Samba Samba Bossa Nova mpb


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Samba

  • Samba

  • Bossa Nova

  • MPB

  • Tropicalismo – rock, political

  • Tropicalia (tropicalismo + psychedelia)

  • Earlier forms – choros (instrumental)

  • Classical



Very general term

  • Very general term

  • Roots in Carnival

  • 1st recording 1917

  • 1st “school” 1930s

  • Percussion

  • Cavaquinho – a small guitar-like inst



The cavaquinho is a small string instrument of the European guitar family with four wires or gut strings.

  • The cavaquinho is a small string instrument of the European guitar family with four wires or gut strings.

  • It is also called machimbo, machim, machete (in the Portuguese Atlantic islands and Brazil), manchete or marchete, braguinha or braguinho, and cavaco.



A very distinctive percussion instrument!

  • A very distinctive percussion instrument!



snare drum (caixa)

  • snare drum (caixa)

  • repinique

  • surdo



300-400 together!

  • 300-400 together!

  • Carnival Bateria





Foundation for even lighter style, BOSSA NOVA

  • Foundation for even lighter style, BOSSA NOVA

  • BOSSA NOVA introduced to the world by film Black Orpheus



João Gilberto, Astrud Gilberto

  • João Gilberto, Astrud Gilberto

  • “The Girl from Ipanema" ("Garota de Ipanema")

  • a well known bossa nova song

  • a worldwide hit in the mid-1960s

  • written in 1962, with music by Antonio Carlos Jobim and Portuguese lyrics by Vinicius de Moraes (who also wrote the play and screenplay for Black Orpheus).



Example bossa nova song: “Off-Key” or "Slightly Out of Tune," in Portuguese as "Desafinado," composed by Antonio Carlos Jobim with lyrics by Newton Mendonça, 1959

  • Example bossa nova song: “Off-Key” or "Slightly Out of Tune," in Portuguese as "Desafinado," composed by Antonio Carlos Jobim with lyrics by Newton Mendonça, 1959



If not totally sentimental, lyrics have a special kind of melancholy

  • If not totally sentimental, lyrics have a special kind of melancholy

  • Example from the film, Black Orpheus: “Sadness has no end; happiness does.”



a political turn in Brazilian popular music

  • a political turn in Brazilian popular music

  • 1964 military coup

  • Chico Buarque

    • exiled briefly for controversial play, returns in 1970
    • Voted ‘Brazil’s musician of the century’ in 1999 magazine poll; not as famous in the US


Lyrics (in Portuguese)

  • Lyrics (in Portuguese)

  • Pai, afasta de mim esse cálice

  • De vinho tinto de sangue.

  • Como beber dessa bebida amarga

  • Tragar a dor, engolir a labuta.

  • Mesmo calada a boca, resta o peito

  • Silêncio na cidade não se escuta.

  • De que me vale ser filho da santa

  • Melhor seria ser filho da outra

  • Outra realidade menos morta

  • Tanta mentira, tanta força bruta.



Political lyrics (jailed in late 1960s)

  • Political lyrics (jailed in late 1960s)

  • actively internationalist in musical style

  • Surrealist lyrics



Jailed and exiled in the 60s & 70s

  • Jailed and exiled in the 60s & 70s

  • Minister of Culture, 2002

  • Tropicalia Gilberto Gil 1972

  • roots music, too “So quero um xodo” (forro)



Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva

  • Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva

  • Current president of Brazil

  • Elected in 2002 & re-elected in 2006

  • born to a poor, illiterate peasant family in 1945

  • worked in metals industry & was active the union

  • Goals are to reduce poverty & hunger

  • Brazil no longer a debtor nation – now lends money





Bach’s music is part of a “universal folkloric source”

  • Bach’s music is part of a “universal folkloric source”

  • Villa-Lobos: Bachianas Brasileiras – tributes to Bach in a Brazilian Style

  • 9 suites composed 1930-1945

  • Most famous: No. 5

    • Two movements: aria & dance (martelo)


Choro – urban folk music, ("cry" in Portuguese)

  • Choro – urban folk music, ("cry" in Portuguese)

  • “native” music

  • Collage – similar to European music at the time (composed in Paris)

  • 1926

  • Big orchestral work reflecting many contemporary European influences







Samba – broad term for a style

  • Samba – broad term for a style

    • Percussive style associated with Carnival
    • Song style
  • Samba roots in poor lower class

  • Becomes national culture

  • Sophisticated, trained composers work in samba and Bossa Nova



Political uses of music

  • Political uses of music

    • Nationalism (Vargas, govt sponsorship of samba schools)
    • Brazilian cultural identity (Villa-Lobos)
    • Protest (example: “Calice” by Chico Buarque)
    • Reconciliation of class, race and regional issues (example: Gilberto Gil, once jailed and exiled, now a cabinet minister)


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