Republic of tajkistan


Table 5.1  Comparison of ADB Resettlement Safeguards with Tajikistan Land Code


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Table 5.1 
Comparison of ADB Resettlement Safeguards with Tajikistan Land Code 
 
ADB Safeguards 
Tajikistan 
 requirements 
Land Code (LC) provisions 
Reconciliation provisions 
APs are to be informed/ 
consulted on resettlement/ 
compensation options. 
The LC does not provide for consultation. 
In this Project, APs were consulted on options. The RP will be 
disclosed to them. 
APs to be compensated and 
assisted, so that their 
economic/social future would 
be generally as favorable as it 
would have been in the 
absence of the Project.  
The LC provides for compensating for loss 
of land right, buildings, crops, trees and 
other assets. However, it is not clear on 
how income losses (i.e. business losses) 
are to be compensated. 
This Project will provide compensation for loss of land use 
rights, buildings and crop losses. Business losses will be 
compensated based on tax returns or if these are unavailable, 
based on a minimum salary. (see entitlements section for 
details). 
Land compensation is to be 
provided at replacement rates 
either in terms of land x land 
or in cash. Due to 
circumstances of this Project, 
compensation needs to be 
provided in cash.  
The LC mandates only for land x land 
compensation.  
Land will be compensated either by provision of replacement 
plot or in cash. For agricultural land, replacement cost will be 
computed based on the production value of the affected plot. 
For residential or /commercial land ( a type of land that does 
not have intrinsic productive value) replacement cost will be 
computed based on current lease rate multiplied by 25 years 
since in Tajikistan there  are no official land markets.. (for 
details section 4.7 below)   
Compensation is to be 
provided in full at replacement 
rates  
The LC mandates compensation at 
replacement rates through provision of land 
x land. However this is not be the case if 
land is paid in cash as the replacement 
value (reproduction cost) of a plot is shared 
on a 40—60% proportion between the 
local government and the user 
respectively. 
When land for land compensation is not technically feasible 
(as for this Project), local administrations will give cash 
compensation. This practice is adopted for this Project. A 
rehabilitation allowance for land use rights in cash at 
replacement rate will be provided to affected people.   
Lack of formal legal title to the 
land by some affected groups 
should not be a bar to 
compensation or rehabilitation. 
Compensation is provided only to 
registered settlers.  
The issue is not relevant to this Project as there are no 
squatters affected. 
Beside compensation at 
replacement cost for land, 
ADB safeguards provide also 
for replacement cost 
compensation for houses, 
crops, trees ,businesses  and 
employment/income losses.  
The Law provides for compensation for all 
losses. It is specific on this for buildings and 
crops but does not detail how trees and 
business compensation is to be carried out. 
There is basic conformity on the items where the law provides 
specific provisions. As per tree and business income losses, a 
compensation methodology fitting both Tajikistan legal 
principles and ADB has been adopted. 
ADB safeguards provide for 
rehabilitation allowances for, 
severe impacts, vulnerable 
APs and relocation. 
The law does not provide for the ADB 
required allowances. 
These allowances will be provided as per ADB. safeguards 
requirements. The items are included in the Project costs. 
 
 
 

 
 
48 
5.6     Principles Adopted for the Project 
 
112.  The following core involuntary resettlement principles were adopted for this Project:  
 
•  Land acquisition, and other involuntary resettlement impacts will be avoided or 
minimized exploring all viable alternative Project designs;  
•  Where unavoidable, phased time-bound land acquisition and resettlement plans 
(LARP phases I and II) will be prepared and APs will be assisted in improving or 
at least regaining their pre-Project standard of living;  
•  Consultation with APs on compensation, disclosure of resettlement information 
to APs, and participation of APs in planning and implementing rehabilitation 
measures will be ensured;  
•  Vulnerable groups will be provided special assistance;  
•  Payment of compensation to affected persons including non-titled persons (e.g., 
informal dwellers/squatters, and encroachers) for acquired assets at 
replacement rates;  
•  Payment of compensation and resettlement assistance prior to the contractor 
taking physical acquisition of the land and prior to the commencement of any 
construction activities;  
•  Provision of income restoration and rehabilitation; and  
•  Establishment of appropriate grievance redress  
 
5.6.1      Types of land ownership and land use rights allocation 
 
113.  Dekhan land arose in Tajikistan as a result of the splitting up of large state owned farm 
enterprises, known as kolkhoz and sovkhoz farms, which were established through much of the 
former Soviet Union. Sovkhoz farms were run by the state, while kolkhoz farms were a form of 
co-operative farm, run by a committee of members approved by the state. While stable, they 
relied on the markets set up and under the soviet system and were considered to lack 
efficiency. The process of dividing and reallocating land from the sovkhoz and kolkhoz farms 
started on cessation of the civil war in the late 1990s and the purpose is to place management 
responsibility directly into the hands of the farmers as an incentive to promote efficiency.  
 
114.  Under Dekhan farms, the land remains state property (which cannot be bought or sold), 
but farmers are granted inheritable land use rights that give complete legal freedom to manage 
the land as the landholders desire. The state collects taxes and can repossess the land if it 
believes the land is not being managed properly. There are three types of Dekhan land: 
individual (the land use certificate is held by an individual), family (the certificate is jointly held) 
and collective (the certificate details common property shareholders).
 10
 
 
115.  Presidential land is similar to Dekhan land. It was allocated in small plots to private 
households in the late 1990s by Presidential Decree. The essential difference between Dekhan 
and Presidential land is that no land-use rights certificate is required for the later land plots (they 
are registered at jamoat level per household). 
 
116.  Reserve Fund land usually includes unused land. It also includes land plots for which 
land use rights have been abandoned. State reserve land is at the disposal of the district 
                                                            
10
 Lerman, Z and Sedik, D. (2008) The Economic Effects of Land Reform in Tajikistan. Report prepared for the 
European Commission under the EC/FAO Food Security Programme—Phase II: Food Security Information for Action. 
Rome. 

 
 
 
administrations and is rented out or distributed for individual tilling for agricultural purposes. 
Article 100 of the Land Code says State land stock is reserved for agricultural, industrial, 
transport and other needs of the national economy.
11
 
 
117.  Supported Farms land include the land provided to different government institutions for 
self-assistance to their members and employees. The land is given to employees who did not 
get any land under other government schemes.  
 
5.6.2      Eligibility 
 
118.  The APs entitled to compensation or at least rehabilitation provisions under the Project 
are: 
 
•  all APs losing land and other assets with legal title/traditional land rights including 
permanent land users of all the types of listed above and lease holders 
• tenants 
•  owners of buildings, crops, plants, or other objects attached to the land, and  
•  APs losing business, income and salaries. 
 
119.  Compensation eligibility is limited by an approved cut-off date established at the end of 
the impact survey on 28 November 2009. Copies of published notices of this date are given in 
Appendix 5. APs who settle in the affected areas after the cut-off date will not be eligible for 
compensation. They, however, will be given sufficient advance notice, requested to vacate 
premises and to dismantle affected structures prior to Project implementation. Their dismantled 
structures will not be confiscated and they will not pay any fine or suffer any sanction.  
 
5.6.3       Compensation entitlements  
 
120.  The APs in the Project are entitled to various types of compensation and resettlement 
assistance to help in restoring their livelihoods to the pre-Project levels. The combination of 
compensation measures and resettlement assistance depends on the nature of the lost assets 
and scope of the Project’s impact, including the social and economic vulnerability of the affected 
persons. All APs are eligible for compensation and rehabilitation assistance, irrespective of their 
land ownership status, to ensure that those affected by the Project shall be at least as well off, if 
not better off, than they would have been without the Project. The compensation packages shall 
reflect replacement costs for all losses (such as land, crops, trees, structures, businesses, 
incomes, etc.) as detailed below: 
 
Agricultural land impacts. Rehabilitated through the provision of an allowance for loss of land-
use right additional to standard crop compensation and equal to: 
 
•  For permanent land holders: 5 years of yearly gross income of affected annual 
crops land at market rate or 1 year of yearly gross income of affected fruit trees land. 
The same allowance will be provided to all land users permanently affected including 
individual land users and cooperative land users.  
 
•  For lease holders: the same as for permanent land holders 
 
                                                            
11
 ARD/Checchi Consultants, (2005). Final Report: Legal Infrastructure for a Market Economy Project, translation of 
Land Code of the Republic of Tajikistan. 

 
 
50 
Residential/commercial land. For holders of land use rights, compensation equivalent to the 
current land lease rate of $0.1 per m
2
 in the Project area multiplied by 25 years will be provided.  
 
Houses, buildings and structures. These will be compensated in cash at full replacement cost 
(cost of materials plus cost of labor plus cost of transport of materials) free of deductions for 
depreciation, salvaged materials, and transaction costs irrespective of the registration status of 
the affected item. House compensation is given for the entire building both in the case of full 
and partial impacts.  
 
Crop Losses. Crop compensation will be paid by default to all APs irrespective of their legal 
status in cash at full market rate for 1 years’ yield. This shall apply whether the land is fallow, or 
in crop. Crop compensation will be paid both to landowners and to tenants based on their 
specific agreements. 
 
Loss of Perennial Crops. Reimbursement will be at the full market rate of one year’s 
production, as assessed by the district administration and agreed with the APs. 
 
Loss of Businesses. If business is lost permanently, it will be compensated in cash equal to a 1 
year income based on tax declaration or, (if unavailable) based on the maximum official non-
taxable salary. Temporary business losses will be compensated in cash for the business 
interruption period based on tax declaration or, (if unavailable) official minimum salary. 
 
Business workers and employees. Indemnity for lost wages for the period of business 
interruption up to a maximum of 1year. 
 
Severe impact losses. Vulnerable APs: the adopted principle is that the APs who lose more 
than 10% of their income or who will be relocated, will receive either a payment equal to the 
market value of a year’s net yield of the land lost, in addition to standard crop compensation, or 
a cash allowance equal to 6 months of minimal salary. As the valuations show that the latter 
form of compensation exceeds by far the value of the net yield, the compensation by cash 
allowance equal to 6 months of minimal salary will be applied uniformly to all APs who suffered 
severe impact losses. 
 
Agricultural tenants and workers. Tenants will receive their share of harvest at market rates 
(if the impact is temporary) plus 1 additional crop compensation (if the land is lost permanently). 
Agricultural workers, whose employment will be interrupted, will receive an indemnity in cash 
corresponding to their salary, in cash and in kind, for the remaining part of the agricultural year, 
inclusive of both winter and summer crop. 
 
Relocation Allowances. APs forced to relocate will receive a relocation subsidy sufficient to 
cover transport costs and living expenses for 2 months at minimum salary. This subsidy must be 
more than sufficient to cover transport costs and the average monthly income of an affected HH. 
 
Community Structures and Public Assets. These will be fully replaced or rehabilitated to 
achieve their pre-Project functions. 
 
Vulnerable APs. HHs below the poverty line and women headed HHs will be given employment 
priority during construction of the Project, and for road repair and maintenance jobs after 
completion. Additionally, they will be paid contribution equal to 2 months’ minimum salary. 
 
121.  All compensation entitlements are summarized in the following table: 
 

 
 
 
Table 5.2 
Compensation Entitlements Matrix 
 
Assets 
Affected Persons 
Proposed Entitlements  
Individual land-use 
rights holder 
An allowance for loss of land use rights in cash equal to 5 years of 
the gross income of the affected annual crops land at market rate or 
to 1 year of gross income of affected fruit trees land at market rates.  
Agricultural land: 
All losses 
irrespective of 
impact severity 
Cooperative land 
holder 
An allowance for loss of land use rights in cash equal to 5 years of 
the gross income of the affected land at market rate 
Residential/ 
commercial land 
Residential rights 
holder 
Provision of alternative land or rehabilitation  cash allowance for loss 
of land use rights equal to the current land lease rates multiplied by 
25 years ($2.5 per m
2

Houses and 
structures  
All relevant APs.   
Cash compensation at replacement rate for affected 
structure/other fixed assets free of salvageable materials and 
transaction costs. All buildings will be compensated in their entirety 
House/building 
rent 
Renter/leaseholder 
Rental allowance in the form of 1 to 3 months rent in cash 
Income from crops  All APs  
Crop compensation in cash equal to 1 year of the gross income of 
affected land at market rate. This shall apply whether the land is 
fallow, or under cultivation. 
 
Cash compensation for wood trees based on volume of wood
 
Income from trees 
All APs  
Cash compensation for productive trees based on the net annual 
harvest from the tree(s) for the number of years taken for 
replacement tree(s) to reach comparable production 
All APs (including 
informal settlers) 
Business Owner: Cash compensation for lost income up to 1 year’ (if 
income is permanent) or Cash compensation for the period of business 
interruption ( if the loss is temporary). The compensation is assessed at 
actual income as per tax declaration or if taxes have not been paid at 
the maximum non-taxable income.  
Business or 
employment loss; 
temporary or 
permanent  
Permanent 
worker/employers  
Indemnity for lost wages for business stoppage of up to 1 year 
Allowance for severe 
impacts (More that 
10% of income loss 
or affected by 
relocation)
 
All severely APs 
 
One severe impact allowance equal to the net market value  of 
the harvest from the affected land for 1 year (inclusive of winter 
and summer crop) and in addition to the standard crop 
compensation  or one 
 cash contribution equal to 6 month’s official 
minimum salary 
Relocation 
allowance  
All relocated APs  
Provision of sufficient allowance to cover transport expenses and basic 
livelihood expenses for the transitional period 
Communal/ Public 
assets 
  
Rehabilitation/substitution in kind or cash at replacement cost of 
affected items and rehabilitation of their functions 
 
Employment priority in Project-related jobs 
 
Vulnerable  APs  
APs below poverty 
line, households 
headed by women  
Cash contribution equal to 2 month’s official minimum salary. 
 

 
 
52 
 
6.0    INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENTS  
 
6.1      General 
 
122.  The Ministry of Transport of the Republic of Tajikistan (MOT), formerly The Ministry of 
Transport and Communication (until 28 February 2011), will be the Executing Agency (EA) 
having the lead responsibility for the road construction, as well as the implementation of both 
phases of the LARP. Besides MOT, a number of other governmental departments will play an 
instrumental role in the design, construction and operation of the Project.  
 
123.  The Agency on Land Management and Geography is responsible for allocation and 
registration of new land plots. The Ministry of Justice is responsible for registration of any 
changes of the rights to affected immovable properties, and the MBTI will similarly register any 
changes regarding immovable property and its physical condition. Further, the State Committee 
for Investment and State Property Management of the Republic of Tajikistan is responsible for 
an independent evaluation of all affected structures based on the current market value.  
 
124.  Representatives of these agencies together with representatives of each Rayon (district) 
comprise an ad-hoc Committee which decides on the form and the extent of compensation to be 
paid to the affected proprietors. The roles of these entities in the land acquisition and 
resettlement process are explained in more details in the following sections of this report. 
 
6.2        Ministry of Transport of the Republic of Tajikistan (MOT) 
 
125.  The existing Project Implementation Unit (PIU) in MOT will be transformed into the office 
of the Project Director. The Project Director and his staff have extensive experience in 
managing ADB Projects. The office of the Project Director is staffed with experienced engineers 
and other specialists who look after safeguards issues. The PIU has one full time designated 
resettlement specialist who, with assistance from other designated officials as necessary, will be 
over viewing and managing the implementation of both phases of the LARP, including co-
ordination of the work of all involved agencies 
 
126.  In order to address land acquisition and resettlement issues associated with major road 
improvement Projects, MOT has formed a Working Group for land acquisition planning 
(Resettlement Working Group) comprising the following representatives: 
 
•  First Deputy Minister, MOT 
•  Acting Deputy Head of Main Department for Road Construction Economy of MOT. 
•  Head of Cadastre and Land Registration, Land Management, Geodesy and Mapping 
Agency under the Government of the Republic of Tajikistan 
•  Senior Construction Supervision Inspector, Construction and Architecture Agency under 
the Republic of Tajikistan   
•  Engineer of IZDP unit, State Unitary Enterprise “Research and Planning - Surveying 
Institute”  
•  Coordinator for consultants in PIU 
•  Representatives of the Hukumats of Rudaki, Gissar, Shakhrinav and Tursunzade 
 
127.  The principal task of this group is to agree and define an appropriate methodology for 
the assessment of a fair replacement value for residential and commercial land, and to establish 
principles and processes for cash compensation payments. The Resettlement Working Group is 

 
 
 
assisted by representatives of the various concerned departments involved in LAR planning and 
implementation and by officials at central and local government level. Consultations with the 
Resettlement Working Group were carried out during the preparation of the Draft LARP and 
LARP I. ADB safeguards were discussed and debated in the context of the Project LAR 
activities in the Project.   
 
6.3       Agency for Land Management and Geodesy (ALMG) 
 
128.  The ALMG is the central government body with executive power for land management
12

This Agency, together  with the state enterprises under its control, is responsible to:  
 
•  promote and develop unified state policy in land matters, and the management of 
government land 
•  manage  survey work including land cadastres, geodesy, aerial imagery and topographic 
mapping  
•  control the use and protection of land, geodesy, and further development of the level of 
government geodetic control, aerial imagery and mapping activities  
•  undertake government activities on land management, land cadastre, geodetic, aerial 
imagery, mapping 
•  coordinate scientific research on the study of natural resources using satellite imagery 
for Government departments  
•  conduct registration of land use rights and implementation of land reform 
•  undertake surveying and land plot formation activities  
•  prepare and issue of Land Use Right Certificates (LURC)
13
  
•  register changes of land user  
•  allocate new land plots  
•  acquire land as required for the state  
•  survey the land plots, the subject of land use rights 
•  develop Projects for allocation of land use rights for non-agricultural needs, and 
•  implement land assessment work, soil assessment and economic valuation of land.
14
  
 
6.4      MBTI under the State Unitary Enterprise Housing and Communal Services  
 
129.  The State Unitary Enterprise Housing and Communal Services, together with the state 
enterprises under its control are the suppliers of public utilities in Tajikistan,
15
 including 31 
Mezhraion (Inter-district) Bureau of Technical Inventory (MBTI). MBTI is established as a self-
funding enterprise, operating at district and city levels. It is mainly in charge of technical 
inventory of immovable property, buildings (houses, constructions, etc). The Government 
Decree No 513, dated 30 December 1998 provides the following roles for MBTI:  
 
•  technical inventory of private houses and land, buildings, apartments and state 
companies 
•  technical inventory and valuation of constructions and structures 
                                                            
12
 Regulation on Agency on land management, geodesy and cartography under the Government of Republic of 
Tajikistan, approvedd by the Government Decree from December 28 2006, №613.  
13
 
This is a legal document that verifies the title holding of any parcel of land.
 
14
 The Government Decree No. 613, dated 26 December 2006 provides the details of the roles and responsibilities, 
organizational structure and its associated enterprises.   
15
 ‘It was established by Government Decree No235, dated 6 June 2001, and has 131 subordinate enterprises, 
including 31 MBTIs. 

 
 
54 
•  technical inventory of the affected assets  
•  technical inventory of engineering networks, and  
•  registration of ownership and preparation of an Ownership Certificates for immovable 
assets. 
 
130.  The registration of structures and other objects is conducted to establish ownership 
rights of houses, buildings and apartments and their registration in cities and villages. MBTI 
registers immovable properties in its Registration Book, based on land plots, including the 
following information: (i) Date, (ii) Identification Number in the Register, (iii) address of 
immoveable property, (iv) owner’s name, (v) shares, (vi) legal documents, (vii) encumbrances, 
(viii) signature of registering staff member, (ix) remarks. A unique number is applied for 
buildings and apartments based on postal address: (i) District name, (ii) Block Number, (iii) 
Street name, (iv) Building Number, (v) Apartment Number. However, the block is different to that 
used by the ALMG. MBTI is required to update the data about the changes of structure and the 
value of the buildings every three years, mainly for taxation purposes. MBTI offices have 
specialists in architecture and construction for each district. 
 
6.5      The Local Executive State Power in Districts (Hukumats)  
 
131.  The District Hukumat is the local administration body, established in all cities and 
districts. It is under the Oblast level and there are Jamoats under the District Hukumats. The 
Hukumat is led by a chairperson who has a wide range of responsibilities and authorities, 
including land management, housing and infrastructure, social security, law and order, health 
care and production. The planning and implementation of any LAR activities related to land and 
assets is done through Hukumats. This is the local administration having a direct link with the 
people and most of small grievances related to allocation and distribution of land rights. In 
relation to land and immovable property administration, the Hukumat assists the concerned 
departments (land commission/MBTI/PIU etc) in resolving the issues such as allocation of land 
use rights,  and decisions on acquisition of land use rights and allocation of alternate sites for 
resettlement. An ad-hoc Commission exists for Land Acquisition/Compensation/Resettlement. 
 
132.  For defining the losses to land users due to land acquisition for state and public needs or 
for the temporary occupation of land parcels, the valuation commissions are formed consisting 
of the following members:
16
  
 
•  a representative of the district Hukumat, usually the deputy chairman of the district or 
town, 
•  the head of the district agency for land management, geodesy and cartography,  
•  a representative of the district or town office of architecture,  
•  representatives of the water management department,  
•  a representative of the district for environmental protection 
•  representatives of the affected land users,  
•  representatives of the enterprises and/or institutions interested in land acquisition, and  
•  representatives of other organizations as defined by the Hukumat.  
 
133.   For LARP I, the commissions assessed all agricultural losses and determined the 
compensation and obtained approval by the hukumats. The valuation for buildings and 
                                                            
16
 Item 31, Regulation about the order of compensation of losses to the land users, approved by the Government 
Decree  dated December 30, 2000, №515.  

 
 
 
structures during the preparation of the Draft LARP was done by MBTI.  In addition to MBTI 
valuation, during the preparation of the LARP I, the State Committee on Investment and State 
Property Management of the Republic of Tajikistan, provided an independent evaluation of all 
affected structures based on the current market value.  
 
6.6      Consultants 
 
134.  The following Consultants were, or will be involved in the preparation, implementation 
and monitoring of the LAR tasks: 
 
1.  Draft LARP - During the preparation of the preliminary design, the PPT consultant 
engaged one international and one local consultant, Land Acquisition and 
Resettlement Specialists, to conduct preliminary surveys and assessment, and to 
prepare the Draft LARP. 
 
2.  LARP I - as part of the Contract for Preparatory Procurement and Safeguard Support 
Services, one international and one local Land Acquisition and Resettlement 
Specialists  were  engaged through individual contracts with the MOT. These 
consultants assisted MOT to conduct final impact assessment survey, jointly with the 
MOT Resettlement Specialist and other staff and in close consultation with the 
engineering team engaged under the Contract for Preparatory Procurement and 
Safeguard Support Services. The LAR specialists worked with the MBTI 
representatives, the State Committee on Investment and State Property 
Management of the Republic of Tajikistan representatives and the responsible 
hukumats for the valuation of structures and buildings. The consultants provided the 
following main services: 
 
•  management of site survey teams to carry out the tasks required for finalizing 
LARP I  
•  preliminary impact assessment for LARP II 
•  assisting MOT in conducting consultations with the affected persons 
•  review of compensation rates 
•  review of the grievances mechanism 
•  preparation of LARP I 
•  provision of other services according to the terms of reference included in the 
contract for preparatory procurement and safeguard support services 
 
3.  Implementation of LARP I – The MOT will engage an Independent Monitor (the 
IM), an entity or an individual consultant, for independent monitoring and evaluation 
of the implementation of the LARP I, expected to commence in March 2011.The IM 
will work according to the terms of reference agreed with ADB. Its main task will be to 
report on the compliance with the LARP approved by MOT and ADB, before the civil 
works may proceed. 
 
4.  Preparation of LARP II - as part of the Contract for Project Management Services 
(the PMC) an international consulting firm will engage one international 
Resettlement Specialist and one national Land Acquisition and Resettlement 
Expert to provide services required under the services specified in the terms of 
reference for PMC contract. The consultants will provide the following main services  
 
•  conducting site surveys and assessments required for finalization of LARP II, 
after the contractor finalizes the road alignment for the sections of the road where 

 
 
56 
MOT /Government of 
Tajikistan 
Asian Development 
Bank 
Agency on Land 
Management and  
Geodesy  
Affected Persons 
Working Group 
MBTI and State 
Committee for 
Investment
PIU Field Level Staff and 
the PIU Resettlement 
Specialist
Ad hoc Commission for 
Land Acquisition  
Ministry of Finance 
Local Executive 
State Power in 
District (Hukumats) 
Independent Monitor 
the alignment was not ‘fixed’ during the contract for Preparatory Procurement and 
Safeguard Support Services 
•  assisting MOT in conducting consultations with the affected persons under LARP 
II 
•  verification of compensation rates 
•  preparation of LARP II 
•  provision of other services according to the terms of reference included in the 
PMC contract 
 
5.  Implementation of LARP II – Based on the options discussed with ADB 
representatives, independent monitoring and evaluation of the implementation of the 
LARP II will be conducted by the PMC Consultant. The implementation is expected to 
commence 5-6 months after the commencement of the civil works contract.  
 
6.7      Other Government Organizations 
 
135.  The Ministry of Finance (MOF) is responsible for allocating the budget for booth phases 
of LARP implementation. The MOF has already allocated the budget for the implementation of 
the LARP based on the estimate included in the Draft LARP. The entire institutional 
arrangement for the implementation of both phases of LARP is presented in the following figure. 
 
Figure 6 
Institutional Arrangements  
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 
 
 
7.0       GRIEVANCE REDRESS MECHANISM 
 
7.1     General  
 
136.  The APs will have the right to file complaints and/or queries on any aspect of land 
acquisition compensation, and resettlement. MOT will ensure that grievances and complaints on 
any aspect of the land acquisition, compensation, and resettlement are addressed in a timely 
and satisfactory manner. All possible avenues are made available to the APs to air their 
grievances. Under the adopted grievance mechanism, APs may appeal any decision, practice 
or activity connected with the assessment or valuation of land or other assets, acquisition and 
compensation. All APs have been fully informed of their rights and of the procedures for 
addressing complaints. Care will always be taken to prevent grievances rather than going 
through a redress process. This will be obtained through careful LAR implementation, by 
ensuring full participation and consultations of all APs, and by establishing extensive 
communication and coordination between the affected communities, the MOT, and the local 
authorities in general.  
 
7.2       Steps for Grievance Redress 
 
7.2.1    Grievance mechanism during the resettlement phase  
 
137.  Complaints and grievances received during the resettlement phase will addressed 
through the following steps and actions: 
 
Step 1:  Complaints will be lodged at the MOT district offices/field level where the 
responsible Hukumat and Jamoat officers, as representatives of the affected 
households, will attempt to resolve the issue. A standard grievance registration form 
was prepared and given for comments and perusal to Hukumats and Jamoats 
officials  (Appendix 2). Each complaint will be registered, signed by the affected 
person and a representative of the Grievance Redress Committee, and the receipt of 
the complaint given to the affected person. The period fixed for resolution of 
complaints is 30 calendar days.  
 
Step 2:  If a grievance is not resolved during a 30-day period, the affected person (or 
her/his representative, if chosen) may lodge the complaint to the Resettlement 
Working Group Committee at the MOT. The Resettlement Working group Committee 
has an obligation to attempt to resolve the issue within14 calendar days. 
 
Step 3:  If no solution is reached within 14 days, the affected person can submit 
her/his case to the appropriate court of law.  
 
138.  A grievance redress mechanism is presented in following figure. 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 
 
58 
Figure 7 
Schematic Presentation of the Grievances Redress Mechanism 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
7.2.2  Formation of Grievances Redress Committee (GRC)  
 
139.  One Grievance Redress Committee (GRC) will be established at the rayon level in each 
district to resolve complaints and grievances informally through community participation. The 
GRC will consist of representatives of the MOT, the local hukumat, APs, women APs (if any), 
and appropriate local NGOs to allow voices of the affected communities to be heard and to 
ensure a participatory decision-making process. The GRC decisions will be made by majority of 
members and will be publicized among the local communities. If the complainants are not 
satisfied with the GRC decisions, they can always file their cases in court. 
 
140.  GRCs will be established at the rayon level, by an office order of the Ministry of 
Transport (MOT). The following seven members will constitute each Grievances Redress 
Committee:  
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
GRC at the district 
level 
Grievance 
Addressed  
PIU Field Level 
Staff/Resettlement Specialist 
Minor Grievances 
Major Grievances
Grievance 
Addressed 
Not Addressed 
Not Addressed 
Working Group  
Court of Law 
Grievance Addressed 
Affected Persons 

 
 
 
Rayon Grievances Redress Committee 

Head of Committee, Deputy Chairman of the District 
Government Authority 
   Convener 
2  Chief District Architect  
   Member 

Head of Municipality (inter-district) bureau of technical 
inventory 
   Member 
4  Head of the Women and Family Welfare Department of district  
   Member 
5  Representative from the PIU 
   Member Secretary 

Representative from the district Office of the     Cadastre and 
Land Registration, Land Management and Geodesy Agency 
   Member 
7  Representative of APs 
   Member 
8  Representative from the Jamoats within the District 
   Member 
9  Representative of the Independent Labor Union  within district 
   Member 
10  Representative local NGO ‘Munis’ 
   Member 
 
 
Example of the Grievance Redress Committee for Gissar Rayon: 
 
Head of Committee 
Deputy Chairman of the District Government Authority 
A. Hafizov 
Convener 
Chief Architect of District 
H. Solehova 
Member 
Head of Municipality (inter-district) bureau of technical 
inventory 
A. Boboev 
Member 
Head of Women and Family Welfare department of 
district  
H. Rajabova 
Member 
Representative from the PIU 
M. Mirzoev 
Member Secretary 
Representative from the district Office of the  Cadastre 
and Land Registration, Land Management and 
Geodesy Agency 
I. Muhtaramov
Member 
Member 
Representative of APs 

Member 
Representative from the Jamoats within the District 
M. Safarov 
N. Solehov 
B. Mahmudov 
Member 
Representative of the Independent Labor Union within 
district 
M. Ikromova 
Member 
Representative local NGO ‘Munis’ 
M. Hokimova 
Member 
 
   
 
7.2.3  Grievance mechanism during the construction period 
 
141.  All persons living along the Project road, regardless of whether affected by land 
acquisition and resettlement, may experience some adverse impact during the construction 
period such as damages or losses to property, caused by direct physical impact of the 
contractor’s equipment, vibration, contractor’s or employer’s design, or by other activities related 
to the construction of the road. Under the terms of the civil works contract, the Contractor has 
the obligation to provide a third party insurance in the joint name of MOT, as the Employer, and 
the Contractor. According to the terms of the civil works contract, in case of damages, an 

 
 
60 
affected person (the Claimant) may follow the claim procedure: 
 
•  Address his/her claim(s) for damages to the Contractor, or to the Employer, or to 
both of them.  
•  The Claimant may chose to write first a Notice of Claim, immediately after the 
event, which caused the damage, and then to write a full claim, providing 
particulars of the damages and details of the compensation claimed. 
Alternatively, the Claimant may submit only a claim. In either case, it is advisable 
to submit the complete claim not later than 7 days after the damaging event. 
While the Notice of Claim is an option, the submission of a detailed claim is a 
must. 
•  Once the Employer or the Contractor receives the claim, they have an obligation 
to notify the Insurer, which should then send its representatives to verify the 
Claimant’s allegations, investigate the causes and assess the damages. 
•  After that, the Insurer decides whether the claim is justified, and if so, whether to 
pay a part or the entire claim. 
•  The Insurer will reject the entire claim if it is not justified. Furthermore, the Insurer 
may refuse to pay damages, or to pay only a part of a justified claim. This could 
happen for many different reasons: if the insured parties did not notify the Insurer 
of the claim/notice of claim within the period specified in the insurance policy; or 
the Contractor or the Employer were grossly negligent, or the particular damage 
or a particular action is excluded from the insurance, etc. In such a case, the 
Contractor or the Employer may still accept liability for a part or the entire amount 
of the claimed damages and pay the difference to the Claimant. 
•  However, if after the Insurer does not pay a part or the entire claim, and one or 
both parties also refuse to pay a part or the entire claim, and the Claimant 
believes that his or her claim is justified, the Claimant may take legal action 
against either or both parties. It is essential to note that the Claimant does not 
have any claim against the Insurer, but only against one or both parties. 
•  If the Insurer refuses to pay the entire or a part of the amount claimed, the 
Claimant may still be entitled to the full amount of the claimed damages from the 
Contractor or the Employer. (see Appendix 11, Third party insurance) 
•  If the Contractor or the Employer refuse to pay a part or the entire amount of 
damages to which the Claimant believes to be entitled, the Claimant may sue the 
Contractor, or the Employer, or both.   
 
 
 
 
 
 

 
 
 
 
8.  
PUBLIC CONSULTATON, INFORMATION DISSEMINATION AND 
DISCLOSURE 
  
 
8.1       General 
 
142.  Public consultations were carried out at various stages of the Project preparation 
particularly during the preparation of Draft LARP and LARP I:  
 
143.   The Draft LARP included a screening survey, land census survey, socio-economic 
survey and targeted consultation meetings with the affected people and local stakeholder 
organizations and individuals. Public consultations were designed to share information on 
issues related to LAR activities. Consultations were carried out with affected persons, local 
communities, people’s representatives, government and non-government organizations. The 
consultations have achieved that the affected people and other stakeholders are informed, 
consulted and allowed to participate actively in the process of road development and 
preparation of the LARP. Public consultations were also used as a tool for obtaining socio-
economic information, public opinion about the proposed Project and on sensitive and critical 
issues. This information was considered in the preliminary design, to minimize adverse social 
and resettlement impacts. 
 
 
144.  Consultations during the preparation of the Draft LARP. These consultations with all 
stakeholders covered the Project design and land situation and issues in the Project area. Also, 
general socio-economic activities of the affected people and the findings were recorded. A 
second round of consultations was held during the census and socio-economic survey. These 
covered types of ownership, function of the collective farms, availability of alternate land and 
discussions on involvement of people during the LARP preparation and implementation. The 
following points were discussed with the stakeholders: 
 
•  Rules and Regulations of Tajikistan pertaining to land acquisition and Resettlement; 
•  Requirements of ADB’s Safeguards  on Involuntary Resettlement and provisions made 
under the compensation and rehabilitation policy for the Project; 
•  Initial Draft Compensation Policy specially the Entitlement Matrix; 
•  Eligibility of various types of compensation; 
•  Project Assistance to the eligible APs;  
•  Discussion on how to assess the replacement cost, i.e., unit cost for sample structures, 
productivity of land etc; 
•  Discussions on implementation of the  LARP with due involvement of all stakeholders;  
•  Discussions on how to take forward the grievance and how to address the grievance during 
LARP implementation. 
   
 
145. Consultations conducted during the finalization of the LARP I. The second major 
stage of consultations with stakeholders and affected communities included the following 
subjects: 
 
  detailed information about the Project 
  detailed explanations of entitlements and grievance procedures to each 
affected person during the final measurements of affected assets 
 

 
 
62 
  daily consultations with the representatives of hukumats, Land Committee, 
MBTI
 
and the State Committee on Investment and State Property 
Management of the Republic of Tajikistan. 
  consultations with the Resettlement Working Group Committees in each 
Rayon  
  Consultation sessions with all affected people in each Rayon 
 
146.  A summary of major consultations with communities, affected persons and government 
official conducted during the preparation of the Draft LARP and LARP I are presented in the 
following table.  The detailed records of the consultation meetings with the affected people in all 
Rayons are provided in Appendix 5. 
 
 
 
Table 8.1 
LARP Consultations Matrix 
 
Date 
Location/type of the 
meeting  
Number of 


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