# O’zbekiston respublikasi oliy ta’lim vazirligi toshkent kimyo texnologiya instituti

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Asosiy texnologik jarayonlar va qurilmalar fanidan Safarov Hasanning 2
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O’ZBEKISTON RESPUBLIKASI OLIY TA’LIM VAZIRLIGI

TOSHKENT KIMYO TEXNOLOGIYA INSTITUTI
SHAHRISABZ FILIALI
OZIQ-OVQAT MAHSULOTLARI TEXNOLOGIYASI va
SANOAT UZUMCHILIGI fakulteti
Texnologik jarayonlarni va ishlab chiqarishni avtomatlashtirish va boshqaruv
yo’nalishi 6-20 guruh talabasi Safarov Hasanning
Asosiy texnologik jarayonlar va qurilmalar fanidan

MUSTAQIL ISHI

Mavzu: ENERGIYA BALANSLARI ASOSLARI , ENERGIYA SHAKLLARI , ENERGIYANI SAQLASH, ICHKI ENERGIYA , ISITISH , ELEKTR ENERGIYA , ENERGIYA BALANSI .

BAJARDI: Safarov . H .

TEKSHIRDI: Elamanov . A .

SHAHRISABZ-2021-2022

CHAPTER 3 FUNDAMENTALS OF ENERGY BALANCES

## 3.1 INTRODUCTION

As with mass, energy can be considered to be separately conserved in all but nuclear processes.
The conservation of energy differs from that of mass in that energy can be generated (or consumed) in a chemical process. Material can change form, new molecular species can be formed by chemical reaction, but the total mass flow into a process unit must be equal to the flow out at the steady state. The same is true of energy, but not of stream enthalpy. The total enthalpy of the outlet streams will not equal that of the inlet streams if energy is generated or consumed in the process; such as that due to heat of reaction. Energy can exist in several forms, including chemical energy, heat, mechanical energy and electrical energy. The total energy is conserved, but energy can be transformed from one kind of energy to another.
In process design, energy balances are made to determine the energy requirements of the process: the heating, cooling and power required. In plant operation, an energy balance (energy audit) on the plant will show the pattern of energy use, and suggest areas for conservation and savings.
Most energy balances are carried out using process simulation software, but design engineers occasionally have to incorporate energy balances into spreadsheet models or other computer programs. It is therefore important for the design engineer to have a good grasp of the basic principles of energy balances. In this chapter, the fundamentals of energy balances are reviewed briefly and examples are given to illustrate the use of energy balances in process design. The methods used for process energy recovery and conservation are also discussed.

More detailed accounts of the principles and applications of energy balances are given in the texts covering material and energy balance calculations that are cited at the end of Chapter 2.