Shaxsidan qat’iy nazar bir xil boglanadi

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Lesson 11

Modal verbs

  • Shaxsidan qat’iy nazar bir xil boglanadi she can, I can

  • Modal verb + V1

  • Modal verbs aux negative/ question

  1. Must  obligation = majburiyat (“shart, zarur”)

Positive structure:

S + must + V1

I must do homework every day.

She must clean the house until 4 o’clock.

Students must wear uniform to university.

Drivers must stop in the stop sign.

Must not (“qilmasligi shart” taqiq)

Negative structure: aux+not

S + must + not + V1

Must + not = mustn’t

Pupils mustn’t come to school in casual clothes.

People mustn’t drive a car after drinking alcohol.

Individuals mustn’t go out without a mask.

People mustn’t use phone while driving.

Must +S (“shartmi”)

Question structure: aux

Must + S + V1?

Must I bring pen and notebook to the exam?

Yes, you must/ No, You needn’t

Must you go to the museum?

Yes, I must / No, I needn’t

Must he do all these work alone?

Yes, he must/ no, he needn’t

Must they speak in English?

Yes, they must/ no, they needn’t

  1. Have to = must

Positive structure: = must (“shart, majbur/ .. ga togri keladi”)

S + have to / has to + V 1

I have to go early today; I have some work to do.

She has to cook meals every evening.

Today he has to take a taxi, because his car is broken.

Negative structure: = aux – do/does +not

Must ”shart emas”

S + do/ does + not + have to + V1

I don’t have to wake up early on Sundays, because I don’t have any studies.

He doesn’t have to go to supermarket to buy products; the delivery service is working.

We don’t have to go to that party, it is boring.

Question structure: aux- do /does

= must = “shartmi?”

Do/Does + S + have to + V1?

Do you have to write all these new words?

Yes, I do/ no, I don’t

Do I have to wear this jacket?

Yes, you do/ No, you don’t

Does she have to wear glasses?

Yes, she does/ No, she doesn’t

  1. Shall

  • Positive & question  I /WE

  • Suggesting something

I shall bring you some water, you look thirsty

Shall I make you some sandwiches? are you hungry?

Shall we have lunch together? = let’s have lunch together

  1. May

  • Permission = ruxsat “maylimi”

  • Possibility = ehtimoliylik “mumkin”

Positive structure:

S + may + V1

He may play with us, his mother permitted.

It may rain today, look at the clouds.

I may be late today, I have got a lot of lessons.

We may go out now, the meeting has finished.

Negative structure:

S + may not+ V1

He may not open that box, mother told us not to do so.

We may not finish this level next week.

Question structure:

May + S +V1?

May I come in?  yes, you may/can

No, you may not/ can’t

May he go to other countries, when he reaches Europe?

Yes, he may, if he has visa / no, he may not
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