Similarities


Download 480 b.
Sana24.05.2018
Hajmi480 b.



Similarities

  • Similarities





Early agricultural farming villages by 7000 BCE

  • Early agricultural farming villages by 7000 BCE

  • Towns and cities by 3000 BCE

  • Large cosmopolitan cities – 2800 to 1700 BCE

  • Two main cities: Harappa (north) and Mohenjo-Daro (south)

  • Population of @30,000 each













The Harappan peoples, like their contemporaries in Mesopotamia, developed a writing system to record their spoken language. Unfortunately, it has not yet been deciphered. Most extant examples of Harappan writing are found on fired clay seals depicting human figures and animals. These seals have been found in houses and were probably used to identify the owners of goods for sale. Other seals may have been used as amulets or have had other religious significance. Several depict religious figures or ritualistic scenes of sacrifice.

  • The Harappan peoples, like their contemporaries in Mesopotamia, developed a writing system to record their spoken language. Unfortunately, it has not yet been deciphered. Most extant examples of Harappan writing are found on fired clay seals depicting human figures and animals. These seals have been found in houses and were probably used to identify the owners of goods for sale. Other seals may have been used as amulets or have had other religious significance. Several depict religious figures or ritualistic scenes of sacrifice.





Who are the Aryans? (1500-1000BCE) – pastoral nomads, sheep and cattle, horses

  • Who are the Aryans? (1500-1000BCE) – pastoral nomads, sheep and cattle, horses

  • Moved into Indian subcontinent from north

  • Conflict and connections with Harappan descendents

  • Formed many small warring kingdoms led by warrior king rajahs

  • Vedas were sacred hymns of priests, finally written down by 800 BCE





Focused on war and battle

  • Focused on war and battle

  • Patriarchal

  • Polytheistic

  • Animal sacrifice

  • Life after death

  • Wine, food, gambling

  • Beginning of caste system: difference between Aryans (“noble”) and defeated people (“Dasa” – meaning slave or subject)



Invasions of northwest India by Persians (518 BCE) and Greeks (326 BCE)

  • Invasions of northwest India by Persians (518 BCE) and Greeks (326 BCE)

  • Brought wider connections with other cultures

  • Increased trade

  • Affected political alignments within continent

  • Caused rise of Mauryan Empire out of many different states/kingdoms



Mauryan Empire (342-301 BC)

  • Mauryan Empire (342-301 BC)

    • Led by Chandragupta Maurya
    • United various kingdoms into first Indian empire
    • 321-184 BCE
    • Combined govt., military, religions of Persia, Macedonia, and India
  • First Dynasty in India

    • Ashoka, Chandragupta’s grandson
    • Converted to Buddhism and led paternalist state
    • Spread religion and control


Ashoka, the greatest Indian monarch, reigned over the Mauryan dynasty in the third century B.C.E. This map shows the extent of his empire, with the location of the pillar edicts that were erected along major trade routes.

  • Ashoka, the greatest Indian monarch, reigned over the Mauryan dynasty in the third century B.C.E. This map shows the extent of his empire, with the location of the pillar edicts that were erected along major trade routes.



Carved out of solid rock cliffs during the Mauryan dynasty, rock chambers served as meditation halls for traveling Buddhist monks. Initially, they resembled freestanding shrines of wood and thatch from the Vedic period but evolved into magnificent chapels carved deep into the mountainside, such as this one at Karli.

  • Carved out of solid rock cliffs during the Mauryan dynasty, rock chambers served as meditation halls for traveling Buddhist monks. Initially, they resembled freestanding shrines of wood and thatch from the Vedic period but evolved into magnificent chapels carved deep into the mountainside, such as this one at Karli.



1. Priestly Class (Brahmins)

  • 1. Priestly Class (Brahmins)

  • 2. Warrior Class (Kshatriya)

  • 3. Commoner Class (Vaisya)

  • 4. Peasant Class (Sudras)

  • 5. Untouchables (Pariahs)

  • Reasons for Survival of Caste System:

  • 1. provided an identity for individuals in a highly hierarchical society

  • 2. means for new groups to achieve recognizable place in broader community

  • 3. primitive welfare system

  • 4. provided an element of stability in society that was in a state of political anarchy





Break up into groups of 3 people

  • Break up into groups of 3 people

  • Wait to be assigned an Indian religion

  • Assignment:

    • Using your textbook, what are the major beliefs of your assigned religion?
    • What is the relationship between your religion and the caste system?
    • Your information should be synthesized and organized to fit on one or two Powerpoint slides
    • Designate one person from your group to send me your information in an email; I will add to the PP.


Based on sacred text known as the Vedas

  • Based on sacred text known as the Vedas

  • Originated by Indo-European pastoral nomads known as the “Aryans;” who were also well trained warriors.

  • They were polytheistic but also monotheistic worshipping Brahmins.

  • The Vedic system used 4 different class divisions or castes (Varna), which labeled people by their inherited occupations and ways of living.

  • Vedic originated in 1500 B.C.E and slowly faded around 500 B.C.E.

  • Up until 800 B.C.E the religion was ALL oral, there was no written language until 800 B.C.E.

  • Vedic followers believed in three primary aspects in their religion. Samsara, which is reincarnation; Dharma which was faithful performance of duties pertaining to ones caste; Karma which was ones fate based upon the current dharma in one’s life. For example, a warrior who fought poorly would be reincarnated into a lower caste.

  • By Spencer Green’s group



Preserve all living things (ahimsa)

  • Preserve all living things (ahimsa)

  • Purify Spirits and Reincarnation (moksha)

  • Set aside worldly desires (asceticism)

  • Did not follow the caste system and therefore were admired by the lower class

  • But few people practiced Jainism.

  • By Alexandra Mendoza, Nathan Lane,Ratania Guin,Brandon Sessoms



--Siddhartha Guatama was a prince (saw much suffering, and wanted to find a solution for this); he became known as “The Buddha” meaning “Enlightened One--widely popular religion in the world

  • --Siddhartha Guatama was a prince (saw much suffering, and wanted to find a solution for this); he became known as “The Buddha” meaning “Enlightened One--widely popular religion in the world

  • ”ascetic”--a person who dedicates his or her life to a pursuit of contemplative ideals and practices extreme self-denial or self-mortification for religious reasons. (dictionary.com)

  • --Came from enlightenment (sitting under a tree for 6 days) --After his enlightenment, he established “Four Noble Truths”         1) Life consists of pain and suffering         2) Pain and suffering are caused by desire         3) to escape from suffering one must curb desire         4) desire can be curbed by righteous living     “To live righteously one must follow the “Eightfold Path” which entails right thinking, right purpose, right conduct, right speech, right livelihood, right effort, right awareness, and right contemplation.” (pg 56)

  • -- Their salvation “Nirvana” consisted of “a state of infinite tranquility” (pg 56).

  • By Jeremy Hein, Jenna Ferrazzo, Abigail Saintil



1 Buddha is considered a god 2 Mahayana stands for “the greater vehicle” 3 You do not have to give up worldly desires through leaving your property 4 They worshiped other saintly figures that achieved nirvana but chose to stay on the earth to aid in teaching salvation 5 This sect of Buddhism later spread to central and east Asia and became the predominant discipline of Buddhism practiced in the world 6 Focuses on devotions to divinities By Jasmine Gilliam, Rosa Yataco-Uribe, Sean Finnigan

  • 1 Buddha is considered a god 2 Mahayana stands for “the greater vehicle” 3 You do not have to give up worldly desires through leaving your property 4 They worshiped other saintly figures that achieved nirvana but chose to stay on the earth to aid in teaching salvation 5 This sect of Buddhism later spread to central and east Asia and became the predominant discipline of Buddhism practiced in the world 6 Focuses on devotions to divinities By Jasmine Gilliam, Rosa Yataco-Uribe, Sean Finnigan





Buddhism split between Mahayana and Theravada

  • Buddhism split between Mahayana and Theravada

  • Theravada Buddhists asserted they were following the traditional form of Buddhism.

  • “Theravada” translates to “The way of the Elders” = strict adherence to Buddha’s original principles.

    • “Life is suffering”
    • “Suffering is caused by desire”
    • “To escape from suffering, one must curb desire”
    • “Desire can be curbed by righteous living”
  • Focus on righteous living and enlightenment through meditation and self-awareness rather than devotion to divine and deities.

  • Flourished in Sri Lanka and southeast Asia where it is still dominant today.

  • Group members:

  • Seokyoung Jeong, Colleen Sholiton, Szeting Hung, Hli Lor.



Hindus were both polytheistic and monotheistic

  • Hindus were both polytheistic and monotheistic

  • The Hindus believed in many different gods but their prominent was Brahman who was the supreme creator and universal being.

  • Some examples of the gods they believed in are Shiva the mighty destroyer and lord of dance, Vishnu the preserver, Rama the ideal man and model of virtue, Krishma who is benevolent, getting involved in human affairs, Lakshmi identified with wealth and good fortune, Kali linked with violence and death, Durga a multiarmed warrior often pictured riding a lion or tiger.

  • Hindus believed that an honorable life meant fulfilling one’s caste functions and believed by doing so they could achieve moksha.

  • Hindus sought to secure salvation by doing their caste duties and by their devotion to the gods, meditation and reverence for life.

  • By Sammy McCauley, Tiffany Winchester, Vy Cao, and Arezou Eslamlou



Hinduism- worshiped a multitude of deities, most prominent was Brahman(the supreme creator and universal being).

  • Hinduism- worshiped a multitude of deities, most prominent was Brahman(the supreme creator and universal being).

  • Very flexible faith, with a wide array of divinities, doctrines, and devotions.

  • Hindus revered all forms of life , but developed special veneration for certain places and beings.

  • Hindus were polytheistic and monotheistic.



The Hindu deity Shiva is often presented in the form of a bronze statue performing a cosmic dance in which he simultaneously creates and destroys the universe. While his upper right hand creates the cosmos, his upper left hand reduces it in flames, and the lower two hands offer eternal blessing. Shiva’s dancing statues visually convey to his followers the message of his power and compassion.

  • The Hindu deity Shiva is often presented in the form of a bronze statue performing a cosmic dance in which he simultaneously creates and destroys the universe. While his upper right hand creates the cosmos, his upper left hand reduces it in flames, and the lower two hands offer eternal blessing. Shiva’s dancing statues visually convey to his followers the message of his power and compassion.



In the first centuries C.E., Hindus began to adopt Buddhist rock art. One outstanding example is at the Elephanta Caves, near the modern city of Mumbai (Bombay). Dominating the cave is this 18-foot-high triple-headed statue of Shiva, representing the Hindu deity in all his various aspects. The central figure shows him in total serenity, enveloped in absolute knowledge. The angry profile on the left portrays him as the destroyer, struggling against time, death, and other negative forces. The right-hand profile shows his loving and feminine side in the guise of his beautiful wife, Parvati.

  • In the first centuries C.E., Hindus began to adopt Buddhist rock art. One outstanding example is at the Elephanta Caves, near the modern city of Mumbai (Bombay). Dominating the cave is this 18-foot-high triple-headed statue of Shiva, representing the Hindu deity in all his various aspects. The central figure shows him in total serenity, enveloped in absolute knowledge. The angry profile on the left portrays him as the destroyer, struggling against time, death, and other negative forces. The right-hand profile shows his loving and feminine side in the guise of his beautiful wife, Parvati.





This earth spirit, sculpted on a gatepost of the Buddhist stupa at Sanchi 2,200 years ago, illustrates how earlier representations of the fertility goddess were incorporated into Buddhist art. Women were revered as powerful fertility symbols and considered dangerous when menstruating or immediately after giving birth. Voluptuous and idealized, the earth spirit could allegedly cause a tree to blossom if she merely touched a branch with her arm or wrapped a leg around the tree’s trunk.

  • This earth spirit, sculpted on a gatepost of the Buddhist stupa at Sanchi 2,200 years ago, illustrates how earlier representations of the fertility goddess were incorporated into Buddhist art. Women were revered as powerful fertility symbols and considered dangerous when menstruating or immediately after giving birth. Voluptuous and idealized, the earth spirit could allegedly cause a tree to blossom if she merely touched a branch with her arm or wrapped a leg around the tree’s trunk.



Download 480 b.

Do'stlaringiz bilan baham:




Ma'lumotlar bazasi mualliflik huquqi bilan himoyalangan ©fayllar.org 2020
ma'muriyatiga murojaat qiling