Political Changes between 1815 and 1914


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Political Changes between 1815 and 1914

  • Political Changes between 1815 and 1914

  • Prussia & other states = Germany

  • Italy is united

  • New nations in the Ottoman Empire

    • Serbia, Albania, Montenegro, Greece, Romania, Bulgaria (BALKAN PENINSULA)
  • New nations: Belgium, Norway





Imperialism

  • Imperialism

    • Definition: policy in which a strong nation seeks to dominate other countries politically, economically, and/or socially
    • European countries competed for colonies in Africa and Asia
    • Dominated by Great Britain and France (Italy and Germany were late to take colonies)
    • Compete for influence in the Balkans


All the great powers were competing for colonies / territory.

  • All the great powers were competing for colonies / territory.

  • The British feared Germany in Africa.

  • The Austrians feared Serbia / Russia in the Balkans







Deep Devotion to One’s Nation

    • Deep Devotion to One’s Nation
    • Competition and Rivalry developed between European nations for territory and markets
      • (Example France and Germany- Alsace-Lorraine)






Austria-Hungary lost a war to France in 1848

  • Austria-Hungary lost a war to France in 1848

  • Austria-Hungary lost a war to Prussia in 1866

  • Germany defeats France in the Franco-Prussian War(1870-1871)

  • -Germany receives Alsace-Lorraine from France

  • United States defeats Spain in the Spanish-American War(1898)

  • Japan defeats Russia in the Russo-Japanese War(1904-05)

  • France and Germany almost go to war over Morocco(1905& 1911)

  • The Pig War between Austria-Hungary and Serbia - a economic war not military



  • Italy defeats Turkey in the Tripolitanian War(1911)

  • The Balkan League(Serbia, Montenegro, Bulgaria & Greece) defeated the Ottoman Empire(Turkey) in the First Balkan War(1912)

  • Serbia and Greece defeat Bulgaria in the Second Balkan War(1913)







Germany was competing with the UK to build battleships.

  • Germany was competing with the UK to build battleships.

  • The British feared an attack on their Empire



Germany was competing with Russia and France to expand their armies

  • Germany was competing with Russia and France to expand their armies

          • 1880 1914
  • Germany 1.3m 5.0m

  • France 0.73m 4.0m

  • Russia 0.40m 1.2m







































By 1914 all the major powers were linked by a system of alliances.

  • By 1914 all the major powers were linked by a system of alliances.

  • The alliances made it more likely that a war would start.

  • Once started, the alliances made it more likely to spread.





Ottoman Empire declining

  • Ottoman Empire declining

  • Nationalism = powerful force in the Balkans

  • Austria-Hungary takes over struggling nations and vows to crush any efforts to undermine authority

  • Serbia – supported by Russia; wants to break free from Austria-Hungary



Kaiser Wilhelm II

  • Kaiser Wilhelm II

  • Built up German army and navy

  • Aggressive foreign policy

  • Determined to make Germany a top nation.

  • Distrusted by other powers



Count Berchtold

  • Count Berchtold

  • Austrian Prime Minister.

  • During the July Crisis, decided on a very tough ultimatum for Serbia



Bethmann Hollweg

  • Bethmann Hollweg

  • German Prime Minister

  • Gave very strong support to Austria during the July crisis while Kaiser was cruising on his yacht



28 June 1914

  • 28 June 1914

  • Heir to Austrian throne Franz Ferdinand visits Sarajevo.

  • Capital of Bosnia, recently grabbed by Austria.

  • Hotbed of Slav nationalism



“Black Hand” terrorists attack the Arch Duke

  • “Black Hand” terrorists attack the Arch Duke

  • Bomb attempt fails in morning

  • Gavrilo Princip shoots Archduke and wife in the afternoon.

  • Austrians blame Serbia for supporting terrorists.





Austrians, supported by Germany, send Serbia a tough ultimatum.

  • Austrians, supported by Germany, send Serbia a tough ultimatum.

  • Serbia agrees to all but two terms of the ultimatum.

  • Russia mobilises her troops to support Serbia

  • Germany demands that Russia stands her armies down.

  • Germany declares war on Russia



Britain had Ententes with France and Russia.

  • Britain had Ententes with France and Russia.

  • Only “friendly agreements” but French and Russians given impression Britain would fight.

  • The Schlieffen Plan



Germany’s military plan to defeat France and Russia.

  • Germany’s military plan to defeat France and Russia.

  • “Knock out blow” aimed at France first.

  • Avoid French defences by invasion of Belgium.

  • Germans thought Britain would not intervene.



1838- UK had signed a Treaty to protect Belgium.

  • 1838- UK had signed a Treaty to protect Belgium.

  • Britain also scared of Germany controlling Channel ports.

  • Did not want Germany to defeat France and dominate Europe. Britain next?

  • UK issued ultimatum to Germany to withdraw troops from Belgium. War declared August 4 1914



Questions to ask:

  • Questions to ask:

  • If war seemed “inconceivable” why did it happen?

  • How was this a “world war”?

  • The Textbook list of Primary Causes:

  • Imperialism (colonialism), Nationalism, Militarism and Alliances.

  • “A Place in the Sun”

  • “Splendid Isolation”

  • Naval Race



Confusing Array of Alliances

  • Confusing Array of Alliances

  • Distrust: Boer War, Russo-Japanese War, Africa, Chinese concessions, colonial disputes

  • Moroccan Crisis (1905 & 1911)

  • Bosnian Crisis (1908-09)

  • Trouble in the Balkans (1912-1913)



Setting the Stage

  • Setting the Stage

  • I. Crisis in the Balkans

  • II. The Spark

  • Black Hand & Assassination (6/28/1914)

  • Franz Ferdinand



The Spark (continued)

  • The Spark (continued)

  • Inquiry: How could an assassination set off a world war?

  • B. German “Blank Check”

  • C. Russian Mobilization

  • D. “Saber Rattling”



The Players:

  • The Players:

  • Central Powers = Germany, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, Ottoman Empire

  • Allied Powers = Great Britain & Commonwealth, France, Russia, Belgium, Serbia, Japan, Italy (1915), USA (1917)







III. The Armed Stalemate

  • III. The Armed Stalemate

  • Peter Browning & The Changing Nature of Warfare. Shift from Political Warfare to Position Warfare.

  • A. The Schlieffen Plan and its significance. 8/3/1914: Belgium’s neutrality is violated

  • B. The War on Land and the Western Front

  • War in the Trenches, Battle of Verdun, Battle of the Somme.



B. The War at Sea

  • B. The War at Sea

  • Naval blockade, Submarine warfare, the Lusitania

  • C. Diplomatic Maneuvers

  • Italy, Zimmermann Telegraph, Asia, German Expansionism

  • D. Russia & Eastern Front

  • Russian Revolution, Provisional Government, The Treaty of Brest-Litovsk

  • E. U.S. Enters the War

  • W. Wilson: “Peace without victory.” and

  • “To make the world safe for democracy” (?)

  • F. The World at War: Africa & Asia

  • G. Germany’s decline

  • H. Armistice

  • Did the Central Powers surrender?



Schlieffen Plan: Was the Schlieffen Plan of the German General Staff a sound war strategy?

  • Schlieffen Plan: Was the Schlieffen Plan of the German General Staff a sound war strategy?

  • Yes. The various directives that made up the German war plan indicate a high level of flexibility and a willingness to respond to events. (Robert T. Foley)

  • No. The Schlieffen Plan was predicated on an inexorable progression to an all-or-nothing victory. (Antulio Echevarria)

  • No. The Schlieffen Plan seriously underestimated the capabilities of enemy forces and did not take into account their tenacity and rapid deployment. (John Wheatley)

  • Belgian Neutrality: Was the violation of Belgian neutrality in 1914 the reason for Great Britain’s declaration of war on Germany?

  • Yes. The international treaty of 1839 had formally acknowledged that Belgian neutrality was an important element in European stability and British strategic interests. (Paul Du Quenoy)

  • No. The British had already determined to declare war once Germany had mobilized its military forces. (John Wheatley)



The Fisher Thesis

  • The Fisher Thesis

  • German documents prove expansionist aims. War used to contain domestic unrest.

  • Barbara Tuchman: The Guns of August (1962)

  • Historical narrative of August, 1914

  • G. Lowes Dickinson: International Anarchy (1926)

  • Alliance system blamed for the war

  • Sidney Fey: The Origins of the World War (1928)

  • Blames Russia & A-H

  • Vladimir Lenin

  • Inevitable outcome of capitalism is war

  • Nye Committee (1934-6) for U.S. involvement



Five Treaties:

  • Five Treaties:

  • Austria = Treaty of St. Germaine

  • Hungary = Treaty of Trianon

  • Bulgaria = Treaty of Neuilly

  • Turkey = Treaty of Sevres

  • Germany = Treaty of Versailles

  • Big Four

  • France (Clemenceau), G.B. (George), U.S. (Wilson), Italy (Orlando).

  • 32 countries total with only 8 meetings

  • Germany & Russia not invited!







Wilson’s Fourteen Points

  • Wilson’s Fourteen Points

  • Germany’s armistice hinged on the provisions of the Fourteen Points. New democratic Germany hoped to be treated as an equal.

  • End to secret treaties and secret diplomacy; freedom of the seas; removal of barriers in international trade; evacuation of occupied territories; self-determination of nationalities; redraw the map of Europe; League of Nations.





Wilson hoped to revive the idealism of 19th century Europe with American Democracy = a new era

  • Wilson hoped to revive the idealism of 19th century Europe with American Democracy = a new era

  • Controversy: France demanded reparations, UK vetoed “freedom of the seas”. League of Nations covenant debated: U.S. & religious freedom, Japan & racial discrimination.

  • U.S. senate never ratifies the League due to Article 10 (protection of territorial independence of all members). Senate = Republican Party, election year (1920)







France:

  • France:

  • Number one concern = security from Germany aggression

  • Revenge for Franco-Prussian War?

  • Anglo-French-American Guarantee Treaty (protection against Germany).

  • Alsace-Lorraine returned to France (lost in F-P War).

  • German military banned from Rhineland + Allied occupation. France controls Saar coal mines in Rhineland for 15 years.





4. Disarm Germany. How and in what way?

  • 4. Disarm Germany. How and in what way?

  • 5. War Reparations. Due in part to emotions, reparations paid to Germany for F-P War, and debt owed to U.S.

  • Great Britain: wanted a peaceful united Germany to stop Bolshevism and to become a strong market for British goods.

  • Treaty was a compromise between the two nations



Germany and Disarmament

  • Germany and Disarmament

  • Rhineland demilitarized

  • Military demobilized. No air force allowed.

  • Limited to 7 divisions of infantry, 3 of cavalry: total can’t exceed 100,000 men & 4,000 officers



4. No Navy. Germans scuttled fleet at Scapa Flow. No submarines allowed. Merchant Marine allowed providing it does not compete with allied interests.

  • 4. No Navy. Germans scuttled fleet at Scapa Flow. No submarines allowed. Merchant Marine allowed providing it does not compete with allied interests.

  • 5. Germany assumes “War Guilt Clause”

  • 6. “Diktat” = Germany not consulted on matter

  • Was this done in the spirit of idealism to end armed conflict?

  • How would Germany defend itself from any aggression?





The Map of Europe

  • The Map of Europe

  • Danzig Corridor – created a passage to the sea for Poland. Danzig a free city, mainly German in ethnicity. East Prussia separated from Germany.

  • Russia loses Finland, Poland, Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania. Each become “new” nations. Cordon Sanitaire created to contain Bolshevism.

  • Austria-Hungary carved up. Creation of Yugoslavia & Czechoslovakia. Empire in decline, separated from Germany.

  • Italy makes small gains from Treaty of London.



The World Map

  • The World Map

  • Germany lost all colonies. The League gave mandates to powers for administration.

  • African Colonies: mainly to France, GB. Belgian Congo enlarged, S. Africa gains land.

  • Japan gained German Pacific Islands, concessions in China.

  • Australia & New Zealand gain Pacific islands.

  • China sought to abolish special concessions and extraterritorial rights of Europeans. They lost, walked out of the conference.

  • Italy gains nothing from colonies.

  • New nation of Turkey emerges from Ottoman Empire. Land restricted, area carved up into new nations 1920 & 1923.



Colonies and territories not yet able to “stand by themselves under the strenuous conditions of the modern world” are governed by (mainly) GB and France

  • Colonies and territories not yet able to “stand by themselves under the strenuous conditions of the modern world” are governed by (mainly) GB and France

  • Middle East, Pacific, Africa

  • Considered paternalistic and condescending

  • Nations had to submit yearly reports to the League. Unrest meant a League committee.

  • Self-determination was established for a future date of independence.







Germany refused to sign. Threat of hostilities to commence by allies. Germany signs with a delegation of two people. Germany humiliated.

  • Germany refused to sign. Threat of hostilities to commence by allies. Germany signs with a delegation of two people. Germany humiliated.

  • New nations affirmed by “self-determination”. Actually, they declared themselves before Paris. Trouble with minority groups caught in borders.

  • Many of the terms were too harsh or too lenient. They were later amended after emotions and rationality returned.



United States gets out of European affairs. Isolation.

  • United States gets out of European affairs. Isolation.

  • “Ancient institutions of monarchy and aristocratic feudalism” are gone (Palmer-Colton, 731)

  • League of Nations emerges as new step toward democracy.

  • Great Britain and France emerge as the status quo.

  • Margaret McMillian (Peace of Paris 1919: Six Months That Changed the World): The peacemakers worked with the best solutions given the time. Enforcement was left for a new generation (who failed).



Treaty of St. Germaine: Austria made into a small state of 8 million. New states made: Czechoslovakia and Yugoslavia. No alliances allowed with Germany.

  • Treaty of St. Germaine: Austria made into a small state of 8 million. New states made: Czechoslovakia and Yugoslavia. No alliances allowed with Germany.

  • Treaty of Trianon: Hungary lost 2/3 of land to Czechoslovakia, Romania & Yugoslavia.

  • Treaty of Nevilly: Bulgaria lost land to Greece and Serbia.

  • Treaty of Sevres: The harshest treaty; Turkey loses to the MANDATES; ethnic groups pulled out; GB and France control the Middle East.



‘The Versailles Treaty was criticized by both winners and losers.’ How justified was this criticism?

  • ‘The Versailles Treaty was criticized by both winners and losers.’ How justified was this criticism?

  • How would you evaluate the success of the Paris Peace treaties in resolving armed conflict as a means to settle disputes and in restoring peace and normality?

  • What problems do you believe will emerge in Europe from the outcomes of the Paris Peace Treaties for both the victorious and defeated nations?

  • How far do you agree with the view that Versailles was a brave attempt to deal with difficult, perhaps impossible problems?





Acceleration of Government Intervention

  • Acceleration of Government Intervention

  • Nationalism & Propaganda bound together

  • Economic Control (due to war mobilization) Laissez Faire Capitalism changes

  • U.S. and Japan begin to control world trade

  • New political structures = Yugoslavia, Czechoslovakia (ethnic enclaves), Soviet Union (economic coalition)







Disruption of Rationality & Liberalism

  • Disruption of Rationality & Liberalism

  • Enter the “Age of Uncertainty”:

  • Sciences = Quantum Physics

  • Art & Music = Cubism, Surrealism, Expressionism, Dadaism

  • Human Cost

  • “The Lost Generation”



Economic

  • Economic

  • America assumes banking role

  • Inflation ravages Germany; Middle Class declines

  • Popular speculation in markets

  • Societal Norms

  • Women’s Suffrage Movement

  • Backlash: Church, family, children

  • U.S.: Temperance & Prohibition

  • New Mass Culture

  • Film, Radio, Newspapers

  • Advertisement Industry

  • Leisure Time



The Short War Illusion

  • The Short War Illusion

  • Main reason for intellectual acceptance of the the war. Minority against war labeled as “pacifists”

  • Meliorist Myth

  • Nations can no longer remain neutral

  • Irrational Thought

  • Freud and Nietzsche gain acceptance unlike pre-war era.

  • Versus Habit

  • Polarization of conflict increases:

  • “Us against Them”



Humanism & Positivism Destroyed

  • Humanism & Positivism Destroyed

  • War challenged the belief of progress to ambiguity & uncertainty

  • Literary examples:

  • Oswald Spengler, The Decline of the West (1918-22)

  • Franz Kafka, The Trial (1925)

  • Aldous Huxley, Brave New World (1932)

  • Sigmund Freud, Civilization and its Discontents



Moods of the time: angst & cultural despair

  • Moods of the time: angst & cultural despair

  • End of the Modern Period? Beginning of the Postmodern Period?














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