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CONCLUSION: WC was more strongly related to other components of MS
in Australia. Association between WC and MS or incident diabetes varies
Saudi Med J. 2010 Apr;31(4):406-12.
Association of Cell Blood Counts and Cardiometabolic Risk
Factors among Young Obese Children.
Kelishadi R, Hashemipour M, Ashtijou P, Mirmoghtadaee P, Poursafa P,
Khavarian N, Ghatrehsamani S.
Pediatric Preventive Cardiology Department, Isfahan Cardiovascular
Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, PO Box 81465-
1148, Isfahan, Iran. firstname.lastname@example.org
OBJECTIVE: To determine the association of cell blood count with obesity
and cardiometabolic risk factors in children.
METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted from 1st November
2007 to 1st October 2008 in the Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome Research
Clinic of the Preventive Pediatric Cardiology Department, Isfahan
Cardiovascular Research Center, Isfahan, Iran. It comprised 326 (172 girls
and 154 boys) obese children aged 6-12 years.
increasing trend in the mean body mass index (BMI), waist circumference
(WC), triglycerides (TG), total- and low density lipoprotein (LDL)- cholesterol
were documented across the quartiles of the white blood cell (WBC) count,
and for waist-to-hip ratio and total cholesterol across platelet quartiles. A
similar increasing trend was documented for BMI, waist and hip
circumference, diastolic blood pressure, LDL-C, and for TG from the second
to the fourth quartile of the red blood cells. By the increase in the number
of components of metabolic syndrome, the mean BMI, WBC, and TG
increased significantly. The highest correlation was documented between
WBC count and TG. The WBC count increased the risk of increased BMI
(odds ra o [OR]=1.45, conﬁdence interval [CI] 95%; 1.11-1.65, p=0.001),
increased WC (OR; 1.47, CI 95%; 1.15-1.74, p=0.001), and high TG (CI 95%;
1.241.06-1.44, p=0.005 ).
CONCLUSION: We found significant associations between CBC components
and cardiometabolic risk factors in young obese children. These findings are
confirmatory evidence of the pro-inflammatory state of obese individuals,
even in young children.
Pediatr Diabetes. 2010 Mar;11(2):101-6. Epub 2009 Sep 18.
The Prevalence of Impaired Fas ng Glucose and Type 2
Overweight/Obese Children in the Middle East.
Moadab MH, Kelishadi R, Hashemipour M, Amini M, Poursafa P.
Department of Pediatric Endocrinology, Endocrine and Metabolism
Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.
BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and impaired fas ng
glucose (IFG) are increasing in young population who are facing an
escalating trend of overweight. The aim of this study was to determine the
prevalence of IFG and T2DM for the ﬁrst me in a popula on-based sample
of Iranian obese children.
Isfahan, the second large city of Iran. Overall, 672 overweight and obese
school students, selected from 7554 students, aged 6-19 yr, were screened
for IFG and T2DM. Fas ng plasma glucose (FPG) and lipid proﬁle were
measured in all participants. Oral glucose tolerance test and insulin level
were measured in those children with IFG. Insulin resistance was defined as
homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) > 3.10.
9.34% (n = 706) were overweight and 5.3% (n = 403) were obese. A number
of 672 overweight and obese students including 302 (44.9%) boys and 370
(55.1%) girls, with a mean age of 12.8 +/- 3.10 yr underwent biochemical
work up. Overall, the prevalence of IFG was 4.61% (n = 31), the
corresponding ﬁgure was 2% (n = 4) in the 6-10 yr age group, and 5% (n =
27) in those aged 10.1-19 yr. The prevalence of T2DM was 0.1% (n = 1; age,
18.00 yr). Impaired glucose tolerance and insulin resistance were detected
in three and six par cipants with IFG, who consisted 0.4 and 0.8% of total
obese and overweight students, respectively.
CONCLUSIONS: Although the prevalence of T2DM is low in Iranian obese
children, IFG is not uncommon. Preventive measures and screening of FPG
should be considered for these children.
Public Health Nutr. 2010 Mar;13(3):314-23. Epub 2009 Aug 6.
Obesity and Cardiometabolic Risk Factors In a
Representative Population of Iranian Adolescents and
Adults in Comparison to a Western Population: The
Isfahan Healthy Heart Programme.
Sarrafzadegan N, Kelishadi R, Siadat ZD, Esmaillzadeh A, Solhpour A, Shirani
S, Naderi G, Asgary S, Sadri G, Khosravi A, Bahonar A.
Cardiovascular Research Center (WHO Collaborating Centre in the Eastern
Mediterranean Region), Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, PO Box
81465-1148, Isfahan, Iran. email@example.com
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to develop reference data for
the Iranian population for anthropometric values and cardiometabolic data
in comparison with those in Americans, as representative of a Western
DESIGN: The present cross-sectional survey, conducted as part of the
baseline survey of a community-based interventional study (the Isfahan
Healthy Heart Programme), used a two-stage clustering design and was
conducted in 12 600 randomly selected adults (> or =19 years of age) and
2000 adolescents (aged 11-18 years) living in three ci es in the central part
of Iran. For comparison with a Western population, comparable data for
Americans were derived from the data sets of the Second and Third
National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES II and NHANES
circumference (WC), hip circumference (HC) and waist:hip ratio (WHR) than
Iranian men and American women; but the mean BMI of Iranian men was
lower than that of American men. The mean serum TAG level of Iranian
men was significantly higher than that of Iranian women, whereas the
mean serum total cholesterol (TC), LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) and HDL
cholesterol (HDL-C) levels were significantly higher in Iranian women than
in men. The Iranian population had lower mean TC, LDL-C and TAG levels
than the Americans, but such difference was not documented for HDL-C.
Iranian adolescents had significantly lower mean BMI and higher mean TAG
than did American adolescents.
CONCLUSIONS: Our findings provide serious evidence for health
professionals and policy makers about the very high prevalence of
generalized and abdominal obesity in Iran. Controlling this emerging health
problem, notably in women, should become a national priority in Iran and
necessitates comprehensive public health programs.
Metab Syndr Relat Disord. 2010 Feb;8(1):47-52
Syndrome, Independent of Body Mass Index.
Sharifi F, Hajihosseini R, Mazloomi S, Amirmogaddami H, Nazem H.
Department of Clinical Endocrinology, Zanjan Metabolic Diseases Research
Center, Vali-e Asr Hospital, Zanjan, Iran. faranaksharifi @hotmail.com
BACKGROUND: Insulin resistance has been shown to have an association
with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). This study was designed to evaluate
the potential role of adiponectin, which is linked with insulin resistance, in
the etiology of PCOS and its relationship to obesity.
METHODS: This case-control study consisted of 103 newly diagnosed PCOS
cases and 73 female controls seen at a referral university hospital in Zanjan,
Iran. Serum adiponectin, insulin, plasma fasting glucose, and lipid levels
were measured. The homeostasis model assessment index was used to
determine the level of insulin resistance. Women were classified as follows:
Group I (normal nonlean women); group II (normal lean women); group III
(nonlean women with PCOS); and group IV (lean women with PCOS)
RESULTS: Adiponec n levels were decreased in women with PCOS (8.4 +/-
2.7 ng/mL vs. 13.6 +/- 5 ng/mL in the control group, P < 0.001). There was
no significant difference between the adiponectin concentrations of women
in group III and that in group IV (8.1 +/- 2.8 ng/mL vs. 9.2 +/- 2.6 ng/mL,
respec vely, P = 0.1). Adiponec n levels were signiﬁcantly lower in group I
compared with group II. A weak but significant negative correlation was
found between adiponectin and insulin levels in all the subjects. Multiple
regression analyses showed that the presence of PCOS was the only
significant determinant of serum adiponectin levels.
CONCLUSIONS: Adiponectin levels were reduced in all the women with
PCOS. There seemed to be an interaction between adiponectin and PCOS
pathogenesis that was independent of body mass index.
Public Health Nutr. 2010 Feb;13(2):196-200. Epub 2009 Jun 23.
Factors Associated with Overweight in Children in Rasht,
Iran: Gender, Maternal Education, Skipping Breakfast and
Maddah M, Nikooyeh B.
Department of Human Nutrition, School of Public Health, Guilan University
of Medical Sciences and Health Services, PO Box 41635-3197, Rasht, Islamic
Republic of Iran. Maddahm@yahoo.com
overweight and obesity among 6- to 11-year-old schoolchildren in Rasht,
breakfast, physical activity and hours of television viewing were collected.
Information on birth weight, parental age, parental educational levels,
parental weight and height, and mother's employment status were
gathered through self-administrated questionnaires given to the parents.
elementary schools in Rasht were studied.
RESULTS: The overall prevalence of overweight was 11.5 % and 15.0 % for
boys and girls, respec vely; while the overall prevalence of obesity was 5.0
% and 5.9 %, respec vely. Children with more educated mothers had a
higher prevalence of overweight than children with less educated mothers.
Logistic regression analysis showed that children with overweight/obese
parents, children with more educated mothers and children who often
skipped breakfast were more prone to overweight and obesity.
health concern in this age group in Rasht. The observed sex and social
differences in the prevalence of overweight and obesity call for policy
J Health Popul Nutr. 2010 Feb;28(1):61-6.
Obesity among Iranian Adolescent Girls: Location of
Residence and Parental Obesity.
Maddah M, Nikooyeh B.
Department of Human Nutrition, School of Public Health, Guilan University
This cross-sectional study was conducted to investigate the prevalence and
predictors of overweight and obesity by location of residence among
randomly-selected 2,577 urban school girls aged 12-17 years in Rasht, Iran.
Data on age, frequency of skipping breakfast per week, physical activity,
hours of television viewing, self-perception about body condition, and
home address were collected. Birthweight of the girls, educational levels of
parents, weights and heights of parents, and employment status of mothers
were asked to the parents using a self-administrated questionnaire. The
overall prevalence of overweight and obesity in this popula on was 18.6%
and 5.9% respec vely. Overweight or obesity was more common among
girls from low-income areas compared to high-income areas (21.6% vs
17.1%, p<0.001). Maternal educa on was posi vely related to
overweight/obesity of the girls. Results of logistic regression analysis
showed that risk of overweight/obesity was higher in girls whose either
parent was overweight or obese. Furthermore, living in low-income areas
and skipping breakfast were independently related to overweight/obesity.
These data suggest that overweight and obesity are a public-health concern
among school girls, especially in low-income areas in Rasht. Knowing risk
factors in population subgroups is important for planners in the country
because it helps target interventions.
Iranian Journal of Diabetes and Lipid Disorders
Leptin and Immunology of Obesity
, Moayeri H
, Nicknam MH
1- Immunology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Tehran University of
Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
2- Endocrinology Department, Imam Khomeini Hospital, Tehran University
of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
Today, obesity is a major health problem in both developing and developed
countries and investigations discovering its mechanisms are ongoing.
Obesity is considered as a state of low-grade inflammation and it is believed
that inflammation could be regarded as cause or consequence of obesity.
Among all studied factors involved in obesity, leptin has been subject of
extensive research. Leptin is a product of the ob gene and is regulated
dynamically in the body. Leptin, which is mostly produced by adipocytes,
has a role in satiety and is elevated in obesity. It can affect many cells in the
immune system and is a target in immunological approaches. Other energy-
regulating molecules are also under investigation and research in this field
can help to discover new treatments for inflammatory diseases and also to
reverse obesity and prevent its disastrous complications.
Ann Nutr Metab. 2009;54(3):189-96. Epub 2009 May 6.
Familial Aggregation of the Metabolic Syndrome: Tehran
Lipid and Glucose Study.
Azizi F, Farahani ZK, Ghanbarian A, Sheikholeslami F, Mirmiran P, Momenan
AA, Asl SZ, Hadaegh F, Eskandari F.
Endocrine Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University (M.C.), Tehran, I.R.
in some nations. The aim of this study was to evaluate familial aggregation
of the metabolic syndrome in Tehranian families.
biochemical data were collected for 4,558 individuals in the Tehran Lipid
and Glucose Study. Variables of the metabolic syndrome in offspring were
correlated with those of their parents.
RESULTS: There were 1,274 fathers, 1,576 mothers, 802 sons and 906
daughters. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 24.4% for fathers, 39.7%
for mothers, 9.0% for sons and 7.6% for daughters. Triglycerides and HDL-C
of children whose fathers had metabolic syndrome, and BMI, triglycerides
and HDL-C of those whose mothers had it were significantly different from
those adolescents whose parents were free of metabolic syndrome.
Compared with children whose parents did not have metabolic syndrome,
the odds ratio (confidence interval) for children with both parents having
metabolic syndrome was 4.53 (2.42-8.8) for metabolic syndrome, 2.22
(1.17-4.19) for abdominal obesity, 1.90 (1.15-3.13) for high blood pressure,
2.66 (1.77-4.00) for low HDL-C and 3.16 (2.10-4.75) for high triglyceride
CONCLUSION: This survey provides evidence suggesting that there is a
familial aggregation of the metabolic syndrome among Iranian families.
J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo). 2010;56(2):132-8.
The Association of General and Central Obesity with
Major Dietary Patterns of Adult Women Living in Tehran,
Rezazadeh A, Rashidkhani B.
Department of Community Nutrition, Faculty of Nutrition and Food
Technology, Shahid Beheshti University of
Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
OBJECTIVES: Using a dietary pattern analysis method could provide more
information about the nutritional etiology of chronic diseases such as
obesity. The aim of this study is to determine the association between
major dietary patterns and general and central obesity among adult women
living in Tehran.
Tehran, Iran, with 460 women aged 20-50 y. Dietary intake in the previous
year was collected by a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire.
Weight, height and waist circumstance (WC) were measured with standard
methods and body mass index (BMI) was calculated. General obesity was
deﬁned as BMI > or = 30 kg/m(2) and central obesity as WC > or = 88 cm.
Factor analysis was used for identifying major dietary patterns. The
association between major dietary patterns and general and central obesity
were assessed by logistic regression analysis.
RESULTS: Two major dietary patterns were extracted: "Healthy" and
"Unhealthy" dietary patterns. After adjusting for confounders, individuals in
the highest quartile of the unhealthy dietary pattern score were more likely
to have general (OR=7.33, 95% CI: 2.39-22.51) and central obesity
(OR=4.99, 95% CI: 2.08-11.94), whereas, those in the upper quar le of
healthy dietary pa ern were less likely to have general (OR=0.38, 95% CI:
0.15-0.98) or central obesity (OR=0.33, 95% CI: 0.16-0.71).
vegetables, low-fat dairy products and poultry might be negatively
associated with obesity. Furthermore our data showed that a dietary
pattern high in processed meats, soft drinks, sweets, refined grains, snacks
and processed juice might be positively associated with obesity among
women aged 20-50 y.
Int J Prev Med. 2010 Fall;1(4):242-6.
Relationship between C-Reactive Protein and Physical
Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Schoolchildren.
Sadeghipour HR, Rahnama A, Salesi M, Rahnama N, Mojtahedi H.
Department of Exercise Sciences, Kazeroun University of Payam Nour,
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the relation between
C-reactive protein (CRP) with physical fitness, physical activity, obesity, and
selected cardiovascular risk factors in school-children.
years, height 144 ± 0.2 cm, body weight 46.1 5± 4.59 kg, body mass index
22.16 ± 2.16 kg/m(2)) voluntarily par cipated in this study. Physical ﬁtness
and physical ac vity were assessed using the 20-meter fitness test.
Adiposity was estimated using body mass index. Blood samples were taken
after an overnight fast and measured for CRP, LDL, HDL and cholesterol.
Pearson's correlation was calculated to determine the relations between
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