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the first report from Iran, and urgent measures need to be taken in order to
prevent the progression and worsening of the problem and emergence of
its undesired consequences.
Int J Cardiol. 2010 Nov 19;145(2):310-1. Epub 2009 Nov 17.
Obesity in Relation to Gender, Educational Levels and
Living Area in Adult Population in Rasht, Northern Iran.
Maddah M, Solhpour A.
This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of overweight/obesity by
sex, educational levels and living area in adult population in Rasht City,
northern Iran. A cross-sec onal survey on 6223 women aged 38.6±5.9 years
and 6028 men aged 43.1±6.4 years was conducted in 2006. A random
sample of 35 schools was selected from diﬀerent parts of Rasht. The
parents were asked about their age, education, body weight and height and
home address. The overall prevalence of overweight/obesity in men and
women were 55.6% and 67.9% (p<0.0001), respec vely. Prevalence of
overweight/obesity was positively related to educational level in men. In
women, a U shaped association between educational level and
overweight/obesity was found. Overweight/obesity was more prevalent in
women living in high income area than those who live in low income area
(70.7% vs. 65.3% p<0.0001). Living area was not related to the prevalence
overweight/obesity is a public health concern in Rasht. Knowing the risk
factors in subgroups is important for planners at country level because it
helps to target interventions.
J Res Med Sci. 2010 Nov;15(6):331-43.
The Effect of Hypocaloric Diet Enriched in Legumes with or
without L-Arginine and Selenium on Anthropometric
Measures in Central Obese Women.
Alizadeh M, Daneghian S, Ghaffari A, Ostadrahimi A, Safaeiyan A, Estakhri R,
Student Research Committee, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz,
valuable for health. The aim of this study was to find out whether L-
Arginine (Arg) and selenium alone or together can increase the effect of
hypocaloric diet enriched in legumes (HDEL) on anthropometric measures
in healthy obese women.
undertaken in 84 healthy premenopausal women with central obesity. After
2 weeks of run-in on an isocaloric diet, participants were randomly
considered to eat HDEL, Arg (5 g/d) and HDEL, selenium (200 µg/d) and
HDEL or Arg, selenium and HDEL for 6 weeks. The following variables were
assessed before interven on and 3 and 6 weeks a er it: weight, waist
circumference, hip circumference, waist to hip ratio (WHR), body mass
index (BMI), and fasting nitrite/nitrate (NO(x)) concentrations. Other
variables (arm, thigh, calf and breast circumferences, subscapular, triceps,
biceps and suprailiac skinfold thicknesses, sum of skinfold thicknesses (SSF),
body density (D) and estimated percent of body fat (EPF)) were assessed
before and after intervention.
RESULTS: HDEL showed a significant effect in reduction of waist, hip, arm,
thigh, calf and breast circumferences, triceps, biceps, subscapular and
suprailiac skinfold thicknesses, WHR, SSF, D and EPF. HDEL + Arg + selenium
significantly reduced suprailiac skinfold thicknesses; and there was no
significant effect of HDEL, Arg, selenium and Arg plus selenium on weight,
BMI and fasting NO(x).
CONCLUSIONS: The study indicates that HDEL + Arg + selenium reduce
suprailiac skinfold thicknesses which represents the abdominal obesity
Public Health Nutr. 2010 Oct;13(10):1519-21. Epub 2010 Mar 31.
Underweight and Overweight among Children in Zahedan,
Maddah M, Shahraki T, Shahraki M.
Department of Human Nutrition, School of Public Health, Guilan University
of Medical Sciences and Health Services, Rasht, Islamic Republic of Iran.
and overweight in a group of primary-school children in Zahedan, south-
SETTING: Primary-school children in Zahedan city.
SUBJECTS: A random sample of 1079 students (boys = 500 and girls = 579).
Data on child's age, parental educational levels, body weight and height
and 10.3 %, respec vely; and of underweight among boys and girls was
22.8 % and 19.9 %, respec vely. Prevalence of overweight increased as the
boys and girls approached adolescence and it was more prevalent among
girls than boys. Prevalence of overweight was directly related to maternal
education in this population.
CONCLUSIONS: High prevalence of underweight in young children as well
as increase in the prevalence of overweight in girls and boys near
adolescence are of concern. Early poor growth and subsequent rapid
weight gain near to adolescent stage is related to adulthood obesity.
Acta Med Indones. 2010 Oct;42(4):209-15.
The Appropriate Waist Circumference Cut-Off for Iranian
Heshmat R, Khashayar P, Meybodi HR, Homami MR, Larijani B.
Endocrinology and Metabolism Research Center (EMRC), Tehran University
of Medical Sciences. North Kargar St. Tehran 14114, Iran.
among adults aged between 19 to 65 years in ﬁve major ci es in Iran.
METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, the anthropometric
measurements including weight, height, body mass index, waist and hip
circumferences were performed in 5724 healthy adults, representative
sample of Iranian population, in the urban areas of five great cities of Iran.
The prevalence of obesity was calculated in each district. ROC curves were
used to evaluate an optimal WC cutoff for predicting obesity.
RESULTS: Considering BMI categories, 38.5% were overweight and 19.7%
were obese. Abdominal obesity by WC criteria was reported in 45.1% and
19.6% of women and men, respec vely. The waist circumference cut-off
points corresponding to BMI values of ≥ 30 kg/m2 were 99.5 cm for men
and 94.25 cm for women.
professionals and policy makers about the high prevalence of generalized
and abdominal obesity in Iran.
Aging Male. 2010 Sep;13(3):155-8.
The Effect of Male Body Mass Index on Sperm Parameters.
Sekhavat L, Moein MR.
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Shahid Sedughi hospital, Shahid
Sedughi University of Medical Sciences and Health Services, Yazd, Iran.
Overweight and obese men have been reported to have lower sperm
quality. The aim of this study was to evaluate, whether body mass index
(BMI) is related to changes in semen parameters. In a cross-sectional study,
sperm parameters were reviewed in 852 normal, healthy men, of
reproduc ve age (25-50). BMI was divided into four groups: underweight,
normal, overweight and obese. Sperm concentration of overweight and
obese men were 63 and 62, respec vely, which were lower than subjects
with normal BMI (71). Total sperm count and sperm motility in overweight
and obese men were significantly lower than men with normal BMI too.
Sperm morphology in study groups was similar. The results revealed a
significant inverse correlation between the BMI and the sperm parameters.
Arch Iran Med. 2010 Sep;13(5):384-90.
Association Study of the -866G/A UCP2 Gene Promoter
Polymorphism with Type 2 Diabetes and Obesity in a Tehran
Population: A Case Control Study.
Heidari J, Akrami SM, Heshmat R, Amiri P, Fakhrzadeh H, Pajouhi M.
Endocrinology and Metabolism Research Center, Tehran University of
Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
BACKGROUND: A func onal polymorphism in the uncoupling protein 2
(UCP2) gene promoter has been associated with obesity and type 2
diabetes (T2D) in some popula ons. The impact of UCP2 polymorphisms on
diabetes and obesity is still under debate. Contradictory results have been
reported in different populations world-wide. To clarify the contribution of
the UCP2 gene -866 G/A polymorphism in the Iranian popula on, we
studied its association with obesity and T2D.
without obesity, 75 obese pa ents without diabetes and 75 control
subjects. The UCP2 -866 G/A polymorphism was determined by polymerase
chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP).
RESULTS: In the normal Iranian population, GG polymorphism was
significantly associated with an increased HDL-C level (P=0.027). G/A
polymorphism was not associated with obesity and T2D in our study
population, but the odds ratio (OR) between GG and G/A polymorphism
was 0.61 with a conﬁdence interval (CI) range of 0.34 - 1.08 in obese
patients. Subjects with AA genotypes in all of the studied groups showed a
lower body mass index (BMI) than subjects with the GG genotype.
CONCLUSION: Although the data in our study population is not statistically
signiﬁcant, the A allele in the UCP2 gene promoter seems to be protective
against obesity. This may suggest the possibility of UCP2 as a target
molecule for studies on the etiology and treatment of obesity.
East Afr J Public Health. 2010 Sep;7(3):219-24.
The Link Between BMI and Waist Circumference In
Northern Iranian Adults.
Hajian-Tilaki K, Heidari B.
Dept of Social Medicine and Health, Babol University of Medical Sciences,
Babol, Iran. firstname.lastname@example.org
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Waist circumference and not body mass
index explains a greater variance in obesity-related health risk. The present
study assesses the link between BMI and WC in Iranian adults.
northern Iran, we investigated the link between WC and BMI using linear
= 0.61 (p < 0.001) for male and R = 0.75 (p < 0.001) for female. The ﬁ ed
models were: WC(cm) = 44.45 +/- 1.79 BMI, (R2 = 0.37, p < 0.001) and
WC(cm) = 36.85 +/- 1.89 BMI (R2 = 0.57, p < 0.001) respec vely. A er
adjusting of age, gender and marital status, the association of BMI on WC is
persisted. The overall discrimination ability of BMI for abdominal obesity as
estimated by AUC was 0.865 (95% CI: 0.851-0.879, p < 0.001).
would help to estimate WC and its upper and lower confidence bond from
height and weight.
Public Health Nutr. 2010 Sep;13(9):1389-94. Epub 2010 May 4.
Factors Related To Obesity Among Iranian Men: Results
From The National Health Survey.
Bakhshi E, Mohammad K, Eshraghian MR, Seifi B.
Department of Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Tehran University of
Medical Sciences, Tehran, Islamic Republic of Iran.
OBJECTIVE: To our knowledge, only a few Iranian studies have investigated
factors associated with obesity among men. The aims of the present study
were to explore the associations between sociodemographic factors,
smoking and obesity in Iranian men and compare these associations
between Iranian men and women.
generalised es ma ng equa ons model included 11,697 men and 14,854
women aged 20-69 years (12,850 households). Body weight and height
were objectively measured. BMI was calculated as kg/m2, and subjects
were classiﬁed into obese (BMI >or= 30 kg/m2) and non-obese (BMI < 30
RESULTS: Among men, adjusted obesity OR were 0.62 (95 % CI 0.52, 0.74),
1.09 (95 % CI 0.90, 1.32), 1.003 (95 % CI 1.00, 1.007) and 0.57 (95 % CI 0.40,
0.81) for smokers, married, economic index and ac ve workforce groups,
respectively. Using low education as the reference group, the obesity OR
for men were 1.06 (95 % CI 0.89, 1.26) and 0.75 (95 % CI 0.57, 0.99) for the
moderate and high education groups, respectively. Using rural as the
reference group, the obesity OR was 1.87 (95 % CI 1.56, 2.26) for urban
CONCLUSIONS: Our findings may point towards a better understanding of
the social and cultural mechanisms of obesity in Iranian men. The above
sociodemographic factors are large contributors to obesity and provide the
greatest opportunity for actions and interventions designed for prevention
Published in Volume: 8 Issue 3: September 28, 2010
Secular Trends of Obesity in Iran between 1999 and 2007:
National Surveys of Risk Factors of Non-Communicable
Alireza Esteghamati, M.D.,
Omid Khalilzadeh, M.D., M.P.H.,
Mohammad, M.D., Ph.D.,
Alipasha Meysamie, M.D., M.P.H.,
Rashidi, M.D., Ph.D.,
Mandana Kamgar, M.D., M.P.H.,
and Mehrdad Haghazali, M.D.
Endocrinology and Metabolism Research Center (EMRC), Vali-Asr Hospital,
School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, School of Public Health,
Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
Departments of Preventive Medicine, School of Medicine, Tehran
University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
Center for Disease Control, Ministry of Health and Medical Education,
BACKGROUND: Obesity is a rapidly progressing pandemic and a central
feature of the metabolic syndrome. There is no solid evidence on the recent
trends of obesity in Iran. In this study we present the secular trends of
overweight and obesity among Iranian adults (25–64 years old) within an 8-
year period (1999–2007).
sectional national surveys: The National Health Survey–1999 (n = 21,576),
National Surveys of Risk Factors for Non-Communicable Diseases
(SuRFNCD)–2005 (n = 70,945), and SuRFNCD–2007 (n = 4,186).
RESULTS: The overall prevalence of obesity increased from 13.6% in 1999 to
19.6% in 2005 and 22.3% in 2007 [odds ra o (OR) = 1.08 per year; P <
0.001]. For overweight subjects, the rates were, respec vely, 32.2%, 35.8%
and 36.3% (OR = 1.02 per year; P < 0.001). During these years, the mean
body mass index (BMI) (kg/m
) increased from 25.03 in 1999, to 26.14 in
2005, and 26.47 and 2007 (P < 0.001). The increase in prevalence of obesity
was seen in both males (OR = 1.09 per year; P < 0.001) and females (OR =
1.07 per year; P < 0.001) and both urban (OR = 1.07 per year; P < 0.001) and
rural (OR = 1.10 per year; P < 0.001) residents.
CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, the present study highlighted the rapid
growth of obesity during recent years in Iran. Our findings indicate the
crucial necessity of primary prevention programs to counteract this
Diseases of the Esophagus, September 2010:23(7):597–602
Associations of Risk Factors Obesity and Occupational
Airborne Exposures with CDKN2A/P16 Aberrant DNA
Methylation in Esophageal Cancer Patients
S. Mohammad Ganji
, E. Miotto
, E. Callegari
, K. Sayehmiri
, M. Yazdanbod
, F. Rastgar-Jazii
, M. Negrini
It is known that obesity and occupational airborne exposure such as dust
are among risk factors of esophageal cancer development, in particular
squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of esophagus. Here, we tested whether
these factors could also aﬀect aberrant DNA methyla on. DNAs from 44
fresh tumor ssues and 19 non-tumor adjacent normal tissues, obtained
from 44 pa ents affected by SCC of esophagus (SCCE), were studied for
methylation at the CDKN2A/p16 gene promoter by methyla on-specific
polymerase chain reaction assay. Statistical methods were used to assess
association of promoter methylation with biopathological, clinical, and
personal information data, including obesity and airborne exposures.
Methylation at the CDKN2A/p16 gene promoter was detected in 12 out of
44 tumor samples. None of the non-tumor tissues exhibited the aberrant
methylation. Our results confirmed previously described significant
association with low tumor stage (P= 0.002); in addi on, we found that
obesity (P= 0.001) and occupa onal exposure (P= 0.008) were both
significantly associated with CDKN2A/p16 promoter methyla on. This study
provides evidence that obesity and occupational exposure increase the risk
of developing esophageal cancer through an enhancement of CDKN2A/p16
Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2010 Sep;89(3):327-33.
Performance of Different Definitions of Metabolic
Syndrome for Children and Adolescents in a 6-Year
Follow-Up: Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study (Tlgs).
Mirmiran P, Sherafat-Kazemzadeh R, Farahani SJ, Asghari G, Niroomand M,
Momenan A, Azizi F.
Obesity Research Center, Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences, Shahid
Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
syndrome (MetS) in predicting adulthood MetS among Tehranian
adolescents in a 6-year follow-up.
Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study (TLGS) in 1999-2001; MetS was assessed
based on ﬁve deﬁni ons for adolescents. In 2005-2007, 572 age 18 years
and over were assessed for MetS by NCEP ATP III adults' criteria. Sensitivity,
specificity, and area under receiver operating curve for attaining adulthood
MetS, obesity and overweight were calculated for each MetS definitions.
RESULTS: The prevalence of adolescence MetS varied from 0.7+/-0.2 to
15.1+/-0.8% by diﬀerent deﬁni ons in adolescents and 4.0+/-0.9% among
adults. The highest area under curve for prediction of adulthood MetS
pertained to the de Ferran 's deﬁni on (0.723), and for predic on of
adulthood obesity and overweight were 0.723 and 0.606, respec vely, for
this definition. Kappa for agreement between these definitions was fair
agreement with adult definition. Yet, a diagnosis of MetS in adolescents
seems to be a good predictor of developing adulthood MetS within a short
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