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 Procedia  Computer  Science    72   ( 2015 )   382  –  389 

1877-0509 © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license 



Peer-review under responsibility of organizing committee of Information Systems International Conference (ISICO2015)

doi: 10.1016/j.procs.2015.12.153 


Available online at

The Third Information Systems International Conference 

The Impact of Website Quality on Online Purchase Intention 

of Organic Food in Malaysia: A WebQual Model Approach 

Jasur Hasanov, Haliyana Khalid* 

Putra Business School, UPM Serdang, 43400, Malaysia 



This paper presents valuable insight into consumers’ online purchase intentions regarding organic foods. 

Specifically,  it  examines  the  influence  of  website  quality  on  consumers’  intention to purchase organic 

food online based on the Malaysian perspective. The study employed quantitative method; where 304 

respondents participated in a survey. The results indicate that website quality has indirect impact on 

online purchase intentions of health foods in Malaysia through the full mediation of customer satisfaction. 

On the other hand, demographic factors had no significant effect on online purchase intention. 


© 2015 Published by Elsevier Ltd. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of the scientific 

committee of The Third Information Systems International Conference (ISICO 2015) 


Keywords: Website q

uality, Customer’s purchase intention, Customer satisfaction, Organic food 

1. Introduction 

Concerns about conventional agriculture practices, food safety, human health, animal welfare, and the 

environment have been increasing lately all around the world. As a result, the demand for organic food 

products has been growing simultaneously. Increasing demand for organically produced products has 

been observed in Malaysia too. Imported organic food products in Malaysia capture more than 60% of all 

organically grown products sold in the country [1]. This is because people in the country have gained 

better financial positions and are more knowledgeable about health and wellness issues, making them 

more selective in food choices [2]. 

Recent research indicates that Malaysian consumers’ interest in the consumption of organically grown 

food products has been growing over the past few years [3]. However, the Malaysian Agricultural 


* Corresponding author. Tel.: +603-86560350; fax: +603-89421584. 

E-mail address


© 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license 



Peer-review under responsibility of organizing committee of Information Systems International Conference (ISICO2015)


 Jasur Hasanov and Haliyana Khalid  /  Procedia Computer Science   72  ( 2015 )  382 – 389 

Research and Development Institute,  which focuses  on the modernization of the agricultural sector in 

Malaysia,  states  that  the  organic food industry within the country is still small.   One of their  efforts to 

overcome this is to increase the online presence of organic products in Malaysia. To date, there are hardly 

any efforts  by retailers to sell organic food online in the country despite the exceptional  exposure of e-

commerce in Malaysia.   

Online shopping websites are significantly important for businesses, retailers, and consumers with their 

rapidly growing innovative features. For that reason, organizations must develop high quality websites 

that  provide a better online experience to  attract and retain their customers in the e-retail marketplace 

[6].Therefore, studies state that measuring the quality of their websites, based on customers’ perception of 

website quality and requirements of the industrial competition in which the organization is operating,  is 

crucial for organizations.  

In this paper, we present findings from our study which  employed the  WebQual theory  to assess  the 

quality of organic food shopping websites in Malaysia based on user perceptions. The WebQual model is 

a tool to measure the usability, information quality, and service interaction quality of websites. It is often 

used to measure the quality of e-commerce websites (WebQual, 2015). The resources  used to develop 

WEBQUAL 4.0 are related to Information Systems (IS) assessments, which means the model has a strong 

foundation based on  various  IS assessments  [7].The WebQual model,  developed by [8]  argues that 

website quality depends on three main dimensions: usability, information quality, and service interaction 

quality. The WebQual model has been applied to some popular websites in England such as Amazon, 

Bertelsmann Online (BOL), and Internet Bookshop (IBS) to examine the quality of these  websites from 

customers’ perceptions [9]. 

2. Background Information  

2.1 Website Quality 


According to one study [10], the perception of customers about website quality is based on features in 

a website that meet customers’ needs and impress the total excellence of that website. The authors of the 

study also mentioned that the multiple  dimensions of website quality  can be categorized as security, 

enjoyment, information quality, ease of use, and service quality.  At the same time, website design is an 

important determinant of website features, and is  critical in  achieving  the quality of service offered to 

customers through the website. Crucial features in a successful website design are aesthetic appearance, 

navigation, and an organized and well-managed content display [11]. 

Attractive and interesting effects in e-commerce websites  motivate consumers to engage in online 

shopping activities  [12]. According to a group of researchers  [13],  website features have an important 

influence on online purchase intention. Plus,  an  informative website enables customers to compare and 

evaluate product alternatives, thereby increasing customer satisfaction and contributing to online purchase 

intention  [14].  The quality of information offered by a brand on online shopping websites  is also an 

important factor. One particular study reveals  that information quality has the highest influence on 

customer satisfaction among all website quality dimensions [15]. In this research, the dimensions of the 

WebQual model (usability, information quality,  and service interaction quality) were used as the main 

determinants of the independent variable, website quality. 


2.2 Mediating Variable: Customer Satisfaction 


Customer satisfaction is a common terminology used in the business environment. However, customer 

satisfaction is more often replaced by the term “user satisfaction” in the context of Information Systems 

(IS). IS professionals use “user satisfaction” to examine the performance of a particular IS application [8].  


 Jasur Hasanov and Haliyana Khalid  /  Procedia Computer Science   72  ( 2015 )  382 – 389 

According to recent research, customer satisfaction from an online shopping website involves the 

reactions or feelings of customers during their experience on the particular shopping website. Another 

study mentions that customer satisfaction is the level of the customers’ expectations met by the product or 

services when customers experience these  [17, 18]. Several studies  have been done to examine the 

influence of website quality on customer satisfaction. A group of researchers [19]  state that website 

quality has an important influence on customer satisfaction. Another study mentions that website quality 

has a significant influence on the level  of customer satisfaction  whereby as website quality increases, 

customers tend to use the website more frequently [20].  One study, which investigated the influence of 

website quality on customer satisfaction and purchase intentions [21], found that website  quality has a 

direct  effect  on  customer  satisfaction  and  that  customer  satisfaction,  in  turn,  influences  customers’ 

intention to purchase. It has also been shown by research that consumers’ purchase intention behaviors 

can be driven by website quality or consumers’  past  online  purchase  experience  [22].Consequently, 

customer satisfaction leads to online purchase intention of consumers, and as a result will positively 

influence the return rate.  


2.3 Demographic Characteristics  


Demographic characteristics that may influence online purchase intention include  age, gender, 

education, income, occupation, religion, race, nationality, family size, family life cycle, and social class. 

Demography has been used in marketing as a useful tool for customer segmentation, which is significant 

for retailers  in terms of  positioning and targeting. Lina et. al [23] state that the impact of demographic 

characteristics on online shopping is among the most examined factors by researchers. Factors like 

gender, age, income, and occupation are the initial influencing factors on online shopping behavior of 

consumers. Mona et al. [10] state that online purchase behaviors are different for female and male 

consumers due to privacy, virtual experience, security, and credibility issues. Although shopping is 

considered a woman’s activity because women usually deal with household shopping, research indicates 

that male consumers shop more and spend more money online compared to females [24]. Another 

research found that organic food is mostly included in young female customers’ diets [25].  

One  study  that  examined  consumers’  attitudes  towards  e-ticketing in Malaysia found that age is an 

influencing  factor  on  consumers’  online  shopping  behavior.  According  to  the  study, the younger 

generation is more interested in online shopping as their knowledge of technology is higher than that of 

older generations [26, 27]. Similarly, [24] found that education level and income are factors that impact 

online shopping behavior of consumers. Another research conducted in Brazil states that, in Brazil and in 

other countries, people who regularly use the Internet usually have higher levels of income and education 

[9]. Justin & Jyoti [25] claim that income is an influencing factor because consumers with higher income 

buy online products more often. Their study also mentions that a higher education level positively 

influences purchasing of organic foods as well.  In summary, the existing research literature strongly 

suggests that the demographic characteristics of consumers play a significant role in their online purchase 



2.4 Purchase Intention  


Customers’  purchase  intention  is  considered a predictor of their actual behavior [21]. As such, it  is 

important for businesses to understand their customers’ purchase intentions. Shaheen Mansori et al.  [13] 

state that consumers’ plans to purchase products and services, which is expressed by a cognitive state, is 

defined as purchase intention [28]. According to [29]  customers’  perceptions  of website quality and 

satisfaction have a positive impact on their  purchasing intentions. In addition, customer satisfaction has 

been found to mediate the relationship between firm’s perceived quality and customer purchase intentions 


 Jasur Hasanov and Haliyana Khalid  /  Procedia Computer Science   72  ( 2015 )  382 – 389 

[30]. According to [21] customers’ online purchase intentions are positively influenced by website quality 

through the mediation of customer satisfaction. 


2.5 Conceptual Framework 


Based on the WebQual 4.0 model and other studies described above, a research model was proposed 

with three determinants of  consumers’  online  purchase  intentions  of  organic  foods.  These  determinants 

are: Website Quality (WQ), Customer  Satisfaction (CS), and Demographic Characteristics. Website 

Quality and Demographic Characteristics are the  independent variables, while Customer Satisfaction is 

the mediating variable of this research. Online Purchase Intention (OPI) of organic foods is the dependent 

variable of the study.  

The dependent variable is the variable of primary interest in this research - online purchase intention 

(OPI) of online shopping of organic foods. The variables that have either negative or positive impacts on 

the dependent variable are the independent variables  of this research. So, if the independent variable 

increases by one unit then the dependent variable will either increase or decrease. For example, when the 

level  of  website  quality  increases  then  consumers’  online  purchase  intention  of  organic  foods  will  also 

increase. In summary, the independent variable influences the dependent variable and this  measures the 

results of the research based on the hypotheses. The theoretical framework proposes that website quality 

and  demographic  characteristics  are  independent  variables  influencing  consumers’  online  purchase 

intentions of organic foods.  

The relationship between website quality and online purchase intention is mediated by customer 

satisfaction in this proposed model. In this study, the hypotheses tested are: 

 H1a: There is a relationship between website quality and online purchase intention. 

H1b: There is a relationship between customer satisfaction and online purchase intention. 

H1c: There is a relationship between website quality and customer satisfaction. 

H2a: Website quality positively influences online purchase intention. 

H2b. Customer satisfaction positively influences online purchase intention. 

H2c. Website quality positively influences customer satisfaction. 

H2d: Age has an impact on consumers’ online purchase intention of organic foods. 

H2e: Marital status ha

s an impact on consumers’ online purchase intention of organic foods. 

H2f: Employment has an impact on consumers’ online purchase intention of organic foods. 

H2g: Gender has an impact on consumers’ online purchase intention of organic foods. 

H2h: Income 

has an impact on consumers’ online purchase intention of organic foods. 

H2i: Education level has an impact on consumers’ online purchase intention of organic foods. 

H3: Customer satisfaction mediates the relationship between website quality and online purchase 




3. Research Methodology 

A descriptive research methodology was employed to test the research hypotheses using surveys as the 

research instrument.  A total of 304  respondents participated in the survey. The collected data was 

analysed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 21.In order to achieve the 

research objectives and test the hypotheses, different types of analyses were conducted  including 

reliability and validity analysis, correlation analysis, regression analysis,  and bootstrapping analysis. 

While the first three are commonly used in descriptive analyses, bootstrapping analysis was particularly 


 Jasur Hasanov and Haliyana Khalid  /  Procedia Computer Science   72  ( 2015 )  382 – 389 

used in this study to


test the mediating effect of customer satisfaction, the mediating variable, on the 

relationship between the independent and dependent variables.    

4. Findings 

4.1 Demographic analysis 

The number of female respondents (66.1%) is  approximately  twice  the number of male respondents 

(97.7%) are below 40 years old, which can be considered relatively young. As expected, the sample is a 

highly educated group as 98.1% of respondents have undergraduate or postgraduate degrees. Another 

interesting fact is that a majority of the respondents (95.7%) earn less than RM5000 as monthly income, 

which is below the Malaysian average household income of RM5, 900 (approximately USD1650). Also, 

the majority of respondents are single (86.8%), while only 12.8% of them are married and only one 

respondent (0.3%) is either divorced or widowed. In terms of employment, most of the respondents 

(86.5%) are students enrolling in different levels of studies while 8.6% of respondents are working in 

organizations and 8 respondents (2.6%) are owners of their own businesses. 

Based on the findings, local shopping websites are preferred for online shopping by 68.8% of 

respondents compared to international shopping websites, which are preferred over local websites by only 

26.3% of respondents. In addition, 4.9% of respondents make their online purchases from both local and 

international websites. The majority of the respondents (65.1%) state they make online purchases once or 

twice a year while 29.9% of respondents state once or twice a month as their answer. The rest of the 

respondents (n=15) make online purchases at least once a week. Most of the respondents spend less than 

RM500 monthly on online shopping, while only 5.6% of respondents make online purchases that amount 

to more than RM500 per month.   

The findings of this study also reveal some important organic food purchasing statistics of respondents. 

The results show that only 2.3% of respondents buy organic food from online shopping websites while 

the remaining 97.7% of respondents purchase organic food products from supermarkets, convenience 

stores, or other sources. Most respondents (40.5%) purchase organic foods at least once or twice a month 

and about half of them (49.3%) spend between RM31 and RM100 per month on organic food. 


4.2 Overall results 


The first three hypotheses were tested through correlation analysis. The analysis shows that CS has a 

relationship with OPI and WQ has a relationship with CS. However, while H1b and H1c are supported, 

H1a is not supported: 


H1a, which proposed that there is a relationship between website quality and online purchase 

intention, is not supported (r=0.045, p>0.05). 


H1b, which proposed that there is a relationship between customer satisfaction and online 

purchase intention, is supported (r=0.237, p<0.05). 


H1c, which proposed that there is a relationship between website quality and customer 

satisfaction, is supported (r=0.339, p<0.05). 


To overcome the limitation of correlation analysis, linear regression analysis was employed to test 

hypotheses H2a to H2i. In the first regression model, the analysis using eight independent variables has a 

coefficient of multiple determinations, or R


, of 0.070, which means that 7% of the variance of OPI could 

be explained by a combination of the eight variables. The main objective of this study is to determine the 

impact of website quality on online purchase intention of organic food, and this model’s R


 value (0.070) 

shows that  only  7% of the variance in online purchase intention (OPI) is  influenced by  the significant 


 Jasur Hasanov and Haliyana Khalid  /  Procedia Computer Science   72  ( 2015 )  382 – 389 

independent variables of this study. The remaining 93% of consumers’ online purchase intention is driven 

by unknown factors or variables not included in this study.  

Apart from that, the t-test results declare that customer satisfaction (CS) has a significance level of 

0.000. Therefore,  CS can explain online purchase intention (OPI). On the other hand, the rest of  the 

independent variables have significance levels that are higher than 0.05.


Thus, they do not influence OPI.  

 Finally, bootstrapping analysis was used to test the last hypothesis of this research, which proposes the 

existence of a mediation between website quality and online purchase intention through customer 

satisfaction. In this research,  thirteen hypotheses were proposed  and  five of them are supported while 

eight are not supported based on the analytical findings. A summary of the results of the study is shown in 

Table 1 below: 












Not supported 








WQ - CS 








(β  =  -  0.080, 

p > 0.05) 

Not supported 




(β  =  0.331, p  < 




WQ - CS 


(β  =  0.331, p  < 




Age - OPI 


(β  =  0.119, p  > 


Not supported 


Marital status - OPI 


(β  =  -  0.236, 

p > 0.05) 

Not supported 


Employment - OPI 


(β  =  0.050, p > 


Not supported 



Gender - OPI 


(β  =  -  0.046, 

p > 0.05) 

Not supported 



Income - OPI 


(β  =  0.143, p  > 


Not supported 



Education level - OPI 


(β  =  0.069, p  > 


Not supported 



WQ  –  CS  –  OPI 



(β’ab  =  0.1790, 

p < 0.05) 



This research developed a model to determine the influence of website quality on customer satisfaction 

and online purchase intention of  organic foods in Malaysia using the WebQual 4.0 instrument. The 

analytical outcomes prove that website quality has a positive impact on customer satisfaction. This 

finding is supported by previous studies by [19] and [20], who found that website quality is an important 

predictor of customer satisfaction. However, there is no significant correlation between website quality 

and online purchase intention of organic foods in Malaysia although previous studies found that website 

quality has an impact on online purchase intention [16, 13]. The results of the mediation analysis indicate 

that customer satisfaction fully mediates the relationship between website quality and online purchase 

intention. This study also reveals that none of the demographic factors used in this research is a predictor 

of online purchase intention of organic food in Malaysia.  

As  website quality has an indirect effect on the online purchase intention of organic food products, 

practitioners should also align the quality of their online stores with customers’ expectations. To increase 


 Jasur Hasanov and Haliyana Khalid  /  Procedia Computer Science   72  ( 2015 )  382 – 389 

the level of online purchase intention, e-retailers of organic food should possess relevant marketing 

strategies which include creating awareness on the benefit of organic food  to the public, establishing 

affiliates network and conducting constant promotions to their target audience.   

Despite  the fact that this study has able to achieve its research objectives, there were some research 

limitations that need to be addressed. Firstly, most of the respondents were students.  Secondly, the 

sample population was from a university. Based on the sample population and the demographic disparity, 

respondents were not equally represented. Therefore, the generalizability of the findings to all consumers 

in Malaysia is limited. Future research should extend the distribution of questionnaires to areas outside 

the Klang Valley area as well as to other states in Malaysia. Apart from this, it should also be expanded to 

other age groups.  

5. Conclusion 

Although the study cannot represent all Malaysian consumers, it has provide a valuable insights that 

can be further explored by other researchers and practitioners that would like to improve user engagement 

and consumer purchasing intention in organic food website. However, it is important to understand that 

website quality is not the only determining factors that could increase consumer purchasing intention. 

Other qualities such as good customer service, efficient product distribution and logistics and also 

positive reviews from customers also play an important role.  


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