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Name of the
West Gate to
Summary of Impacts. Widening will take place for Section 2 (West Gate to Gissar
Junction), Section 3 (Gissar Junction to Shakhrinav) and Section 4 (Shakhrinav to Tursunzade),
which will require additional land acquisition and resettlement. Section 5 (Tursunzade to the
Uzbekistan border) will comprise rehabilitation and improvement of the existing two lane road,
and requires land acquisition and resettlement at certain points.
Project Location Map
1.5 LARP Background
The preparation of the LARP for the entire Project involves the following stages:
1. Initially, Draft LARP was prepared in early 2010, based on the preliminary design
prepared as part of the advanced feasibility study for the Project. It was prepared
under the assumption that the whole land acquisition and resettlement process will be
implemented in one stage, after the contractor completes the detailed design.
Considering the time necessary for the finalization of the road alignment and detailed
design for the entire road, the preparation, scrutiny and implementation of a single
stage LARP would take at least 8 months after the award of the civil works contract.
To enable the contractor to commence the works in 2011, during the Contract for
Preparatory Procurement and Safeguard Support Services, which started in October
2010, MOT decided to finalize the road alignment on four longer road segments,
based on the preliminary design. Such a ‘fixing’ of the design corridor facilitated the
finalization of LARP I.
2. LARP I is based on the final measurements conducted in the period November 2010
- January 2011. The measurements were taken with reference to the fixed road
alignments (road centerline and offsets). The LAR survey team comprised an
international resettlement specialist, two local social specialists, a local engineer, a
surveyor and additional field support staff provided by hukumats. Representatives of
the responsible hukumats, Inter-district Bureau for Technical Directory (MBTI) and
representatives of the Land Committees and the State Committee on Investment and
State Property Management of the Republic of Tajikistan worked together with the
3. LARP Phase II will include the road segments for which the alignment is finalized, but
which are shorter than 4.4 km as well as the other road segments, which require
completed detailed design. Consequently, LARP II will be finalised only after the
entire road alignment is finalized by the contractor.
1.6 Detailed Survey and Measurement Procedure
24. During the preparation of LARP I, the team measured the offsets from the fixed road
centerline at cross-section points spaced at 25-50m. Where an entire structure was affected
because a negligible part of land was required for embankment or another part of the road, the
engineers noted the location and amended the preliminary design by adding a retaining wall or
they changed the road centerline where it was practicable. Such practice saved a number of
existing walls and structures along the road.
25. Each affected owner was present during the measurement of the affected assets. The
owner him/herself (where it was practicable) actually measured the assets and gave the
information on trees and other affected assets. Special attention was given to the recording of
the affected assets. Three copies of the resettlement form were prepared for each resettlement
case. The resettlement form was completed immediately after the measurements were done
and in presence of the owner. When completed, the form was given to the owner for checking. If
the owner agreed with the measurements, s/he signs the form. In case of disagreement, the
measurement was repeated jointly with the owner. In addition, the measurement form was
verified and signed by the Hukumat representative and by a local resettlement specialist (CRP
Representative). Each of the signatories received one copy of the measurement form for their
26. Apart from the physical measurements of affected assets, the information on
entitlements, rights and procedure for complains and other relevant information, were given to
each affected person, regardless of the information received during the Draft LARP preparation.
Photographs of each affected assets were also taken and filed with other records for each land
acquisition or resettlement case
Every resettlement case was checked against the information included in the draft LARP.
All additional cases (due to the fixed road alignment) were recorded as new cases. Conversely,
if the detailed survey showed that a property that was already recorded in the Draft LARP, was
not going to be affected any more, due to the precise measurement or a changed design, the
owner is informed and the case taken off the list.
Public Consultation and Due Diligence. The draft LARP and the LARP I are prepared
in consultation with the stakeholders, especially the local people. Information about the Project
and the cut-off date for compensation claims were well publicized in the local media during the
preparation of the Draft LARP. The assessment of losses and land acquisition is based on the
feasibility study conducted during the preparation of the Draft LARP and the exact
measurements of the affected assets done during the finalization of the LARP I. The district
authorities have ratified the survey results.
INFORMATION ON LAND ACQUISITION AND
29. The Preparation of the LARP was based on an extensive Impact survey and census of
the AP. The survey was concluded on November 29,2009. This date is held as the entitlements
cut-off date for this LRP. This section covers the baseline information on the Project’s land
acquisition and resettlement impacts.. The compensation and rehabilitation measures, and the
cost estimates were prepared based on this information.
2.2 Impact Assessment
2.2.1 Agricultural land
30. The first phase of land acquisition will affect 138 land parcels of agricultural land for a
total of 15 hectares. Most of the acquired land area is used for annual crops cultivation. In Table
2.1, the number of agricultural plots and affected households is shown in the same columns. It
should be noted that, for practical reasons, Collective Dekhan Farms and Supportive Farms,
which can be owned by thousands of persons, were counted as one household. There was a
total of 10 such farms (refer to Table 2.3)
Affected agricultural land by cultivation type
- - -
- - -
2.2.2 Residential and commercial land
Under the first phase of the LAR, 6,985.30 m
of residential and commercial land will be
acquired for the Project, affecting 81 plots of land. The following table shows the survey and
detailed measurement data of the affected properties provided by the district administration.
Affected residential and commercial land
Road segment 1 Road segment 2
Road segment 3 Road segment 4
2,045.26 18/18 1,155.10 12/12 3,064.44
36/36 6,985.30 81/81
2.2.3 Property status of affected land
Agricultural Land. Based on the bundle of rights granted to land users, the affected
agricultural land can be categorized as (i) collective Dekhan Farms, (ii) Individual Dekhan
Farms, (iii) Family Dekhan Farms, (iv) Presidential Land and (v) Supportive Farms. Dekhan
Farms are those for which full user rights, but not the ownership, are given either to individuals
(Individual Dekhan Farms) or to groups (Collective Dekhan Farms). Similarly, under the
Presidential decree, certain persons were granted only user’s rights over the Presidential Land,
but not the ownership. Supported Farms include the land provided to different government
institutions for self-assistance to their members and employees.
Most of the acquired agricultural land belongs to Individual Dekhan Farms (60 cases) or it
is a part of Presidential Land (56 plots), while the other categories are less affected. All affected
land users possess legal land rights over the land that will be acquired for the project. The
property status of the affected agricultural land, by road segment, is given in the following table.
Affected agricultural land
As in Table 2.1, for comparison purposes, the number of agricultural plots and affected households is presented
in the same columns.
Residential Land. Under articles 11 and 12 of the Land Code, the holders of residential
and commercial land have permanent and inheritable use rights. The summary information on
the extent of the affected residential and commercial land is shown in Table 2.2.
2.2.4 Annual crops
35. Wheat, Lucerne and cotton are the most frequently cultivated annual crops on the
affected land. The least affected crops are potatoes and onions. More annual crops are affected
on road segments 3 and 4 than on the segments 1 and 2. The distribution of annual crops on
the affected land is presented in Table 2.4.
Crops impacts by crop type and area and segments
Affected area (m2)
7.55 km -
17.06 km -
26.5 km -
43.8 km -
2.2.5 Perennial crops
36. As shown in Table 2.1, 11,600 m² of orchards will be lost on four plots and 4,000 m² of
vineyards on one plot of land. In total, 283 fruit trees on residential plots will be removed in the
first phase of LAR. The most affected trees are small cherries (74), grapes (44) and
pomegranates (39), (Table 2.5). Trees, which could be safely replanted, were not counted as
affected. The average price for 1 kg of fruit on residential and agriculture land varies for different
sorts of the same fruit type (i.e. price of grapes and apples).
Fruit trees on residential' plots
Apple / Себ
Cherry / Гелос
Small cherry /
Walnut tree /
Grapes / Ангур
Fruit trees on agriculture land are found only at Dekhan farms along the road segment 3
(refer to Table 2.6). In total, 231 fruit trees will be cut and removed during the phase I of LARP.
The time to re-grow a new fruit tree varies from 2 to 4 years. The total yearly production loss will
be 7,455 kg of fruits.
Fruit trees on agriculture land
Value of 1 kg of
at average market
Annual fruit value
to be compensated
Years for tree
Peach 300 22
Cherry 4,000 62
Apple 9,900 112
Total 15,600 231
2.2.6 Structures and buildings
The land acquisition will affect a number of residential and commercial buildings, sheds,
building attachments and structures such as walls and fences. In total, 161 structures will be
affected during the LARP I phase. A summary of the affected buildings by category and type for
each road segment is given in Table 2.7. Information on the affected walls, fences and other
miscellaneous assets is summarized in Table 2.8.
Affected buildings, shops, sheds and outbuildings
Road segment 1
Road segment 2
Road segment 3
Road segment 4
7.5 km - 14.1 km
17.1 km - 21.5 km
26.5 km - 34 km
43.8 km - 61.5km
84.7 1 160
96 1 105
Sheds/area m² 166.5 8 83
55.5 2 359
cattle barns, etc.)
1,113.0 19 298
Sheds are calculated in m
, while buildings and out buildings (toilets, barns, etc.) are assessed in cubic meters (m
Affected walls, fences and miscellaneous items
Road segment 1
Road segment 2
Road segment 3
Road segment 4
7.5 km - 14.1 km
17.1 km - 21.5km
26.5 km - 34 km
43.8 km - 61.5 km
Total for LARP I
Wall, fences and
fences sq. meter
fences sq. meter
2.2.7 Impact on community and government structures
39. During the implementation of the LARP I, two police posts, (Rudaki and Gisor), one
storage building of the local Road and Communication Maintenance Department, garden walls
of two mosques and three cemetery walls will be affected. The police posts will be rebuilt on the
remaining portions of the plots. The land acquisition will affect only marginal area of the land
plots on which mosques or cemeteries are located; however, it will not affect any graves. As
discussed with the district hukumats and administrators, the government will pay all cost of
rebuilding/repairing the affected community structures and government facilities. Accordingly,
these costs are included in the budget.
2.2.8 Impact on businesses
Nine businesses will be affected during the LAR I activities. These businesses are owned
by 6 persons: 3 persons own a single business, and another 3 persons own 2 affected
businesses, each (refer to Appendix 8). Only one person, who operates 2 businesses on a
single plot of land need to be relocated and the relocation plot has been already assigned. The
total area of that plot of land is 173m2 and the owner will be relocated to a land plot of 600m2.
The remaining 7 businesses have minor area of land affected and will be compensated
on a cash-for-land basis as the remaining area of the buildings and the location allowes for
shops reconstruction. The affected businesses which do not need relocation, can be restored in
a relatively short time. All affected business will be compensated for the loss of income, losses
due to a possible stoppage of work, resettlement costs during the transition period and transport
costs, where applicable (for details, please refer to section 10).
2.2.9 Impact on employment
No commercial employees were identified in the Project area. All affected businesses are
small-scale business and are operated by owners and family members.
2.3 Census of Affected Households/Persons
2.3.1 Total Affected Households/Persons
A summary of Affected households and persons is presented in the following table.
Affected Households and Persons by Category and Impact
Number of Affected HHs
Category of Impact
A1. Residential / Commercial land
A2. Agricultural Land
B. Crops /Trees
B1. Loss of Crop Bearing Land
Included in A1
C. Business/Income Losses
C1. Small business losses
- Included in A1
D. Permanent Structures
D1. Residential / Commercial /
- Included in A1
E. Total (A+B+C+D)
44. The special focus of the resettlement and compensation surveys was on the woman-
headed households. There are 45 affected woman-headed households and 173 affected
couples’ households. The gender-segregated data by impact category were not collected
separately. Assessment of impact on both, men and women, was based on the number of
affected households. The rationale behind this approach was that the whole families were
affected regardless of gender, age or dependency.
2.3.2 Severity of impact
The adopted threshold for severe impact is 10% of one year’s income. The holders of the
rights to use agricultural land who lose more than 10% of their plot are deemed to be severely
affected. In the first phase of the resettlement process, 51 household will lose more than 10% of
their agricultural land. In case of business losses, the Affected households will receive a full
year’s income and it is therefore assumed that the severity of impact is addressed by that
compensation. The number of Affected households by segment is given in the following table.
Severity of impact
Number of Households
Severity of Impact
Loss of agricultural
2.4 Impact on Vulnerable Households
46. Vulnerable households are those formed by poor people and /or headed by single
women. The categorization of poor is based on the reported income data collected during the
census survey. The poverty line is taken as TJS 180 per month, based on the poverty line
published in the World Bank Country Briefing for Tajikistan (2009) of $ 41 per month, and an
exchange rate of TJS4.41 per USD. Overall, 28 woman-headed households will be affected by
LARP I. Out of these, eleven households live below the poverty line. There are 17 woman-
headed households, which are, according to the set vulnerability criteria, assessed as not being
vulnerable. The total number of vulnerable households in the first phase is 69. The information
on vulnerable households by road segment is given in the following table.
Number of Affected Households
Below poverty line only
Both woman headed and
below poverty line
2.4.1 Ethnic composition of affected households
47. The population of the entire Project area is made up of Tajik and Uzbek people. Out of
the affected households, 82.4% are Tajik, 17.3% Uzbek, and 0.4% Kyrgyz. None of these
groups fits the ADB definition of Indigenous People (for a more detailed explanation, refer to
sub-section 4.4 of this report).
2.4.2 Family types
Most of the households are joint families in nature, in which parents and married children
live in the same house. In such households, the senior male is usually the nominated head of
the household, and is the one responsible for receiving and distributing compensation
3. LAND COMPENSATION AND RESETTLEMENT STRATEGY AND
ACTUAL RELOCATION NEEDS
3.1 Land Compensation Strategy
The legally based land compensation method that exists in Tajikistan is compensation
with replacement land, or, the land-for-land compensation. The Government and the local
population prefer this approach if the adjoining or nearby land to the affected plot is readily
available. Furthermore, land market is almost non-existent as people rarely sell their lands. The
current practice is to allocate a replacement plot of 800 m
in towns) residential land to
citizens affected by land acquisition especially those who have lost significant portions of their
plots in land acquisition. For the land used for commercial purposes, the replacement plots may
be provided in proportion with the business requirement of the AP.
In case of road widening, most holders of the use-rights lose very narrow strips of land.
Practical difficulties therefore arise with regard to re-allocation of a new land plot. Contiguous
plots with the affected land are seldom available, and the provision of a small land plot far away
from the affected plot is not practicable and may not be economically justified. It has to be noted
that the identification of plots available for redistribution and comparable in productivity/value to
the land lost, may be difficult. Also, the elaboration of a land re-distribution scheme may be very
complicated and costly. This applies not only to agricultural land but more generally also to
Based on the above therefore the Government agreed that for this project Land could be
(with a few exceptions detatiled below) compensated in principle in cash. Extensive work was
done to justify and operationalize through specific arrangements this new practice which is
supported by the precedents of specific Projects such as the Tajikistan-Afghanistan Border
Beside the need to justify the new practice another challeng was presented by the need
to find a legally acceptable methodology for the monetary valuation of the affected Land at
replacement costs. This was so because no Tajikistan law/by-law has prescriptions in tis sense
and because in the Country there are no official land markets. The issue was easier to solve for
agricultural land where replacement value can be derived based on the productive potential of
the affected plots but was more complex for residential/commercial land, which is usually prices
based on market value anabsence of land markets a different approach had to be found. The
two approches chosen for agricultural and residential/commercial land are described in the next
sections. . During the Project preparation, several options were considered including paying for
land at tax rates, or The valuation approach adopted for the Project for agricultural, residential
and commercial land is discussed in the following sections.
3.1.1 Compensation and valuation for the loss of agricultural land
53. The agreed agricultural land valuation mechanism for the Project is based on an
assessment of the productivity, or income generation capacity of the affected plots. Valuation is
made by considering the value of the product of the land for a period sufficiently long to
guarantee the rehabilitation of the affected persons. The critical point in determining the period
is that the level of compensation must be sufficient to re-establish livelihood of the APs. The
period selected is 5 years at gross market value (inclusive of inputs and labor) of the yearly
produce of annual crops land.
Such a formula provides a solid capital that the APs can invest
to improve the land remaining to them and it can represent land replacement cost.
As the land affected by the Project is assigned to the land users based on different types
of land-use rights some are individual others are collective) the issue of who was the beneficiary
of the compensation for each type of land-use right category had to be elaborated. Details are
• Individual Dekhan Farms belong to individuals and compensation for any type of affected
assets belongs to the individual owner. Accordingly, compensation for affected agricultural
land is provided to the owner.
• Family Dekhan Farm: Under this category of farm ownership, the land is provided to
families which make all decisions on farm use, and any type of compensation or
entitlements provided to such farms. In such cases, the head of a family (to whose name the
farm is registered) will receive the compensation entitlements. In such cases, it is not
possible to interfere into family decision-making processes and require equal distribution of
compensation among all family members. However, the whole family uses same assets
whether it is a house, a building or a farm.
• Collective Dekhan Farms are larger farms that include land, buildings, machinery and
other resources belonging to a group of people. Each member of a collective Dekhan Farm
has equal rights and responsibilities within the farm and is entitled to equal share of all farm
assets. All decisions are made collectively at monthly or any other meetings of the farm’s
members. Any individual or a group of individuals within the collective Dekhan Farm has the
right to establish their individual or a smaller collective Dekhan Farm. However, these kind of
issues have to be formally discussed by the farm members at a general meeting. Such
individuals/groups have the right not only to land but also to other assets of the collective
farm, such as machinery, buildings, funds, etc and their share is divided at the general
meetings. Any compensation payable to a collective Dekhan Farms, as any other asset,
belongs to all members who have equal share of the compensation. The received amount of
money will be distributed among the members of the Dekhan Farms or invested in the farm
development, depending on the collective members’ decision.
• Supportive Farms include the land provided to different government institutions regulated
by special rules and use requirements. In some cases such land plots are used by
employees of these institutions for cropping and supporting the institution and people’s own
livelihoods but without any ownership rights. It means that when an employee leaves
institution, his/her rights and responsibilities for the use of such lands end. The
compensation for the loss of land in this category is provided to the institutions which own
the land of a supporting farm.
In absence of available market prices for agricultural land, it is difficult to determine whether the land use
rights allowances actually correspond to land replacement cost, which is the ADB SPS policy provision
ensuring the AP's rehabilitation. For the Project, AP rehabilitation is pursued by providing 5 and 1 years
of income for annual crops land and perennial crops land, respectively. The methodology used is based
on undiscounted gross income (which with productive expenses estimated at 50% of the land annual
income is assumed to be the double of the annual profit). These amounts provide the APs with a capital
which can be reinvested in their remaining land or in other investment opportunities. Considering that all
APs will retain most of their plots and that their livelihood is not threatened, this capital is deemed
sufficient to allow for the full rehabilitation of the agricultural land losses caused by the Project.
3.1.2 Compensation and valuation for the loss of residential/commercial land
The valuation of these land categories presented particular challenges as residential and
commercial land has no intrinsic productive value. Various options were considered. One was to
hire independent assessors to devise an acceptable valuation methodology but was then
discarded because too complicated and difficult to apply legally in the context of the Project.
Most of the independent assessors available in the country focus on mass valuation for taxation
purposes and for the establishment of lease payments. Another option considered was to
compensate this land as agricultural land planted with a standard crop plus the replacement
value of improvements such as house embankment water supply and electricity supply. Also
this option was consired unsatisfying and un-fitting the principle of replacement cost. A final
option was considered and agreed as an interim measure with the Land Committee. This is that
when losses of residential/commercial land are too small to be practically compensated via
replacement plots cash compensation could be provided. In absence of official market rates the
valuation methodology agreed considers the annual lease value of the land and based on
international standards on the average number of years of lease payments necessary to pay for
the asset. Based on this approach the users of residential/commercial land will be paid the
current lease rate project areas ($1,000 per hectare) multiplied by 25 years,
compensation corresponds to a unit rate of $2.5 per m
This compensation approach
was explained to and discussed and agreed with the
affected persons during the community consultations held in each Rayon before the finalization
3.2 Relocation Strategy
The resettlement strategy formulated for the Project is based on different principles for
losses of agricultural/orchard land and for losses of residential/commercial land.
3.2.1 Agricultural Land
The compensation of this type of land is based on cash compensation only. This
approach has been chosen since the unit impacts are too small to justify both logistically and
economically the provision of replacement plots.
3.2.2 Residential/commercial Land
For this type of land the main compensation strategy is plain cash compensation. However,
in a very few cases, where relocation of the occupants of these plots is necessary a, land for land
compensation approach with serviced relocation plots has been adopted. The relocated families
will also be paid a cash allowance for the resettlement costs and other related entitlements. This
strategy responds to the need of minimizing resettlement as much as practicable. The affected
households losing a house or a shop and retaining enough space in the original plot to rebuild
their buildings will not be relocated. In such cases, the affected household will reconstruct their
lost buildings in the old plot and receive compensation in cash for the section of the plot lost..
The allowances for the loss of residential land based on 25 years of rental income. This reflects the
average rental income period needed to recover the full value of land in most countries of the world.
Only APs who will not have enough land left to rebuild their houses/shops on the same plots
after land acquisition, will be relocated.
The households that will not have enough space in the original plot to reconstruct their
buildings and will be relocated will be provided with replacement plots of 600 m
houses) and of variable area fitting actual needs (for shops). This is the best compensation option,
as in project areas there is hardly any free residential/commercial land on sale. The Hukumats will
allocate the replacement plots to the APs in their original settlement; commercial plots will be along
the road. Expenses for the relocation of utilities, land clearing/filling, sanitation and land registration
will be paid by the Project. The AH provided with replacement plots will be allowed to retain use-right
on their non-affected portion of their old plot for small-scale roadside livelihood activities.
3.3 Detailed Resettlement Scheme for Residential and Commercial Land
3.3.1 Cash compensation without relocation
61. Seventy three (73) residential and 5 commercial land plots hosting 7 businesses,
affected by land acquisition will be compensated based on the cash-for-land principle because
the affected individual land areas are too small to be compensated on a land-for-land basis and
because this will mitigate resettlement. Details on these plots are provided below in Table 3.1.
Affected residential/commercial land (cash for land compensation)
No of HHs
3.3.2 Compensation via Land for Land arrangements and Resettlement
Only 3 households will be relocated and receive a replacement plot..These are 2
households with a residential house and 1 household with a business/shop (see table 3.2). In
two cases, the affected persons will receive significantly larger new plots, while one household
will receive a replacement plot of the same size as the affected plot. Overall, for the 813 m2 of
the affected land, the Project will compensate the affected persons with 1,800 m2 land.
Land for Land Compensation (AH number and plots comparison)
No of HHs
Size replacement plot
The replacement plots to all three households are provided in the newly built village in
Khirmanak area of Khonakhoh Jamoat in Gissar district. The plan of the replacement plots is
given in Figure 3. The relevant original and translated letters from the local authorities are
provided in Appendix 13.
Plan of the Replacement Plots in Gissar District
LEGEND (English translation of the legend to the general layout of the newly built village)
A – Parking area
Б – Playing (sport) ground
В - School
Г – Medical point
Д – Public (communal) Center
Е – Allocated land area for the resettled businesses
К - Kindergarten
И – Garbage disposal point
Л – Tea place (canteen)
М – Electricity supply transformer
Н – Garbage disposal point
Location of replacement plots each 600 sq. meter provided for the affected
households loosing residential plots.
The village is well planned and the plots have easy access to basic services. In addition,
the village has a parking area, sports ground, school, medical post, kindergarten, community
center, canteen and garbage disposal place. Each replacement plot will be provided with all
necessary services as electricity, water-pump and sanitation facilities. All AP received an offer
for the replacement plot and signed an acceptance of the offer (refer to Appendix 14).
Plots Preparation Costs. Table 3.3 summarizes the preparation cost for the 3 plots.:
Plot preparation cost
Total for all three plots
Plots Preparation Schedule. All three plots are already prepared and the services will
be connected/prepared within 4 weeks from the approval of LARP I by the Government and
SOCIO ECONOMIC PROFILE OF THE AH
67. Socioeconomic survey was conducted during the preparation of the Draft LARP. The
data collected by the survey and its findings were reported for the entire Project area. In order to
enable the contractor to commence the works in 2011, during the implementation of the
Contract for Preparatory Procurement and Safeguard Services, it was decided that the
Employer acquires and hands over the land for the Site to the Contractor in two stages. The
particulars of the Site for each stage are stated in the Site Handing Over Schedule that will
become part of the contract with the Contractor. For this reason, LARP was divided into two
separate phases, which correspond to the stages of the handing over of the Site. However, the
findings of the socioeconomic survey cannot be separated into the two phases of the LARP.
Therefore, the following socioeconomic analysis refers to the entire affected population living
along the Project road and it is common to both phases of the LARP.
68. The socio economic analysis of the affected households is based on a sample survey
undertaken between January and April 2009. In addition to the demographic and social data
collected during the census survey, socio-economic information was collected from APs through
a structured socio-economic questionnaire. At the time of the survey, which preceded
preliminary design, 430 households were identified as potentially affected. After the completion
of the feasibility study, the impact corridor was narrowed and the number of APs was reduced to
377. The original survey sample, however, was retained as it broadens the survey database.
69. However, the final measurements done for the road segments during the preparation of
LARP I and preparation of the Draft LARP II, (November 2010-January 2011), reveals that in
total, 419 households will be affected along the Project area. The first phase of LARP includes
218 affected households. The second phase of LARP includes 144 households along the road
segments where the exact measurements are finished, and 57 households on the road
segments for which the extent of the resettlement will be determined after the detailed road
design is completed.
4.2 Socio Economic Details
The following section deals with various socio economic indicators of the households and
the findings of the socio-economic survey.
4.2.1 Sources of income
About 26% of the surveyed families stated that agriculture is their main economic activity.
Business and trade are the main economic activities for 12% of the households and another
13% of the surveyed depend on white-collar jobs, such as work in the Government sector.
Approximately one third of the surveyed households (32.3%) reported other activities as their
major economic activity. The details are given in the following table:.
Major economic activities of affected households
Major Economic Activities
Total No. of Households
Business and trading
4.2.2 Landholding status
72. The overwhelming majority of the surveyed households (95%) in the Project area
possess land, while the remaining 5% are landless. The total area of landholdings of the 406
surveyed households is 539.03 hectares (the average landholding is 1.32 hectares). About 94%
of the land is cultivable. Average cultivable land holding is 2.76 hectares and the average of
uncultivable land holding is 0.64 hectares.
Types of landholding
Type of land
Total holding (Hectare)
Average holding (Hectare)
Non cultivable (Irrigated)
Non cultivable (non Irrigated)
Total irrigated land
Total non irrigated land
4.2.3 Major cropping pattern
73. Vegetables and wheat are the major crops in the Project area. About 69% of the
households reported vegetables cultivation, and 33% cultivate wheat. Other crops such as rice
are cultivated by 11% of the households, maize by 10% and cotton is reported by 8% of the
households. Cotton is mostly cultivated in the area by a small number of larger concerns.
Major cropping pattern
No of households
Average yield (kg)
4.2.4 Household income
74. Agriculture is the highest contributor to the annual income (TJS 27,798), followed by
business contribution with average of TJS 13,217.80 per year. The overall average annual
income of the households along the Project area is TJS 10, 871.53.
Sources of income
Average income (TJS)
4.2.5 Household expenditure
75. The total average annual household expenditure is TJS18, 562.5. People spend the
highest amount of money on food (43.43%) followed by clothing, transportation, agricultural
produce, and health.
amount spent (TJS)
Agriculture (seeds, hiring
farm implements etc.)
Fuel for household
76. The average size of the surveyed households is 8 persons. Based on the poverty
thresholds published by the World Bank for 2009 ($41/month), a household of this size would
need the minimum annual income of TJS 20,300 to stay beyond the poverty line. Based on the
reported income data provided by individual households during the survey in October–
December 2009, 52% of the households were identified as poor. This is comparable with the
poverty headcount data for the region available from the State Statistical Committee.
77. The assessment is based on 2000 census data and the living standards survey
conducted by the World Bank in 2003, which gives the following poverty headcount data for the
Project districts: Rudaki –40 to 50%, Gissar – 20 to 30%, Shakhrinav –30 to 40% and
Tursunzade –30 to 40%. It is likely that during the surveys, many respondents reported
approximate income data, which do not reflect the actual household income over the year.
4.2.7 Household assets
Most of the surveyed household reported livestock as their assets. Around 63% of the
households possess sheep and goats, 29% has donkeys, 10% poultry and only 3.5% have
cows and buffalos. Possession of durable goods differs from household to household depending
on the nature of the durable goods. At a minimum, most households possess a television set
and an LPG connection. Refrigerators and radios are owned by nearly half of the households. A
very small number of households have assets such as computer (8%) or refrigerator (11%).
About 50% of the households possess a car.
L.P.G connection/ gas cylinder
Sheep and Goats
Large Animals (Cows/Buffalo)
Indebtedness among the households in the Project affected area is a common
occurrence. About one third (32.6%) of the households stated to have taken loans in the
previous year. The loans have been obtained from different sources for various households’
needs. Few households receive benefits from government assistance schemes. Only 12
households out of 430 included in the survey reported that they participate in or receive benefits
from such schemes.
4.2.9 Access to health centers
Some 97% of the households stated that they have easy access to health centers. Over
a third of them have a health centre within 1 km. Only 5.8 % of the respondents must travel
more than 10 km to reach a health centre. The average home-health center distance is 3.7 km.
Distance of the health centre
Number of Households
Within 1 km
1.1 to 2 km
2.1 to 3 km
3.1 to 5 km
5.1 to 10 km
more than 10 km
About 42% of the surveyed reported that a household member suffered from a major
illness in the year preceding the survey, whereas 58% did not face any major illnesses.
4.2.10 Migration pattern
82. Temporary migration for work is equally prevalent in the Project influence zone. About
43% of the surveyed households reported that the household members seek work away from
home. Most workers who work away from home do so outside the country. About 97.3% of the
migrant workers migrate out of Tajikistan, while only a small percentage of respondents (2.7%)
migrate within Tajikistan, but outside their district.
The majority of the respondents migrate as non-agricultural laborers (48.9%) followed by
trade and business workers (6.5%). Agricultural migrant laborers comprise the smallest
percentage of migrant workers (1.7%). Earners from about 45.6% of the households migrate
every alternate year in search of work and 31.52% migrate once a year. It was also found that
earners from about 18.5% of households migrate as and when required to seek job
opportunities, and members of a few (3.3%) households migrate once in every three years.
84. Migration between June and August is very high in the Project area. Out of
184 households, 136 households (73.9%) reported migration during this period. Migration rates
between April and May and in the winter, between December and February do not differ
significantly (11.9% and 14.1% respectively).
Types of jobs
No of Households
Non agricultural laborers
Trade & business
85. The average household income is TJS1,139.46 per month as reported by the 142
households, where family members migrate for work. The rest of the households were unable to
provide any information on the actual income received from members who work away from
4.2.11 Education and literacy
86. The reported literacy is 100%. Among respondents, 66% of females and nearly 50% of
males attended secondary schools. Approximately 23% of males and 6% of females completed
higher education at college/university level.
4.2.12 Drinking water
87. Local streams are the main sources of drinking water for most of the surveyed
households. Out of 430 surveyed households, 166 or 39% of the respondents draw drinking
water from streams. However, 15% of the households have access to piped water supply and
6% rely on wells or hand pumps as the source of drinking water. Over a third of the respondents
reported using other sources of drinking water.
4.2.13 Sanitation facilities
About 98.6% of the households surveyed possess a latrine, while only 1.4% reported that
they have a flush toilet.
4.2.14 Domestic fuel
Most of the he households use wood as the major source of fuel for cooking (98%). The
remaining households use electricity or gas. Most of the households (98.4%) have electricity
and an LPG gas connection. However, wood and crop residues are most commonly used as
fuel for cooking because of the high price (and low availability) of gas and the high cost of
electricity. On average, households have 5.5 rooms but only 2.3 rooms are heated.
Women in the Local Context
A great majority of affected households are headed by a man (84.4%). There are only 59
woman -headed households, which makes 15.6% of the affected households. Women are
primarily involved in household level natural resource based activities such as horticulture,
sericulture, and animal husbandry (76%). Around 72% reported household work as the main
activity. About 8% of the women in the surveyed households participate in trade/business work
and only 6% work as agricultural laborers. On further questioning, it was found that 69 (16%) of
the respondent households receive income in part from women.
Collection and sale of forest products
Trade & business
Non agricultural labour
HH industries (tailoring, cooking for
91. Women participate equally in household decision-making (99.5%). The survey revealed
that women play an active role in the family. The survey data on women participation in
decision-making is given in the following table.
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