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READING TESTS

Agriculture remains the most essential area for development: here it is felt that the most intractable problems of resistance to change exist. One may believe that scientific training in agriculture by itself is unlikely to have any marked impact on agricultural output. Any attempt at vocational training in agriculture presupposes mat a meaningful structure of incentive can be seen for the individual farmer to increase his production, improve his techniques, and expand his range of activities. Without such incentives and chances, agricultural education can have only little impact.



1. The author feels that improvements in the field of agriculture.

  1. cannot be achieved only by means of scientific training

  2. have already introduced good results

  3. can easily be seen

  4. have largely based on technology

  5. E) are absolutely unnecessary for productivity


2. We can infer from the passage that the agricultural community.

  1. is willing to have more vocational training

  2. disregards the problems of the individual farmer

  3. has already started to get benefit from the improved techniques

  4. is conscious about the long-term profits of scientific training

E) is not the one that enjoys any change
3. The author is in the opinion that vocational training in agriculture.

  1. will be the best way to eliminate resistance to change in society

  2. might supply farmers with a wide range of opportunities

  3. will be useless even if it is backed up with various incentives

  4. has often been disregarded by various authorities

E) is supposed to be as a priority for social development
Tigers usually grow to lengths of more than nine feet and can be bigger than the largest lion. They have great strength. They clutch their prey to them, holding on with their claws, and depend on the crushing bite of their powerful jaws. They swim very well and can often be seen splashing about in water on very hot days, as they apparently suffer from the heat. When the air is cool, however, they avoid wet or damp vegetation. They can climb, but do not approach the leopard's ability in this. They can survive in rocky areas but generally prefer to stay on level ground. They are not as well equipped with senses as one might expect. They apparently depend on their hearing while hunting. Their eyesight is not particularly good, and they cannot spot prey until it moves.
4. Tt is clear in the text that tigers. .

  1. are the most talented climbers of all wild animals

  2. rely heavily on their huge claws to catch their prey

  3. are sensitive to significant variations in climate

  4. closely take after lions as regards speed ,size and strength

E) rely on their eyesight in finding and catching prey
5. As is expressed in the passage, a flat terrain. .

  1. is usually the favoured place of the tiger

  2. provides camouflage for other wild animals

  3. rather than rocky cliffs gives tigers better chances to hunt

  4. usually has varied vegetation which shelters better prey

E) is usually chilly, so tigers prefer higher levels
6. From the passage we can infer that, contrary to what is generally
thought,


  1. climbing is the least developed ability of the tiger

  2. as soon as a prey starts to move a tiger can rarely catch it

  3. hilly areas are invariably avoided by all wild animals

  4. the leopard's hunting ability is much worse than that of the tiger

E) the tiger's senses are not well developed
Psychologists have long sought ways to define and measure human intelligence. And the theories of intelligence have grown more sophisticated since the 1800s when some believed mental abilities were determined by the size of a person's head. However, researchers still do not agree about certain fundamental principles of human thought. They, therefore, continue to discuss such basic debates as whether heredity or the environment is more effective in forming intelligence.

7. As we can understand from the passage, the basic controversy about whether intelligence depends upon heredity or the environment .

  1. was hopefully discussed in the 1800s

  2. is now being avoided as it is seen to be fruitless

  3. has only recently become a solemn affair for serious researches

  4. does not seem to have ended yet

E) was much more significant in the 19th century than it is today
8. According to the passage, in the early nineteenth century, some people were in the opinion that a person's mental capacity .

  1. could never be improved

  2. depended on the size of his head

  3. was completely changed by the environment

  4. was purely genetic

E) was fundamental to his personality

9. One may conclude from the text that a full understanding of the nature and the capacity of human intelligence .

  1. can only be received by exceptionally sophisticated minds

  2. has finally been obtained by modern scientists

  3. can be achieved within the next few years

  4. is unlikely to be achieved in the near future

E) will emerge via the practical rather than experimental studies
Of all the environmental problems facing us today, global warming is likely to have the most devastating effects, In order to combat these, the emission of harmful gases must be reduced; for this purpose, the rainforests, which absorb carbon dioxide in vast quantities must be protected. Global warming will place a premium on energy efficiency, for controlling global warming inescapably means reducing the burning of fossil fuels. The two industries that are most obviously going to be affected are the power suppliers and the vehicle manufacturers, but since energy is consumed by almost everything we manufacture, design or do, the effects will be felt everywhere.

10. It is emphasized in the passage that global warming seems to be

  1. easier to control than other environmental problems

  2. of less of a threat than formerly it used to be

  3. the most terrible of the problems facing the environment

  4. one of the causes for the disappearance of the rainforests

E) a simple matter
11. The author explains that unless the burning of fossil fuels is
radically reduced .


  1. global warming cannot possibly be held in check

  2. they will soon be used up

  3. traditional power supplies will not be adequate

  4. energy efficiency cannot be achieved

E) there will be no energy crisis
12. According to the passage, power supply and vehicle manufacturing

  1. are two industries that do not affect global warming

  2. rely heavily on fossil fuels

C) are environmentally less harmful than other industries

D) have carried the problems of global warming everywhere

E) have no common bases

The ozone layer absorbs all the highest frequencies of ultraviolet radiation and prevents them from reaching the surface

of the planet. A reduction of only 5 per cent in its overall concentration would probably lead to about a 10 per cent increase

in human skin cancers and a 10 per cent drop in stratospheric ozone levels would increase the amount of hot and dangerous

ultraviolet radiation on earth by 20 percent. Beyond this level the precise effects of ozone layer depletion on both humans and

wildlife are extremely difficult to predict.



13. As the passage points out, major function of the ozone layer is to

  1. prevent the transmission of low frequency radiation

  2. protect the earth from the harmful effects of ultraviolet radiation

  3. reduce the amount of radiation in the stratosphere to 10 percent

  4. regulate the frequencies of ultraviolet radiation

E) provide oxygen

14. The author points out that it is almost impossible to estimate .

  1. the effects of a drop of more than 10 percent in, the level of ozone concentration

  2. how wildlife has been affected by the increase in ultraviolet radiation

  3. the extent of ozone depletion in recent years

  4. the annual rate of skin cancer due to ozone depletion

E) what the effects of ozone hole will be

15. The author points out that a 10 percent increase in human skin
cancer would be likely to occur .


  1. unless measures could be found to prevent ozone layer depletion

  2. should there be 20 percent increase in ultraviolet radiation

  3. if there were a 5 percent drop in the ozone layer density

  4. if ^rgent action were not taken to prevent it

E) as long as they don't use preventive lotions
There are several kinds of dams. One kind is called an earth dam. This consists of a large bank of earth with steep sides. Along the length of the base of the dam a cut-off wall is constructed and this extends down to an impervious stratum. The function of the cut-off wall is to make the foundation watertight. Openings are made in the base of the dam to allow water to escape, thus controlling the level of water in the reservoir and providing a regular supply of water. These openings are called sluices. There is one disadvantage with this kind of dam. The material does not become watertight until the reservoir is full of water.
16. The passage describes, in broad terms, .

  1. a number of disadvantages related to earth dams

  2. the advantages of various types of dams

  3. the differences between the various types of dams

  4. the technical features of an earth dam

E) common features of dams

17. According to the passage, the function of sluices in an earth dam is to_______ .

A) prevent any escape of water



  1. provide support for the cut-off wall

  2. direct the flow of incoming water

  3. maintain a regular supply of water in the reservoir.

E) leakwter when needed
18. It can be understood from the passage that, without a cut-off wall,

  1. an earth dam would not be water- tight

  2. it would be impossible to open sluices

  3. only an earth dam can be constructed

  4. a longer base would be essential for the functioning of an earth dam

  5. there will be no water shortage

Protoplasm, which is the fundamental basis of life, is constantly undergoing physical and chemical change. Life, therefore, is the resultant of these constantly occurring changes. There are two great groups into which living things may be classified plants and animals. Both the plant and the animal kingdoms are very extensive. It is customary, therefore, to regard the science of life under two comprehensive heads, namely, botany which is the study of plants and zoology, which is the study of animals. Both subjects are subdivided into various specialized sections.


19. It is pointed out in the passage that life is the outcome of .

  1. the interaction between plants and animals

  2. change from a physical to a chemical state of being

  3. physical change taking place in the animal world

  4. the constant change, both physical and chemical, occurring in protoplasm

E) the activities a person fulfills
20. It is understood from the passage that the science of botany ,

  1. is less specialized than that of zoology

  2. deals with a limited number of plants

  3. is concerned with the plant world

  4. is a subsection of zoology

E) is not so well-known a zoology

21. The author points out that the study of living things, although
carried out under various specialized headings, _____ __.


  1. emphasizes the importance of genes and species

  2. depends upon extensive field research

  3. is mainly related to zoology

  4. actually involves two basic fields of science

E) may not be appreciated whatsoever
The exact number of people who died in the cyclone that struck Bagladesh last year will probably never be known. Winds reaching 145 miles per hour hammered the country's low-lying southeastern coast for nine hours, at one point driving a wall- of water roughly 20 feet high across the area- one of the most densely populated places in the world. It was the strongest storm ever recorded in the region. The official news agency reported that 125.000 victims had been confirmed dead, but it was believed that the toll was actually much higher.
22. One can infer from the passage that one reason why so many lives
were lost in the cyclone was because .


  1. most of the population had no decent housing

  2. the BagJadesh government had failed to foresee such a disaster

  3. the country had still not recovered from the previous similar eye J one

  4. the area struck was one of the most overcrowded in the world

E) the people were not prepared
23. We can understand from the'passage that the official figures given
regarding the death toll .


  1. didn't reflect the actual extent of the tragedy

  2. overestimated the number of victims

  3. were much higher than the authorities expected

  4. included only those drowned

E) were the same as they were thought to be
24. The passage aims to impress on the reader .

  1. the extent of suffering experienced by the people in Bangladesh

  2. the magnitude of the cyclone's destructive force

  3. the inadequacy of the relief work sent in

  4. the extent of the poverty and misery in Bagladesh

E) what disaster like in Bengladesh

In all civilizations, articles are consumed that have no nutrient value but make the food more attractive, or give pleasure. Spices, condiments, herbs, vinegar, and pickles are used for this purpose. There is no objection to them for the normal stomach, and there is no evidence that they can cause damage to the normal stomach lining. Tea, coffee, manufactured drink, and alcohol also form part of the diet. They have no nutritive value but add to the pleasure of a meal, in moderation. Tea and coffee both contain caffeine. Which is a mild stimulant and also causes the kidneys to excrete more water. They may cause sleeplessness, but not all people are affected. Alcohol, if not consumed excessively by adults, cannot be objected to on any medical ground.

25. The common feature of such items as spices condiments herbs vinegar and pickles is that_______ .


  1. they are all manufactured rather than natural

  2. they can all do harm to the stomach lining

  3. they can classified in the group of mild stimulants

  4. they are not nutritious but give the food flavour

E) they are rather costly

26. From a medical point of view .

  1. there is a close link between the person's age and the amount of alcohol he drinks

  2. eating foods that have no nutritive value helps do nothing but tire the stmomach out

  3. alcohol isn't considered harmful when drunk in moderate amounts by adults

  4. it is important from a psychological point of view to eat palatable meals as wel] as nutritious.

E) alchol should be prohibited

27. The writer states that .



  1. the effect of coffee and tea on sleep can vary from person to person

  2. manufactured drinks are more harmful than tea and coffee

  3. tea, coffee and manufactured drinks are usually consumed more when the person is dieting

  4. kidneys are the organs which are affected most when tea and coffee are drunk excessively

E) people tend to sleep more than they need
Geometry is a very old science. We are told by Herodotus, a Greek historian, that geometry had its origin in Egypt along the banks of the river Nile. The first record we have of its study is found in a manuscript written by Mimes, an Egyptian scholar, about 1550 B.C. This manuscript is believed to be a copy of a treatise which dated back probably, more than a thousand years, and describes the use of geometry at that time in a very crude form of surveying or measurement. In fact, geometry, which means "earth measurement," received its name in this manner. This re-measuring of the land was necessary because of the annual overflow of the river Nile and the consequent destroying of the boundaries of farm lands. This early geometry was very largely a list of rules or formulas for finding the areas of plane figures. Many-of these rules were inaccurate, but in the main, they were fairly satisfactory.

28. The passage deals with .



  1. floods of the river nile

  2. beginnings of geometry

  3. surveying in egypt

  4. manuscript of mimes

E) significance of geometry|bday

29. In developing geometry the early Egyptians were primarily concerned with_______.

  1. discovering how formulas used in measuring were accurate

  2. determining property boundaries

  3. constructing a logical system of geometry

  4. measuring the overflow of the Nile

E) establishing formulas

30. One of the factors in the development of geometry as science was



  1. the inaccuracy of the early rules and calculations

  2. Mimes' agreement

  3. annual flooding of the Nile Valley

  4. destruction of farm crops

E) an ancient manuscript copied by Egyptians
Computers have led to a greater change in our society in recent decades than any other force and are likely to continue to do so until the next century. The industry surrounding computers is growing quickly, providing employment for many but meanwhile making others redundant. Jobs that computers can do much more reliably, faster and cheaper are lost. The redeployment of labour and the prospect of increased leisure are causing social upheavals which require new ideas and significant changes of attitude.

31. It is pointed out in the passage that the introduction of computers into daily life________ .

  1. has definitely solved the problem of unemployment

  2. has had no effect on the traditional habits of society

  3. can be regarded as the greatest technical achievement of the age

  4. has led to an improvement in working conditions

E) has brought a lot of benefits but has also created some serious problems

32. According to the passage, the impact computers have had on society

  1. will certainly continue to increase right through the next century

  2. has been unnecessarily exaggerated in recent years

  3. has generally been confined to industrial life

  4. has exceeded that.of any other technological development in recent times

E) is very much less than it has been on industry

33. As is implied in the passage, the widespread use of computers in industry_______ .

  1. has made considerable changes in the working system inevitable

  2. has unfortunately increased production costs

  3. has reduced the working hours but not the work load

  4. will, in the next century, lead to even more disillusionment

E) has given rise to many new solutions to the problems of unemployment
Tavi Fabrics is a Portuguese textile and clothing firm which, until recently, employed about 300 workers and had a turnover of 6 million pounds. Now, however, Tavi is facing serious problems. In the last two years its fabric sales have remained steady, but profits have declined sharply. This is because Pakistani and Italian suppliers have been forcing prices down. In the ready-to-wear market, the condition is much worse. Competition is cut­throat. Exporters from 24 low-cost countries are fighting for a share in the European market. Tavi is suffering from this competition. The stores are now bargaining hard over prices, and Tavi has already lost two important orders.

34. The passage presents the case of a textile firm which, .

  1. in recent years, has recovered its lost markets by introducing drastic measures

  2. on the whole, has been showing a steady improvement in its position

  3. owing to fierce international competition, is having 10 struggle to survive

  4. quite unfairly, has laid off more than half of its work force

E) in the long run, seems likely to defeat its main competitors

35. We can understand from the passage that the area which has been
hit worst by international competition .


  1. is that of fabric sales in which Tavi has made great profits

  2. has been textile industries of India and Pakistan

  1. is the home market itself in which Tavi wed to be in the lead

  2. is the clotbing industry in Portugal

E) has been ready-to-wear market

36. One can conclude from the passage that Tavi's problems .

  1. are due do the unrest among the workers

  2. arise from the growing market pressure of low-cost countries

  3. are linked with the lack of interest in the European market

  4. must be related to the continuous rise in prices in textile

E) began with the loss of two large orders
The main advantage of prefabrication aretwo fold: it is quicker and it does away with uncertainty. Speed in building is significant these days due to the high cost of land: the time during which such an expensive commodity is out of use must be reduced to a minimum. And partly or wholly prefabricated methods of construction save time on the job because parts are prepared in the factory beforehand. Prefabrication does away with uncertainty because it means that the whole building is made of standard parts the behaviour of which is known and has been tested.
37. Since land is extremely valuable it is important that .

  1. the building materials should also be expensive

  2. costs do not continue to rise

  3. people should not disagree as to the advantages of prefabrication

  4. building costs be reduced to a minimum

E) it does not remain out of use for long
38. One advantage of using prefabricated parts is that .

  1. this method is cheaper than standard methods

  2. fewer skilled workmen are required

  3. less land is needed

  4. buildings can be constructed much faster

E) there is more scope for experiment

39. When a building Is constructed from standard parts that hale been well-tested_______.

  1. One is still not sure how they will behave in a particular situation

  2. there is no scope for originality

  3. new methods of construction are overlooked

  4. one knows in advance that the result will be satisfactory

E) the costs will naturally be excessively high
Computers can store vast amount of information in a very small space and are used by the banks to keep accounts, and control transactions. They are also used by the police to keep personal records, fingerprints and other details. In the developing field of robotics computers are now being used to control manual operations done by machines, These two are taking over work, previously done by humans, in the manufacture of cars, in weaving and other industries. Computers play an important role in controlling artificial satellites, decoding information and communications generally. They are used to predict the weather with increasing accuracy.

40. One can conclude from the passage that .

  1. computers have become an indispensable part of our life

  2. weather forecasts carried out by computers are not reliable at all

C) despite great advances in computer techniques, they are not provingas useful-as once hoped

D) robotics has long been a field of keen scientific interest for man

E) computerised banking has led to an increase in unemployment

41. The author points out that .


  1. the police use computers to make sure that their records are not leaked

  2. industry is turning back to traditional methods of production

  3. the principal use of computers is in space technology

  4. computers are too complex for everyday use

E) the use of robots, directed by computers, is becoming widespread in industry

42. The passage is not concerned with .

  1. how computers are produced

  2. the application of computers in industry

  3. the use of computers in communications and the transfer of information

  4. the conservation of information by technology

  5. the role played by computers in crime detection

Looking ahead from the present position where food production has kept ahead of population growth globally, but has fallen per capita in 55 (mainly African) countries, it would seem that these trends will carry on. About 30 countries most of which are African can expect serious problems unless they reduce population growth and give higher priority to agriculture and conservation. Though a warmer, wetter earth with high C02 levels islikely to be capable of producing more food, the amounts will still be inadequate for many poorer countries. In many circumstances, the population projections are greater than the entire local land resources can support.


43. Of all the countries in the world it is those in Africa .

  1. which have taken the most drastic measures to prevent population growth

  2. that are most threatened by food shortages

  3. that are most conscious of the need to preserve the environment

  4. which are environmentally most at a disadvantage

E) in which poverty has been greatly reduced through agricultural development
44. It is argued the passage that .

A) changes in world climate are giving rise to the problems of foodproduction



  1. with the exception of African countries, the global production of food is adequate and likely to continue so

  2. agricultural development will presently put an end to global food shortages

  3. the conservation of land resources is of minor importance

E) every effort must be made to prevent the C02 level from rising
45. According to the passage, it is anticipated that .

  1. food production will double in the future

  2. the per capita income in Africa countries will continue to rise

  1. the present situation concerning population growth and food production will soon improve

  2. all the African countries will soon solve all their population problems

E) unless serious measures are taken, the poor countries of the world will be faced with famine
Senegal is heavily dependent on the export of crude oil to finance industrial development. 90% of Senegal's exports by value are crude oil. At current production rates, known reserves are only sufficient until the end of the century. Industrialization was boosted after 1973 following the fourfold increase in oil prices. In the early 1980s prices fell, and Senegal lost important income. Oil production peaked when it reached 112 million tones in 1974.

46. It is claimed in the passage that the sharp rise in oil prices in 1973

  1. has less effect on Senegal's economy than might have been expected

  1. contributed greatly to industrial development in Senegal

  2. coincided with a considerable decrease in oil production

  3. provided Senegal with a high revenue oil into the late 1980s

E) put a great deal of pressure on Senegal's oil reserves

47. It is inferred from the passage that only a fraction of Senegal's exports_______.



  1. are goods other than crude oil.

  2. would be needed to support industrial development

  3. were affected by the decrease in oil prices in the 1980s.

  4. were oil-related

E) have benefited from price increases.

48. According to the passage as long as the current rate of oil production is maintained______.

  1. world oil prices are not expected to rise significantly.

  2. Senegal's industrial development plans will soon be fully realised.

  3. Senegal is likely to have no oil reserves left by the year 2000

  4. Senegal will continue to enjoy large revenues

E) the variety of goods exported from Senegal will be more.
Computers should never have received the significant status they now have, Fascinating and invaluable as they are, even the most developed have less brain power than a three-year-old. They do, however, score on single mindedness. The three year old uses her brain not only to think but also to do some certain tasks like seeing hearing and running about, which need incredibly fast and sophisticated electro-mechanical interactions. But the computer just sits there and sends spacecraft to the moon or re-arranges the world banking system which is very much easier. That's why man's dream of robot maids is still a long way off.

49. The main point made by the passage is that the human brain .

  1. is much inferior to any known computer

  2. is infinitely more complex and powerful than any computer

  3. is not as complicated and mysterious as has usually been thought

  4. reaches its maximum efficiency at the age of three

E) has been entirely reproduced in computer form

50. It is explained in the passage that the efficiency of the computer_______

  1. depend on the speed with which the data are collected

  2. will soon make it possible for man to be served by robots

  3. can best be appreciated in the decision-making positions

  4. is the result of its being concentrated on one task at a time

E) depends on sophisticated electro-mechanical interactions

51. The author feels that Computers .

  1. have contributed immensely to the improvement of living standards

  2. are becoming unaffordable as they get more developed

  3. have been unnecessarily overrated

  4. will be a major force behind all future progress

E) are capable of doing all the tasks the human brain performs even more efficiently
Most substances, either artificial or natural, can cause harm to man or the environment. Some of these reach the environment in waste streams; however emission limits and environmental quality standards can, in some instances, reduce the amounts released. However, some other matters cannot be controlled in this way because they are released, not in industrial waste streams, but through the use or disposal products which contain them. In many cases these substances pose little or no threat if the product containing them is used and disposed of properly. The accurate way to deal with them is through controls over their supply, use and disposal

52. According to the passage, the threat of some certain substances to the environment _________.



  1. is for less than that to man

  2. could be reduced by enforcing emission limits and environmental controls

  3. has been unnecessarily over emphasized

  4. has to date been completely ignored

E) can be eliminated by the use of industrial waste streams
53. The author assumes that the danger posed to man by some substances________.

  1. is even greater than generally admitted

  2. is unrelated to environmental pollution

  3. continues to grow despite constant control of disposal systems

  4. is solely due to the use of industrial waste streams

E) arises from their misuse and wrong disposal

54. The passage is concerned with the question of .

  1. how the harmful effects of certain substances can be kept under control

  1. why industrial waste streams have led to so much pollution

  1. what measures are to be taken against the supply of dangerous substances

  1. if man-made substances and natural ones cause pollution

E) who is responsible for taking the required precautions
The cheetah, the only mammal in the world that can sprint at spee faster than 70 miles per hour, is on rapid track to extinction. Two factc threaten its existence. The first is lack of genetic variation, which manife; itself in reproductive problems excessive infant mortality and vulnerability disease. These seem to be exacerbated in captivity, where cheetahs i experiencing a precipitous decline in number. The second threat to t cheetah is loss of its natural habitat to agricultural expansion.
55. The cheetah is the only mammal in the world that .

  1. threatens the nature

  2. is in danger of extinction

  3. no other animals can reach its speed

D). has a speed reaching more than 70 miles per hour

E) is thought to give harm to agricultural expansion


56. The cheetah is threatened by extinction because .

  1. of its speed

  2. they are experiencing a sudden decline in number

  3. of reproductive problems

D) they live in captivity

E) of lack of genetic differentiation and agricultural growth

57. Reproductive problems illustrate .


  1. that cheetahs don't have a variation in their genetic structure

  2. that the amount of infant mortality is excessive

  3. cheetah is threatened by extinction

  4. cheetah's vulnerability to disease

E) loss of their natural habitat leads them to extinction
When it was formed millions years ago the earth was a liquid. It is s having the process of cooling and many miles below the hard crust is s hot. However, in some places the heat is closer to the crust. These places i associated with volcanic activity or hot sulphur springs. Drilling deep ir the earth's crust we can reach rocks that are much warmer than those at t. surface. Pumping water down into contact with these rocks and extracting tl steam so produced is a source of energy that can be used to produi electricity. It is called geothermal energy.
58. It is explained in the passage that under the hard surface of th earth, there________.

  1. exists a hot core which can be used as energy

  2. is a hot liquid layer which has never been drilled

  3. seems to be a great deal of volcanic activity which threatens life

  4. could be a number of hot sulphur springs, the main cause o: volcanic activity.

E) has never been sufficient heat to melt rocks
59. According to the passage, gjgothermal energy .

  1. can be produced both plentifully and cheaply

  2. has been used by man for millions of years

  3. is a bi-product of extensive volcanic activity

  4. is obtained from the contact of water with the hot rocks below the earth's surface

E) isrecognised as the only form of energy that will never be used up

60. We can inter from the passage that the earth's crust .

  1. has completely stopped the process of cooling underneath

  2. is a constant source of energy

  3. is not suitable for drilling

  4. is constantly warming and cooling due to volcanic activities,

E) varies in thickness from place to place

When we turn to the problem of fishing, we see that through a II Convention on the Law of the Sea, the world's countries have indicated th; they recognize the risks of over-fishing. Nations can now declare 200 mi! exclusive economic areas and exclusive fishing areas and control the catch , a level that is reasonable. Developing nations seem to be beginning to benel from the new fisheries regime which offers the promise of allowing them i manage fishing resources for optimum, that is long-term, benefits.


61. We can understand from the passage that the statutory measurt taken by the UN, regarding fishing,____ .

  1. are unlikely to be abided by, at least not in the near future

  2. have been welcomed by all the member nations

  3. have had no beneficial impact on the situation

  4. came into effect too late

E) have unfortunately served the interests of only the develops nations

62. One major benefit arising out of the 200-mile exclusive fishing zoi
is as we understand from the passage, to .


  1. to supply best use of the marine resources through internation cooperation

  2. keep under control the amount of fish caught

  3. ensure that an ever increasing quantity of fish shall be caught

  4. guide developing countries to develop their inefficient economic

E) prevent new fisheries from coming into being

63. It is stated in the passage that in the management of fisheries

  1. one cannot make a plan for the future

  2. no consideration should be given to the amount of fishing.

  3. the introduction of restrictive measures should be avoided.

  4. one should give importance to future rather than to present gain;

E) the 200-mile zone policy can be ignored.

When used for researches on of learning and memory, the octopus is a more interesting subject than the squid. Unlike the free-swimming squid, which relies exclusively on its eyes to guide it to a tasty fish or crab, the octopus often feeds off the bottom of the sea. It uses not only its eyes but its tentacles to identify a likely meal. The brain of the octopus has two separate memory-storage areas - one for visual memories and one for tactile memories.



64. In the passage it is stated that the squid finds its food__________.

  1. by sight only

  2. by touch only

  3. both by sight and by touch

  4. in none of the ways described above

E) digging holes

65. The passage is mainly about .

  1. a new way of feeding fish

  2. biological differences between two animals

  3. how to go deep-sea fishing

  4. a warning to deep-sea tlivers

E) the differences between biology and zoology

66. According to the passage, which of the following can describe the octopus?

  1. Its brain is simpler than that of the squid.

  2. It cannot look and touch at the same time.

  3. Its brain does not function very well.

  4. The memory of what it has seen and touched is contained in separate areas.

  5. It is the unique animal in deep waters.

In order to produce commercial records, an original record must first made. It is a flat disc, usually made of aluminum coated with a soft layer lacquer. As the disc is rotated, a sapphire or ruby stylus cuts a continue groove in the lacquer cotang. The stylus travels around the disc, making impression that corresponds to the amplitude and frequency of the sou being recorded. When completed, the original may be played back to recre; the original recorded sound. If the sound produced by the original record satisfactory, the original is coated with silver to conduct electricity, and th electroplated with nickel. When the original is stripped away, a negative the original remains, with a raised spiral pattern corresponding to the groo\ in the original. The negative is called a master matrix. Next, the mas matrix is electroplated with nickel to produce a positive of the original. T positive is called a mother matrix. By electroplating the mother matrix w nickel and stripping it away, stampers are produced. Stampers are negath of the original record from which the final records may be pressed.



67. What is the purpose of silver in making commerical records?

  1. It strips away the original record.

  2. It cuts a groove in the original record.

  1. It aids in electroplating the original record.

  2. It makes an impression on the stamper.

E) It is very strong.

68. The mother matrix is a (n) .

  1. negative of the original record

  2. stamper

C) original record

D) record made from a master matrix

E) harddisc
69. Laquer is used to coat the aluminum disc .


  1. because it conducts electricity

  2. because it can be cut by a stylus

  1. because it cools quikly

  2. because it protects the impression in the aluminum

E) because it is vey soft

The science of meteorology is deals with the study of the structure, state, and behavior of the atmoshere. The subject may be approached from several directions, but the scene cannot be fully appreciated from any one vantage point. Various views must be integrated to give perspective to the whole picture. One may consider the condition of the atmosphere at a given moment and attempt to predict changes from that condition over a period of a few days ahead. This approach is included in the branch of the science called synoptic meteorology. Synoptic meteorology is the scientific basis of the technique of weather forecasting by means of the preparation and analysis of weather rrnps and aerological diagrams. The practical importance of the numerous applications of weather forecasting cannot be overestimated. In serving the needs of shipping.aviation, agriculture, industry, and many other interests and fields of human activity with accurate weather warnings and professional forecast advice, great benefits are reaped in the form of the saving of human life and property and in economic advantages of various kinds. One significant purpose of the science of meteorology is constantly to strive, through advanced study and research, to increase bur knowledge of the atmosphere with the aim of improving the accuracy of weather forecasts.

70. The predictions of synoptic meterologists are directly based on the_____________.


  1. application of the physical sciences

  2. preparation and study of weather maps

  3. anticipated needs of industry

  4. observations of commercial airline pilots

E) behaviours of animals

71. The author implies that increased accuracy in weather forecasting will lead to________.

  1. more funds allocated to meteorological research

  2. greater protection of human life.

  3. a higher number of professional forecasters

  4. less-specialized form of synoptic meteorology

E) an increase in the number of tourists

72. Which of the following statements best describes the organization of the passage?

  1. A procedure is explained and its importance is emphasized.

  2. Two contrasting views of a problem are presented.

  3. Recent scientific advancements are outlined in order of importance.

  4. A problem is examined and possible solutions are given.

E) Contributions of weather forcast to human activities concerning agriculture are stated.

Besides feeling the soil and sniffing the air, farmers can now point gun shaped infrared meters at their crops in order to discover when the plant; need watering. These portable meters give digital readouts that indicate th< difference between a plant's temperature and that of the surrounding air When it is short of water, a plant, which normally uses evaporation as ; means of cooling, cannot rid itself of the heat it absorbs from sunlight on the heat that may build up from its own metabolism. Hence, if the mete: indicates that a plant is warmer than the air, it may mean that it is time tc irrigate.

73. Which of the following would be the most appropriate title for the passage?


  1. A New Aid for Farmers

  2. Checking Crop Yields

  3. Plant Temperatures and Evaporation

  4. The Metabolism of Plants

E) Farming in the new Millennium
74. According to the passage, farmers feel the soil in order to__________.

  1. check its ability to absorb heat ;

  2. determine its mineral content

  3. check the moisture content of the air

  4. determine the time to water crops

E) detect some creatures

75. According to the passage, what do the meters measure?



  1. The quality of crops being grown

  2. The temperatures of plants and air

  3. The water content of plants

  4. The rate of evaprotation

E) The hight of plants


1-A

16-D

31-E

46-B

61-B

2-E

17-D

32-A

47-A

62-B

3-B

1S-A

33-A

48-C

63-D

4-C

I9-D

34-C

49-B

64-A

5-A

20-C

35-E

50-D

65-B

6-E

21-D

36-B

51-C

66-D

7~D

22-D

37-E

52-B

67-C

8-B

23-A

38-D

53-E

68-D

9-D

24-B

39-D

54-A

69-B

10-C

25-D

40-A

55-D

70-B

3 1-A

26-C

41-E

56-E

71-B

12-B

27-A

42-A

57-A

72-A

13-B

28-B

43-B

58-A

73-A

14-A

29-B

44-B

59-D

74-D

15-C

30-C

45-B

60-E

75-B

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