Problem statements in problem-solving, Rti processes fssm summer Institute, June 26, 2007


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PROBLEM STATEMENTS IN PROBLEM-SOLVING, RtI PROCESSES

  • FSSM Summer Institute, June 26, 2007

  • Charlotte Smith, NCSP,csmith2@nkcsd.k12.mo.us


INTRODUCTIONS

  • Who I am.....Who are You?

  • Housekeeping…bathrooms, “Parking Lot”

  • What my colleagues and I have been doing on the other side of the state.



NEWS FROM OUT WEST

  • Mid 1990’s North Kansas City School District: Increasing commitment to early intervention and School-Based Problem Solving Teams

  • Mid 1990’s: General Educator hired as full-time district level problem solving team facilitator for training and support of gen ed staff

  • Steadily increasing # school psychologists to meet the NASP recommended 1:1000 ratio and serve on each PST; expanding role of school psychologists

  • Using 15% of IDEA money for prevention, early intervention. Ex: Subs for gen ed teachers to attend trainings, administer benchmark probes



…MORE NEWS

  • 2005/2006: RtI replaces IQ/Achievement discrepancy in local compliance plan for SLD eligibility determination

  • CBM added to District Assessment Plan

  • CBM benchmarking for students and frequent Progress Monitoring used by teachers to monitor progress of children at risk, including progress toward iep goals for students with disabilities.





WORKSHOP OBJECTIVES

  • At the end of this workshop, learners will be able to:

  • Give the 5 key elements in an effective problem statement.

  • Write a good problem statement for reading, math, and written language.

  • List appropriate baseline measures for each identified problem.

  • Compare identified student’s performance with “average”.





Team Activity: Problems Statements Then, Now & Future



PROBLEM IDENTIFICATION

  • How do we identify problems EARLY?

  • How do we identify problems ECONOMICALLY (time & money)

  • How can classroom teachers do this and everything else on their plates?

  • How do we determine if differences in performance are important? (How do we know if it’s really a problem?)



HOW TO IDENTIFY PROBLEMS? UNIVERSAL SCREENING

  • Just like we screen all kids for vision and hearing, we need to screen regularly for academic achievement.

  • We need to screen early before problems become big.

  • FORMATIVE vs. SUMMATIVE

  • Universal Screening Tools Need To Be:

  • Easy to Administer by classroom teachers

  • Direct measures of the skill or behavior to be changed

  • Short, simple & can be repeated frequently.

  • Reliable and Valid

  • Good indicators of overall performance in an academic area



COMMON CBM MEASURES

  • Letter naming fluency

  • Letter sound fluency

  • Phonemic segmentation fluency

  • Nonsense word fluency

  • Oral reading fluency

  • Maze fluency

  • Written Expression

  • Spelling



OBSERVATIONAL TECHNIQUES

  • Anecdotal recording

  • Frequency and rate recording

  • Antecedent-Behavior-Consequence (ABC)

  • recording

  • Duration and latency recording

  • Interval recording

  • Collect data on target student

  • And average peer comparison.

  • Teach the behavioral skill (eg: Study Skills)

  • Look at academics first!

  • Solving ACADEMIC problems usually solves BEHAVIOR problems!







PROBLEM DEFINITION

  • What is a good problem statement?

  • What tools and/or resources are needed to get information for a good problem statement?

  • Who should write the problem statement,

  • and how is the problem statement presented?















SCORING WRITTEN EXPRESSION

  • Total Words Written - TWW (Fluency)

  • Simple count of the number of words.

  • Correct Writing Sequences – CWS

    • Two adjacent writing units that are correct within the context of what is written.
    • >All > of > the > kids > started > to > laugh. >
    • 8 CWS
    • >All > of > the > kids > started > to lauf.
    • 6 CWS




SAMPLE PROBLEM STATEMENT

  • Letter Naming Fluency

  • Problem Statement (1/08/06)

  • When given a Letter Naming Fluency probe,

  • Michael is able to correctly identify

  • 18 letter names in one minute.

  • The average first grade student

  • can identify 38 letter names in one minute.





CLASSROOM TEACHERS WRITE PROBLEM STATEMENTS

  • Universal Screening Data Available

  • For children identified as very low (or high)

  • Use screening data

  • Areas without Universal Screening Data

  • Administer 3 CBM probes and take median

  • for best baseline estimate. Administer same

  • probes to three average peers and take

  • median for average peer comparison.

  • Handout PS 7: “Sample Problem StatementsDVD





WHERE DO WE GO FROM HERE?

  • If you are a new principal in a building, and you discovered through fall benchmarking that an unacceptable percentage of your students are at or below the 10 percentile in measures of reading. What would you do?

  • Handout PS 9 “Problem Solving

  • Team Request for Assistance”





Team Activity: Problems Statements Then, Now & Future



ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

  • Beth Wood, Problem Team Facilitator, North Kansas City School District

  • Steven Beldin, Director of Pupil Services, North Kansas City School District

  • Dr. Dave Tilly, Heartland AEA, Iowa

  • Dr. Erica Lembke, University of Missouri

  • National Center on Student Progress Monitoring www.studentprogress.org

  • Harcourt www.aimsweb.com



CBM PROBES

  • www.aimsweb.com (fee based)

  • www.interventioncentral.org

  • http://dibels.uoregon.edu

  • www.studentprogress.org



CONTACT INFORMATION

  • Charlotte Smith

  • North Kansas City School District

  • 2000 NE 46th St.

  • KC MO 64116

  • 816.413.5113

  • csmith2@nkcsd.k12.mo.us



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