
through stra ﬁed sampling from 5 geographic regions of Tehran (east,
west, north, south, and center). Body weight and height were measured
directly. Underweight, overweight and obesity was defined as body
mass index (BMI) ≤ 5th percen le (underweight), 5th to 85th percen le
(normal weight), 85th to 95th percen le (overweight), and > 95th
percentile (obesity); based on recommendation of Centers for Disease
Control (CDC) in 2000.
RESULTS: Findings showed that the prevalence of underweight, overweight
and obesity was 4.77%, 9.81% and 4.77% in boys and 4.77%, 10.31% and
4.49% in girls, respec vely.
overweight and obesity in Tehranian preschool children that is a serious
problem. This result can be used in clinical setting and preventive programs.
R. Kordi, A.H. Memari
Sports Medicine Research Centre, Tehran University of Medical Sciences,
INTRODUCTION: Childhood obesity is a major issue and puts children at risk
of physical and psychological health complications. Some studies have
evaluated obesity in autism in different countries. However there is few
data on the rate of obesity in high-function autism (HFA).
AIM: To evaluate the weight status of children with HFA in Iran
METHODS: This cross-sectional survey was carried out in autism specific
schools of Tehran in 2010. In total 113 children with HFA ages 6–15 were
evaluated. They were classiﬁed according to WHO references (2007) for
body mass index (BMI) for age and sex as obese, overweight, healthy
weight and underweight. We then examined the associations of weight
status of these children with some variables and comorbodities.
RESULTS: The prevalence of obesity in children with HFA was 27.0%,
overweight 13.0% and underweight 7.0%. There was a signiﬁcant
correla on between age and BMI (r = 0.26, Pvalue < 0.01). Underweight
was associated with neurologic comorbidi es (p < 0.05). The rate of obesity
has not correlated with some other medical and psychiatric comorbidities,
as well as sex, and parents’ weight status.
CONCLUSIONS: Prevalence of obesity in autistic children with high
intelligence profile is high and at the same levels of both normal children
and children with autistic spectrum disorders.
Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2011 Jul;21(7):499-503. Epub 2010 Mar 12.
Comparison of the Effects of Cows' Milk, Fortified Soy
Milk, and Calcium Supplement on Weight and Fat Loss in
Premenopausal Overweight and Obese Women.
Faghih Sh, Abadi AR, Hedayati M, Kimiagar SM.
Department of Nutrition, Faculty of Nutrition Sciences and Food
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Recent studies suggest that calcium metabolism
and perhaps other components of dairy products may contribute to shifting
the energy balance and thus play a role in weight regulation. We compared
the effects of cows' milk, calcium fortified soy milk and calcium supplement
on weight and body fat reduction in premenopausal overweight and obese
METHODS AND RESULTS: In this clinical trial, 100 healthy overweight or
obese premenopausal women were randomized to one of the following
dietary regimens for 8 weeks: (1) a control diet providing a 500kcal/day
deﬁcit, with 500-600mg/day dietary calcium; (2) a calcium-supplemented
diet iden cal to the control diet with 800mg/day of calcium as calcium
carbonate; (3) a milk diet providing a 500kcal/day deﬁcit and containing
three servings of low-fat milk; (4) a soy milk diet providing a 500kcal/day
deficit and containing three servings of calcium fortified soy milk. At
baseline and a er 8 weeks, weight, waist circumference, and hip
circumference were measured. Three 24-h dietary records and physical
activity records were also taken. Comparing the mean differences in weight,
waist circumference, body mass index (BMI) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR)
using repeated measure of variance analysis showed that changes in waist
circumference and WHR were signiﬁcant among the four groups (p=0.029
and p=0.015, respec vely). A er adjustment for baseline values, changes in
weight and BMI were also signiﬁcant (p=0.017 and p=0.019, respec vely).
Weight reductions in high milk, soy milk, calcium supplement and control
groups were 4.43±1.93(kg), 3.46±1.28(kg), 3.89±2.40(kg) and 2.87±1.55(kg),
respectively. The greatest changes were seen in the high dairy group in all
CONCLUSION: Increasing low fat milk consumption significantly reduces
the general and central obesity beyond a low calorie diet.
Gynecol Endocrinol. 2011 Jul 14. [Epub ahead of print]
Pioglitazone Reduces Central Obesity in Polycystic Ovary
Asadipooya K, Kalantar-Hormozi M, Nabipour I.
Department of Internal Medicine, The Persian Gulf Tropical Medicine
Research center, Bushehr University of Medical Sciences, Bushehr, Iran.
OBJECTIVE: Based on the role of polycystic ovary syndrome as a cause of
metabolic syndrome with chronic anovulation, obesity, hyperinsulinemia
and hyperandrogenism, development of effective treatment for its obesity
is a priority.
MATERIALS/METHODS: We designed a study, involving 52 pa ents of 19-
36 years of age, to test the pioglitazone in women with polycys c ovary
syndrome. Subjects were assigned to receive pioglitazone for 3 months.
Body mass index, waist circumference and hip circumference were
measured before and a er 3 months of pioglitazone prescrip on.
during the study period. Waist circumference, hip circumference and waist
to height ratio decreased significantly. Body weight and body mass index
increased. No significant improvement was seen in acne, acanthosis,
hirsutism and menstrual irregularities.
patients with polycystic ovary syndrome but other clinical consequences of
the syndrome may not improve with the drug.
Eur J Clin Invest. 2011 Mar 28. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2362.2011.02516.x.
[Epub ahead of print]
8q24.3 and 11q25 Chromosomal Loci Associa on with
Low HDL-C in Metabolic Syndrome.
Daneshpour MS, Rebai A, Houshmand M, Alfadhli S, Zeinali S, Hedayati M,
Zarkesh M, Azizi F.
Obesity Research Center, Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences, Shahid
Beheshti MC, Tehran, Iran Department of Medical Genetics, National
Institute for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, Tehran, Iran Centre of
Biotechnology of Sfax, Sfax, Tunisia Faculty of Allied Health Sciences,
Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, Kuwait University, Kuwait
Biotechnology Research Centre, Pasteur Institute of Iran, Teheran, Iran
Endocrine Research Center, Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences,
Shahid Beheshti MC, Tehran, Iran.
Eur J Clin Invest 2011 ABSTRACT: Background High-density lipoprotein
cholesterol (HDL-C) levels are low in Iranians. Low HDL-C is the most
frequent phenotype in metabolic syndrome (MetS) among the Iranian
popula on (32%). This has been claimed to be related to gene c factors.
Materials and methods To investigate possible genes linked to this
disorder, 12 microsatellite markers were selected. They were used in 107
families with MetS and low HDL-C to analyse relevant association and
linkage signals. Result Family-based association tests under the biallelic
mode gave many positive association signals. Higher association - after
correction for multiple testing - was found to be linked with marker
D8S1743 and D11S1304 (P < 0·003). The obtained results suggested
evidence for association with regions on chromosome 8, 11 and to a lesser
degree on chromosome 16. Nonparametric linkage analysis performed by
Merlin software gave no significant correlation for any of the chromosomal
regions. By considering only families with positive Nonparametric
Logarithm of odds (LOD) scores, higher association can clearly be visible
with D16S3096 and D11S934. Conclusions These results suggest that 8q22-
24; 11q23-25 and 16q23-24 regions are very likely to contain genes that
control HDL-C level in Iranian families with metabolic syndrome.
J Endocrinol Invest. 2011 Jul 27. [Epub ahead of print]
Decreased Plasma Levels of Ceruloplasmin after Diet-
Induced Weight Loss in Obese Women.
Tajik N, Golpaie A, Keshavarz SA, Djalali M, Sehat M, Masoudkabir F,
Ahmadivand Z, Fatehi F, Zare M, Yazdani T.
Nutrition and Biochemistry Dept., School of public Health, Tehran
University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
factor for cardiovascular disease and also to be associated with obesity.
However, it is not known whether weight loss could decrease the plasma Cp
AIM: To investigate the effect of diet-induced weight loss on plasma Cp in
obese women. Subjects and Methods. Sixty-seven healthy obese women
(age=33.4±8.7 years, BMI=36.0±4.8 Kg/m2) were entered into a medically
supervised program aimed at reducing body weight by 10% or more.
Weight loss was achieved through a diet providing a daily energy deficit of
500-1000 kilocalories/day. In addi on, all pa ents were prescribed to use
50 grams of a ﬁber supplement per day. For all subjects, assessment of
dietary intake, anthropometric indices and plasma levels of C-reactive
protein (CRP) and Cp was performed at the ﬁrst visit and repeated at 12th
week of follow-up.
RESULTS: By completing the program, weight (delta= -9.5%, p < 0.0001),
body mass index (delta= -9.7%, p < 0.0001), waist-circumference (delta= -
6.1%, p < 0.0001), and triceps skinfold thickness (delta= -14.9%, p < 0.0001)
signiﬁcantly decreased. Plasma Cp signiﬁcantly decreased a er 12 weeks of
dietary interven on (33.6±5.6 mg/dL vs. 25.15±5.8 mg/dL, p < 0.0001).
Percent change in Cp was correlated with percent change in waist-
circumference (r = 446, p = 0.015).
induced by restriction of energy intake is associated with decreased serum
concentrations of Cp in obese women which in turn might have reduced the
subjects' risk of developing cardiovascular disease.
J Nutr Educ Behav. 2011 Jun 7. [Epub ahead of print]
Which Food Patterns are Predictors of Obesity in
Hosseini-Esfahani F, Djazaieri SA, Mirmiran P, Mehrabi Y, Azizi F.
Obesity Research Center, Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences, Shahid
Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
OBJECTIVES: To determine whether changes in food patterns over a period
of 6 years were related to obesity in Tehranian adults.
DESIGN: Data on dietary intake, using the food frequency questionnaire,
and anthropometry were obtained in 2 periods of the survey (1999-2001
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