Properties


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Properties

  • Properties

  • Earth is a sphere

  • Aristotle believed the Earth was round because of the shadow cast on the Moon during a lunar eclipse. (circa 350 B.C.)

  • Earth bulges slightly at the equator & is somewhat flattened at the poles.



Rotation

  • Rotation

  • The amount of time it takes an object to make one full spin on its axis.

  • Rotation causes day & night.

  • Earth’s rotation is 23 hrs, 56 min



Revolution

  • Revolution

  • The amount of time it takes for one object to make one full trip around another larger object in space.

  • The orbit path is elliptical.

  • Earth’s revolutionary period is 365.25 days



Magnetic Field

  • Magnetic Field

  • The movement of Earth’s core material & Earth’s rotation generates a magnetic field.

  • Protects Earth from some of the solar radiation.

  • The magnetic axis is inclined at 11.5o from the rotational axis.



The Seasons

  • The Seasons

  • Earth’s Orbit & Tilted Axis

        • Whether the Earth is closer to the Sun or further away has NOTHING to do with its seasons.
        • Earth’s axis is tilted 23.5o
        • The tilting of the axis results in part of the Earth receiving more direct sunlight at times causing the seasons.


Solstices

  • Solstices

        • The day when the Sun reaches its greatest distance north or south of the equator.
        • The summer solstice is the 1st day of summer and has the longest number of daylight hours during the year.
        • The winter solstice is the 1st day of winter and has the shortest number of daylight hours during the year.


Equinoxes

  • Equinoxes

        • The two days out of the year when the Sun is directly over the equator.
        • 1st day of autumn & spring.
        • The number of daylight hours are nearly equal all over the world.
        • Neither hemisphere is tilted toward the Sun.




Motions of the Moon

  • Motions of the Moon

      • Rotation period = 27.3 days
      • Revolutionary period = 27.3 days
      • Since both motions are the same, the same side of the Moon ALWAYS faces the Sun.
      • This produces the phases of the Moon.


Phases of the Moon

  • Phases of the Moon

      • Each phase is determined by the positions of the Earth, Moon, & Sun.
      • Waxing occurs when the lighted side of the Moon begins to show more & more.
      • Waning occurs when the lighted side becomes less and less.


The thin sliver of the lighted side is called a Waxing Crescent.

      • The thin sliver of the lighted side is called a Waxing Crescent.
      • When the right half of the lighted side is showing, its called a 1st Quarter Moon.
      • When more than half of the lighted side is showing, its called a Waxing Gibbous.
      • A Full Moon occurs when all of the lighted side of the Moon is showing.


A New Moon occurs when the Moon is between the Sun & Earth. The dark side of the Moon faces the Earth while the lighted side faces the Sun. The moon is not up during the night.

      • A New Moon occurs when the Moon is between the Sun & Earth. The dark side of the Moon faces the Earth while the lighted side faces the Sun. The moon is not up during the night.
      • A Waning Gibbous occurs after the Full Moon.
      • When the left half of the Moon is showing, a 3rd Quarter Moon occurs.
      • A Waning Crescent occurs next followed by the New Moon again.




Eclipses

  • Eclipses

  • Solar Eclipses

        • The Moon, during the New phase, blocks the Sun by passing in front of it.
        • The shadow cast on the Earth by Moon during the eclipse is called the umbra. A total eclipse is seen here.
        • A partial eclipse is seen in the penumbra, which is a lighter shadow.




Lunar Eclipse

  • Lunar Eclipse

        • The Earth passes between the Sun & Moon. The Earth casts its shadow on the surface of a Full Moon.
        • Light passing through the Earth’s atmosphere during a total lunar eclipse can sometimes make the Moon turn red.
        • More common than solar eclipses.






The Moon’s Surface & Interior

  • The Moon’s Surface & Interior

  • Lunar Surface

        • No atmosphere
        • Covered in craters caused by meteor impacts.
        • Dark, flat regions made of basaltic lava flows are called maria (mare.)


Lunar Interior

  • Lunar Interior

        • Crust of the light side of the Moon might be thinner than the dark side of the Moon.
        • The upper mantle of the Moon is solid with a partially melted lower mantle.
        • The core may be solid & iron-rich.


“We choose to go to the Moon.”-JFK

  • “We choose to go to the Moon.”-JFK

  • Project Mercury

        • Goal: orbit a piloted spacecraft around the Earth and bring it back safely.
        • Alan B. Sheppard was the 1st US citizen in space (1961)
        • John Glenn was the 1st US citizen to orbit the Earth.


Project Gemini

  • Project Gemini

        • Goal: Teams of two astronauts in the same spacecraft meet up & connect with another spacecraft.


Project Apollo

  • Project Apollo

        • Goal: Successfully land a person on the Moon.
        • Apollo I: Destroyed on the launch pad when an electrical fire erupted in the cockpit, killing the 3 person crew.(1967)




Apollo XI: Neil Armstrong & Edwin “Buzz” Aldrin successfully land on & explore the Moon. (1969)

        • Apollo XI: Neil Armstrong & Edwin “Buzz” Aldrin successfully land on & explore the Moon. (1969)






Apollo XIII: An explosion occurred in one of the oxygen tanks two days into the mission.

        • Apollo XIII: An explosion occurred in one of the oxygen tanks two days into the mission.
        • The crew was unable to land on the Moon, but returned safely to Earth 4 days later.










Apollo XVII: The last mission to the Moon. The 1st geologist (scientist) explores the Moon.

        • Apollo XVII: The last mission to the Moon. The 1st geologist (scientist) explores the Moon.




Total Solar Eclipse August 21, 2017

  • Total Solar Eclipse August 21, 2017






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