Review and comprehension endocrine system

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1. What are the major functional differences between the endocrine system

and the nervous system?
> The significant difference between these two is that the nervous system

uses electrical signals or impulses to send the signals through neurons,

while the endocrine system uses hormones acting as the chemical messenger

to send signals to the target cell through the blood stream in the body.
2. List the functions of the endocrine system.

  • Metabolism

  • Growth and Development

  • Sexual Function and Reproduction

  • Heart Rate

  • Blood Pressure

  • Appetite

  • Sleeping and Waking Cycles

  • Body Temperature

5. Explain the relationship between a hormone and its receptor.
> A hormone receptor is a receptor molecule that binds to a specific hormone...

upon hormone binding, the receptor can initiate multiple signaling pathways,

which ultimately leads to changes in the behavior of the target cells.
9. Define endocrine gland and hormone.
> Listen to pronunciation (EN-DOH-KRIN) An organ that makes hormones that

are released directly into the blood and travel to tissues and organs all over

the body. Endocrine glands help control many body functions, including growth

and development, metabolism, and fertility.

10. What makes one tissue a target tissue for a hormone and another not a target

> A target cell responds to a hormone because it bears receptors for the

hormone, in other words, a particular cell is a target cell for a hormone if it

contains functional receptors for that hormone, and cells which do not have such

a receptors cannot be influenced directly by that hormone.

> A tissue becomes a target tissue when it is affected or stimulated by a spe-

cific amino acid, target tissue is the intended site that a hormone will affect.
11. Into what chemical categories can hormones be classified?
> Although there are many different hormones in the human body, they can be

divided into three classes based on their chemical structure: lipid-derived,

amino acid-derived and peptide(peptide and proteins) hormones.
12. Name three ways that hormone secretion is regulated.

> Hormone levels are primarily controlled through negative feedback in which

rising levels of a hormone inhibit its further release. The three mechanisms of

hormonal release are humoral stimuli, hormonal stimuli, and neural stimuli.
13. Describe how secretions of the anterior and posterior pituitary hormones are

> Follicle-Stimulating Hormone and Luteinizing Hormone

> GnRH stimulates the anterior pituitary to secrete gonadotropins - hormones

that regulate the function of the gonads. The levels of GnRH are regulated

through a negative feedback loop; high levels of reproductive hormones inhibit

the release of GnRH.
23. List the hormones secreted by the placenta.

> The placenta is an endocrine gland that is only present during pregnancy. In

this lesson, you will learn about the hormones it produces, including human -

chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), progesterone, estrogen, and human placental -

lactogen (hPL).

24. List the major age-related changes that affect the endocrine system.

> Many age-related changes to the endocrine system contribute to this

accumulation of adipose tissue, including the somatopause, autoimmune

hypothyroidism, insulin resistance, and reduced circulating sex hormones.

This abdominal fat accumulation is linked to heart disease, high blood pressure

and type 2 diabetes.
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