“Revolution” goal: “Revolution” goal


Download 448 b.
Sana26.09.2018
Hajmi448 b.



“Revolution” goal:

  • “Revolution” goal:

  • Most causes of revolution include:

    • State weakness, elite conflicts, popular unrest
    • population growth, unemployment, loss of welfare
  • Most movements in Latin America aspire to transformation but fail to achieve this goal.

  • Three periods:

    • Independence – elite “revolution”
    • Influence of Fidel (1959-90 to Sandinista defeat)
    • Individuals – new social movements (indigenous)


Argentina

  • Argentina

    • Monteros/Ejercito Revolucionario del Pueblo (ERP)
  • Bolivia

    • Movimiento Nacionalista Revolucionario (1952-1964)
    • Túpac Amaru (1780 sporadic – throughout Andes)
  • Colombia (1964-Present)

    • Fuerzas Armadas Revolucionarios de Colombia
    • Ejército de Liberación Nacional
    • Quintín Lame
    • Auto-defensas Unidas de Colombia
    • M-19
    • Partido Revolucionario de los Trabajadores
  • Peru

    • Sendero Luminoso (1980)
    • Hugo Blanco
  • Uruguay

    • Tupamaros
  • Venezuela

    • Bolivarian Revolution 1999-present


Cuba

  • Cuba

    • 26th of July Movement 1959-Present
  • El Salvador

    • Farabundo Marti National Liberation Front (FMLN), 1980-1992.
  • Guatemala

    • 1944-1954
  • Mexico

    • Mexican Revolution 1910
    • Chiapas, Zapatistas – Ejercito Zapatista de Liberación Nacional, 1 January 1994
  • Nicaragua

    • Sandinista National Liberation Front (FSLN), 1979-1990


1959 Havana falls (Batista flees)

  • 1959 Havana falls (Batista flees)

    • January 7, U.S. recognizes new government.
    • February, Castro installed as president
    • April 15-26, Trip to U.S., dubbed “Operation Truth”
    • May 17, Signing of Agrarian Reform Act, expropriating farm lands, including his family’s (nationalization of 75% of arable land).
  • 1960 Nationalization of private property.

    • May 8, Establishment of formal diplomatic relations with U.S.S.R.
    • July 5, Nationalization of U.S. companies and properties in Cuba 
    • September 17, Nationalization of all U.S. banks in Cuba
  • 1961, Separation, conflict, emergence of key foreign policy goal.

    • January, U.S. (outgoing Eisenhower administration) severs diplomatic ties; bars travel without government approval, authorizes CIA training of exile army – goal to remove Castro.
    • September U.S. Foreign Assistance Act authorizes trade embargo.
    • April, Bay of Pigs invasion (Kennedy administration).


1961 FSLN formed (Frente Sandinista de Liberación Naciónal)

  • 1961 FSLN formed (Frente Sandinista de Liberación Naciónal)

  • Guerrilla army with goal of removing Dictator Anastasio Somoza.

  • Philosophy:

  • Chronology:

    • Early defeats by National Guard; improved organization; accepted Christians (liberation theology); 1967-74 silent accumulation of forces culminating in 1974 action; benefitted by Somoza greed in 1972 earthquake response
    • FSLN becomes a product of groups of interests: Prolonged People’s War (Maoist); Proletarian tendency (urban/student); Terceristas (Insurrectionist) – alliance strategy – mobilize a broad based coalition to defeat Somoza
  • Final offensive March to July 1979

  • 2006 Daniel Ortega elected president



La Violencia 1948-1958.

  • La Violencia 1948-1958.

  • Power sharing agreement to end conflict.

  • Emergence of multiple “revolutionary” groups

    • FARC (Revolutionary Army of Colombia 1964)
    • ELN (National Liberation Army 1964)
    • AUC (United Self Defense Forces of Colombia)
    • EPL (Popular Liberation Army 1965)
    • M-19 (April 19th Movement)


Roots in repressed coffee labor movement.

  • Roots in repressed coffee labor movement.

  • Coffee laborers supported by Colombian Communist Party.

  • Assassination of Jorge Gaitán, Cuban revolution inspiration moves movement beyond self-defense to “revolution”.

  • Retains nominal support of Marxist goals today.

  • Governed by a general secretariat led by longtime leader Manuel Marulanda (a.k.a. “Tirofijo”/Sureshot).

  • Organized along military lines and includes several units that operate mostly in key urban areas such as Bogotá (present in 60% of municipal areas 2005).

  • Funded with coca “taxes” – demise of Escobar 1993



National Liberation Army

  • National Liberation Army

  • 1965: Marxist insurgent group, formed by urban intellectuals inspired by Castro and Guevara.

  • Primary opposition to FARC

  • Leader Felipe Torres.



United Self-Defense Forces/Group of Colombia (AUC) formed in 1997 to protect economic interests and combat FARC and ELN insurgents.

  • United Self-Defense Forces/Group of Colombia (AUC) formed in 1997 to protect economic interests and combat FARC and ELN insurgents.

  • Supported by economic elites, drug traffickers, and local communities lacking effective government security and claims its primary objective is to protect its sponsors from insurgents.

  • Frequently aided by Colombian military (clandestine)

  • Leader Carlos Castano, negotiating to demobilize.



Sendero Luminoso

  • Sendero Luminoso



CONAIE, Pachakutik, Ecuador http://www.conaie.org/

  • CONAIE, Pachakutik, Ecuador http://www.conaie.org/

  • Zapatista, Chiapas, Mexico

  • Cocaleros Federation, Bolivia

  • MST, Brasil http://www.mstbrazil.org/?q=about

  • Madres de la Plaza de Mayo, Argentina



Chiapas

  • Chiapas

  • January 1st 1994 movement seizes four towns in Chiapas

    • Land
    • Democratization
    • Indigenous rights
    • Repeal of NAFTA
  • Two different Mexicos

    • Those moving ahead
    • Those left behind


1917 constitution, Article 27 placed significant limitations on property ownership by foreigners, the Catholic Church and declared national ownership of the country's natural resources

  • 1917 constitution, Article 27 placed significant limitations on property ownership by foreigners, the Catholic Church and declared national ownership of the country's natural resources

  • In its original form, Article 27 also granted the government broad powers to expropriate private property in the public interest and to redistribute land.

  • Amended in 1992



Created the Ejido – agricultural land grant

  • Created the Ejido – agricultural land grant

    • approach to breaking up large landholdings – latifundios – post revolution.
  • Ejido functions:

    • government issued land to users, (peasants), for cultivation.
    • access to land guaranteed by the state but not ownership
    • temporary but in perpetuity “title” as long as the land is cultivated.


provides for the leasing and sale of ejido property:

  • provides for the leasing and sale of ejido property:

    • ...The law... shall regulate the rights of every ejido member in relation to his parcel of ejido property by establishing the procedures by which they may form partnerships among themselves, with the State, or with third parties, and for the granting of the use of their properties... as well as establish the requirements and procedures by which the ejidos may grant its members ownership to their parcel of ejido property.
  • ejido property may now be sold, the ejido has the right to determine how its property is parceled off and made available for sale.



Unresolved sociopolitical conflict

  • Unresolved sociopolitical conflict

  • Sporadic clashes since 1994 over unresolved land claims

  • Fox promised to renew dialogue with Zapatista Rebels

  • As president he has withdrawn significant military presence from the region

  • August 2001 peace accords ratified but may be amended in future



Katalog: horanj

Download 448 b.

Do'stlaringiz bilan baham:




Ma'lumotlar bazasi mualliflik huquqi bilan himoyalangan ©fayllar.org 2020
ma'muriyatiga murojaat qiling