Planet Earth’s heat flow and lithospheric-mantle collision-zone inter-actions cause volcanic eruptions


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Planet Earth’s heat flow and lithospheric-mantle collision-zone inter-actions cause VOLCANIC ERUPTIONS

  • Planet Earth’s heat flow and lithospheric-mantle collision-zone inter-actions cause VOLCANIC ERUPTIONS













Aruuba, Barbados, Bahamas, Bonaire, Cayman Islands, Saint Croix, and Antigua

  • Aruuba, Barbados, Bahamas, Bonaire, Cayman Islands, Saint Croix, and Antigua



Cuba, Hispaniola, Puerto Rico, Jamaica, ,Dominica, Montserrat, Saba, Saint Kitts, Saint Lucia, Saint Thomas, Saint John, Tortola, Grenada, Saint Vincent, Guadeloupe, Martinique, and Trinidad and Tobago

  • Cuba, Hispaniola, Puerto Rico, Jamaica, ,Dominica, Montserrat, Saba, Saint Kitts, Saint Lucia, Saint Thomas, Saint John, Tortola, Grenada, Saint Vincent, Guadeloupe, Martinique, and Trinidad and Tobago





The present dozen active volcanoes on or near the Caribbean are restricted to the Lesser Antilles

  • The present dozen active volcanoes on or near the Caribbean are restricted to the Lesser Antilles



The best known are:oufriere on Guadeloupe, Mount Pelee on Martinique (well-known for its disastrous 1902 eruption and nuee ardente destroying St. Pierre and killing some 28,000 people), Kick'Em Jenny, a submarine volcano north of Grenada, and a series of eruptions beginning in 1995 on Montserrat.

  • The best known are:oufriere on Guadeloupe, Mount Pelee on Martinique (well-known for its disastrous 1902 eruption and nuee ardente destroying St. Pierre and killing some 28,000 people), Kick'Em Jenny, a submarine volcano north of Grenada, and a series of eruptions beginning in 1995 on Montserrat.







VERTICAL PLUME

  • VERTICAL PLUME

  • ASH AND TEPHRA

  • LATERAL BLAST

  • PYROCLASTIC FLOWS



LAVA FLOWS

  • LAVA FLOWS

  • LAHARS

  • EARTHQUAKES (related to movement of lava)

  • “VOLCANIC WINTER”









When it does happen, the functions of the community’s buildings and infrastructure will be LOST because they are UNPROTECTED with the appropriate codes and standards.

  • When it does happen, the functions of the community’s buildings and infrastructure will be LOST because they are UNPROTECTED with the appropriate codes and standards.



The community is UN-PREPARED for what will likely happen, not to mention the low-probability of occurrence—high-probability of adverse consequences event.

  • The community is UN-PREPARED for what will likely happen, not to mention the low-probability of occurrence—high-probability of adverse consequences event.



The community has NO DISASTER PLANNING SCENARIO or WARNING SYSTEM in place as a strategic framework for early threat identification and coordinated local, national, regional, and international countermeasures.

  • The community has NO DISASTER PLANNING SCENARIO or WARNING SYSTEM in place as a strategic framework for early threat identification and coordinated local, national, regional, and international countermeasures.



The community LACKS THE CAPACITY TO RESPOND in a timely and effective manner to the full spectrum of expected and unexpected emergency situations.

  • The community LACKS THE CAPACITY TO RESPOND in a timely and effective manner to the full spectrum of expected and unexpected emergency situations.



The community is INEFFICIENT during recovery and reconstruction because it HAS NOT LEARNED from either the current experience or the cumulative prior experiences.

  • The community is INEFFICIENT during recovery and reconstruction because it HAS NOT LEARNED from either the current experience or the cumulative prior experiences.











The capital, Plymouth, was buried by ash and eventually evacuated.

  • The capital, Plymouth, was buried by ash and eventually evacuated.

  • 2,000-3,000 still remain on the island.



Numerous evacuations followed by temporary resumptions made normal life impossible.

  • Numerous evacuations followed by temporary resumptions made normal life impossible.

  • Plymouth, which was eventually destroyed, was unable to function effectively as the capital.







ALL VOLCANOES PREPAREDNESS FOR THE LIKELY HAZARDS (PDA’s) IS ESSENTIAL FOR DISASTER RESILIENCE

  • ALL VOLCANOES PREPAREDNESS FOR THE LIKELY HAZARDS (PDA’s) IS ESSENTIAL FOR DISASTER RESILIENCE



ALL VOLCANOES TECHNOLOGIES (E.G., GEOEYE) THAT FACILITATE THREAT IDENTIFICATION FOR EARLY WARNING AND EVACUATION ARE ESSENTIAL FOR DISASTER RESILIENCE

  • ALL VOLCANOES TECHNOLOGIES (E.G., GEOEYE) THAT FACILITATE THREAT IDENTIFICATION FOR EARLY WARNING AND EVACUATION ARE ESSENTIAL FOR DISASTER RESILIENCE



ALL VOLCANOES EARLY WARNING IS ESSENTIAL FOR EVAC-UATION AND DISASTER RESILIENCE

  • ALL VOLCANOES EARLY WARNING IS ESSENTIAL FOR EVAC-UATION AND DISASTER RESILIENCE



ALL VOLCANOES TIMELY EMERGENCY RESPONSE IS ESSENTIAL FOR DISASTER RESILIENCE

  • ALL VOLCANOES TIMELY EMERGENCY RESPONSE IS ESSENTIAL FOR DISASTER RESILIENCE





PURPOSE

  • PURPOSE

  • PROTECTION

  • CONTROL

  • AVIATION SAFETY



PURPOSE

  • PURPOSE

  • URBAN PLANNING

  • EVACUATION



PURPOSE

  • PURPOSE

  • COMPUTER MODELS OF A SPECIFIC VOL-CANO, OR OF A SPECIFIC HAZARD



PURPOSE





FORECASTS OF ERUPTIONS

  • FORECASTS OF ERUPTIONS

  • MONITORING TECHNOLOGIES (E.G., DEFORMATION, SEISMICITY, GAS EMISSIONS, REMOTE SENSING, WIND DIRECTION)

  • WARNING SYSTEMS



.

  • .



---SO, DON’T WAIT FOR ANOTHER REMINDER OF THE IMPORTANCE OF BECOMING VOLCANO DISASTER RESILIENT.

  • ---SO, DON’T WAIT FOR ANOTHER REMINDER OF THE IMPORTANCE OF BECOMING VOLCANO DISASTER RESILIENT.



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