Picture of the situation of Europen Community Environment policy Incomplete lists of Operating Tools

Download 445 b.
Hajmi445 b.


A Short Memo of the presentation

  • Picture of the situation of Europen Community Environment policy

  • Incomplete lists of Operating Tools (GPP, ISO, E.M.S, White books.)

  • Some examples…

  • European Environment Agency summarized on 21 Sept 04:

      • “..EU environmental policy has led to economic investments that have clearly benefited the health of people and ecosystems, but there are still important unresolved environmental issues in Europe, in particular climate change, loss of biodiversity, and air pollution in urban areas…”


  • A sustainable built environment, which respects its natural framework, is an urgent necessity.

  • These involves respect for sites and for landscape, care in the choice of materials, awareness of energy considerations and construction techniques, and, above all, a reappraisal of the human dimension in building.

  • Urban space must be re-thought within the framework of town planning policies, with a full integration of architecture, the purpose of which being to shape and give meaning to that space.

  • A global, integrated, approach is essential

Steps towards European Union

  • Febraury 1992, Maastricht;

  • June 1997, Amsterdam

  • The treaty of the European Union defines sustainable development as a constitutional target of the EU. In particular the articles 2 and 6 of the EU treaty require the integration of Environmental, Economic and Social policies in order to promote sustainable development

6th European Program 2004-2010

  • European main goals could be summarised into:

    • Economic and technologic competitiveness
    • Social, territorial and political cohesion
    • Environmental sustainability
  • In Article 6 of the Amsterdam Treaty, environmental protection is not understood as a sectorial policy, but rather a maxim involving all sectors. This does not render independent environmental ministries superfluous, but rather requires the creation of interfaces in other sectors. Regional sustainable development demands closing regional material cycles, the use of renewable energies and ways of sustainable regional and city planning under recognition of social and economic factors within the region

European Common Policy

  • Internal (between members)

    • Economy and commerce
    • Transport
    • Environmental protection
    • Social policy
    • Regional policy
    • Technologic Research and development
    • Culture and professional training
    • Internal policy of Security and justice

Policies aims to achieve

  • Policy actions are defined according to the main treaties between Member States, and more in particular, following the subsidiary principle

  • These goals have been quantified to a certain extend:

    • Economic Growth (3% per year the next decade) will certainly require more traffic and capacity expansions.
    • Sustainable Development (8% reduction on CO2 emissions according to Kyoto's agreement) will require less traffic and the use of environmentally friendly modes.
    • Territorial Cohesion (reduction of regional and national unbalanced development) will require more commercial relations, know-how transfers, and therefore traffic, between peripheral regions (Eastern European and Mediterranean countries) and between them and more developed regions.

The settings

  • Agriculture

  • Air pollution

  • Biodiversity

  • Chemicals

  • Climate Change and Energy

  • Enforcement

  • Enlargement

  • Environmental Action Programmes

  • Environmental Fiscal Reform

  • Environmental Liability

  • Future of Europe

  • General Governance

  • Integration

  • Mediterranean

  • Noise

  • OECD

Policy background and technician role

  • Many efforts on sustainable production / consumption concepts have typically been based on science / technology. These include: (CP/CT, Product Design, LCA, F4+, etc.)

  • Science / technology, in this sense includes technology transfer, dissemination, management issues, and so on. Typical tools have been: Demonstration projects, Newsletters/factsheets, Manuals, EMS, Awareness-raising / education, etc.

  • Socio-economic aspects All of these factors are important, but in the main are well established and are the focus of many researchers state agencies. Largely missing from the activities to date has been detailed and exhaustive investigations into the socio-economic issues which are central to widespread uptake of a more sustainable way of production/consumption.

  • European Commission is extremely interested in this subject.

The evolving policy approach

  • A Sustainable Development Strategy should restore the confidence of the citizens in trusting EU leaders to create the conditions for long-term prosperity, social fairness, and a clean and healthy environment

  • The 1997 Amsterdam Treaty included sustainable development in the objectives of the European Union

  • The “Lisbon process", which only included economic and social policies, should be complemented by environmental objectives and indicators, transforming it into a Sustainable Development Strategy

  • The Spring Summit in 2003 gave a bit more hope for the future. It paid much more attention to environmental issues than the previous one. It clearly presented environmental policies as an important factor for innovation and job creation. It gave a new impulse to the Cardiff process and asked it to be connected to "overall and sector-specific decoupling objectives".

The evolving policy approach

  • It was urged to “encourage the reform of subsidies that have considerable negative effects on the environment and that are incompatible with sustainable development”

    • This gives us a renewed basis to push for the abolition of “perverse subsidies”
  • Green public procurement is an integral part of a sustainable development policy, as agreed at the European Council in Göteborg and in the EU's 6th Environmental Action Programme

    • much is expected from public procurement to foster the entry of 'green' products into the market in the framework of the Integrated Product Policy
  • The main environmental merit is that ecolabels are now recognised as selection criteria.

Evolution of voluntary instruments

Instruments and application

  • Housing

  • Green Public Procurement

  • Energy production/reduction

  • Environmental accounting

  • Voluntary agreements

    • ISO 14000
    • Environmental Management Audit Scheme.
    • Sustainable Forestal management
  • Life Cycle Analysis

Green Public Procurement

  • Green public procurement can have large environmental benefits

  • eco-procurement - by local and central governments has long been recommended in documents such as Agenda 21 to be a key - although sometimes supplemental - ingredient in the achievement of more environmentally responsible economies

  • pioneer cities such as Hamburg, Malmö and Zurich, The most relevant product groups for eco-procurement such as construction, transport, energy, information technology, furniture and food

Green Public Procurement

  • It stands for public purhasers who take into account environmental elements when buying products, services, or works

  • Could have significant benefits for the environment

  • Green purchasing is also about setting the example and influencing the market place

  • Important incentives to industries to develop “green” technologies

Architects’ Council of Europe

  • The ACE White Paper 'Europe and Architecture Tomorrow' is part of a global and pro-active commentary on European Union policies which are likely to impact on the built surroundings of presents and future generations.

  • The European Commission White Paper 'growth, competitiveness, employment' deals with urban issues in chapter 10 devoted to the issue of sustainable development but is silent upon the role of architecture as part of the built environment. Current European economic tendencies are towards the liberal interpretation of the free market

  • Criteria of architectural and life cycle quality should govern decisions before any other consideration, particularly where public sector procurement is concerned.

Architects’ Council of Europe

  • As regards cultural issues, article 128 of the Maastricht treaty has facilitated the building of a common policy. Such policy is indeed limited to actions of stimulation and co-ordination.

  • The architectural profession is at the very heart of the crossover between the economic issues that relate to the construction sector on the one hand and socio-cultural problems on the other hand.

  • ACE seeks to encourage European Union policy makers to develop a comprehensive political agenda in relation to architecture and urban design, where the necessary development of society takes place within a philosophical framework

  • However the architectural profession is not in a position to provide on its own a complete response to these challlenges

Environmental Accounting and Reporting

  • The european greenlight programme

  • Energy performance of buildings

  • Building energy label

  • IPPC, Integrated Pollution Prevention and Controll

  • The EU Eco-Management and Audit Scheme (EMAS) is a management tool for companies and other organisations to evaluate, report and improve their environmental performance. The scheme has been available for participation by companies since 1995 (Council Regulation (EEC) No 1836/93 of 29 June 1993) and was originally restricted to companies in industrial sectors.

Emas is open to all economic sector

  • To receive EMAS registration an organisation must comply with the following steps:

    • conduct an environmental review considering all environmental aspects of the organisation’s activities, products and services, methods to assess these, its legal and regulatory framework and existing environmental management practices and procedures.
    • in the light of the results of the review, establish an effective environmental management system aimed at achieving the organisation’s environmental policy defined by the top management. The management system needs to set responsibilities, objectives, means, operational procedures, training needs, monitoring and communication systems.
    • carry out an environmental audit assessing in particular the management system in place and conformity with the organisation’s policy and programme as well as compliance with relevant environmental regulatory requirements.
    • provide a statement of its environmental performance which lays down the results achieved against the environmental objectives and the future steps to be undertaken in order to continuously improve the organisation’s environmental performance.

Some experience in Italy

  • Comune di Andora

  • Comune di Aosta

  • Comune di Apricale

  • Comune di Camerino

  • Comune di Capri

  • Comune di Castelnuovo ne’Monti

  • Comune di Cavriago

  • Comune di Celle Ligure

  • Comune di Ceriale

  • Comune di Cesana Torinese

  • Comunità Montana Alta Val Polcevera

  • Comune di Falcade

  • Comune di Grosseto Comune di Jesolo

  • Comune di Laigueglia

  • Parco Naturale Adamello Brenta

  • Comune di Quattro Castella

  • Comune di Santa Caterina dello Ionio

  • Comune di Santa Margherita Ligure

  • Servizio Foreste Provincia di Trento

  • Comune di Toirano

  • Comune di Vado Ligure

The core: Plan, Do, Check, Act, Improve

  • Method of “Plan Do Check Act-Improve”

Prepare thematic groups

  • PREPARE (Preventive Environmental Protection Approaches in Europe) is an informal, independent European network of experts in the field of cleaner production and sustainable development

  • The focus of the activities is on environmental impact assessment of projects, plans, programmes, policies, and products, on an integrated landscape and environmental planning, and on environmental management systems (EMAS)

  • As regards cultural issues, article 128 of the Maastricht treaty has facilitated the building of a common policy. Such policy is indeed limited to actions of stimulation and co-ordination.

  • optimum use of policy and economic instruments (such as legislation, voluntary measures etc.)

The “Environmental mediation”

  • The Use of mediation-like processes initiate a debate within society and may increase the acceptance of strategies for a sustainable development.

  • The effort is to contribute to a better understanding of the symbolic aspects of ecological-economic change. Bringing together post-normal aspects of ecological economics (high stakes, uncertain scientific inputs, role peer communities, problem orientation), environmental accounting (such as material flow analysis) and discourse analysis and constructivist approaches offers a chance to explicitly take into account the complex relationship between science and policy.

  • Regional sustainable development demands closing regional material cycles, the use of renewable energies and ways of sustainable regional and city planning under recognition of social and economic factors within the region.

  • Regions have also the potential to directly influence their development and to show interesting examples in the implementation of sustainable development

Local Agenda 21, Agenda 2000

  • The European Commission has recently began to clarify the ways that public authorities in the EU can best integrate environmental considerations into their procurement procedures.

  • But the Commission’s Communication also coincides with Brussels’ latest findings on EU member states’ implementation of the Single Market rules.

  • In the areas of public procurement and transport, about one third of Single Market legislation is not yet implemented in all EU countries, and infringement of the rules is especially high where environmental standards are concerned.

  • How attainable is the goal of “green” public procurement EU-wide?

Local Agenda 21

  • Agenda 21 is a document that enumerates engagements in different fields (environment, economy, social) that a local community takes on for the 21th century

  • A21 is a route for the work:

    • its success and duration depends on level of participation and sharing of the local community, at all levels and in all forms;
    • It’s a process that can start immediately after with concrete actions, but can also take a long period to face off problems and levels of complexity and quality of life into a district, in order to give effective and shared results

Key factors in promoting the environmental technologies

  • A Directive in force by 2004 that implements a strict interpretation of environmental liability, while broadening its scope to cover all potentially hazardous activities.

  • The system should be based upon strict liability not offering any loopholes for all kinds of defences. It should strengthen victims' rights by the reversal of burden of proof and access for citizens to court.

  • In order to get environmental technologies from the research laboratories to the markets three priority actions are proposed:

    • develop and focus research, demonstration and dissemination programmes;
    • establish technology platforms for environmental technologies;
    • establish European networks for standardisation, testing and performance verification related to environmental technologies.

? Lack of an intermediate

Summary and web resource

  • Environmental liability - the policy of holding polluters responsible for the damage that they do to the environment - is now in the spotlight. Following the disasters there is now a greater need than ever for a strict policy on environmental liability – one which incorporates the "Polluter Pays Principle" into EU law and turns precaution into a business objective.

  • We recognize that sustainable development, which balances economic development, social cohesion, and environmental protection, is fundamental

  • Links

    • http://europa.eu.int/pol/env/index_en.htm
    • http://www.ace-cae.org/Public/Content/EN/pub/whi/whitebook.htm
    • http://www.iclei.org/
    • http://www.enea.it
    • http://www.iso.ch
    • http://www.ecologic.de/emas/emcdocs/emcpapers.htm
    • http://europa.eu.int/comm/environment/emas/
    • http://esl.jrc.it/envind/idm/idm_e_.htm


Download 445 b.

Do'stlaringiz bilan baham:

Ma'lumotlar bazasi mualliflik huquqi bilan himoyalangan ©fayllar.org 2020
ma'muriyatiga murojaat qiling