Sixth century


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18, 23, 162, 184

Philoxenos of Mabboug, 111; consecration of 

cathedral at Bostra, 281

Phoinikōn, 19, 23, 25

phylarchs, 20, 23, 41, 169–71; bilingual 

or trilingual, 113; left the service of 

Byzantium, 21; 

see also individual 

phylarchs

physicians: secular, 177; tension between two 

groups of, 178

pilgrimage centers, 271, 273; in Najrān, 280; 



see also Edessa, Jerusalem, Sergiopolis, 

Telanissos

pilgrimages: attained wide vogue, 88; and 

construction of hospices and hostels, 

92; Ghassānids performed, 68; large 

number of Arabic words related to, 69; 

to Maḥajja, 280, 334; and maps to Holy 

Land, 92; to Mount ʿArafat, 223n.18; 

other sites, 70; role of Helen  

in establishing, 91

plagues, 71;

 bubonic, 176; among foederati, 178

poetry, 206, 236, 292, 307, 311; Arab creative 

outburst in, 192, 321; Byzantine 

influence on structure of Arabic ode, 

317; central facet of Ghassānid cultural 

life, 306; elegies on fallen dynasties 

and kingdoms, 197n.61, 318; and 

Ghassānid campaigns and victories, 

219, 310; importance of, 282; 


388

Index


poetry (

continued)

 

as medium of propaganda, 308, 344; 



and patronage, 311; as a profession, 311; 

relationship of poet to royalty, 105; 

relationship with music, 192–93, 284; 

social function of, 310; two lexemes 

in contemporary Arabic, 296; 

see also 

hymnography, 



qasīda

poetry recitals, 270, 282

poetry tournaments, 309

poets: professionals expected payment, 

311n.22

Poidebard, Antoine, 248-49



Praxiteles, 314; and Hellenism, 337

The Precious Metals of West Arabia (Heck), 4; 

contains maps of Arabia and its trade 

routes, 50

Procopius, historian, 48, 87, 165, 178, 257; 

at battle of Callinicum, 339n.1; on 

battle of Daras, 213n.37; on insignia of 

Armenian king, 163–64; quoted, 19

Promised Land, 52

prostitution, 90, 191

Provincia Arabia, 8, 10, 19, 23–24, 25, 30, 33, 

239; construction of 137 monasteries 

in, 9, 135; excavation of churches in, 9; 

headquarters of Ghassānids, 154

psalmody, 195, 200

Psellos, Michael: compares daughter to 

Aphrodite, 336; funeral oration of, for 

daughter, 336

Ptolemy, geographer, 11, 232

public speaking: more important than poetry, 

331; 


see also oratory

Pulcheria, empress, 113

Qalʿat Simʿān. 

See Telanissos

al-Qalīs, 222, 222n.12

al-Qalqashandi: quoted, 50n.23

qaṣīda, 238, 243, 321; as model of medieval 

Islamic poetry, 192; polythematic ode, 

317; prelude of, 317; and string of place 

names, 318



Qaṣr: as military fort or camp, 264

Qaṣr al-Ḥayr al-Gharbī, 245, 257, 265; tower 

of, 278, 279

Qayls: South Arabian aristocracy, 246

Qaynuqāʿ, 40

Qinnasrīn. 



See Chalcis

qiyān, 186; important feature of Ghassānid 

social life, 190; sung in Greek, 187



qubba, 280n.12

Queen of Sheba, 47

Quraysh, tribe, 22

Quray


˙

za, 38n.28

Quṣayr ʿAmra (hunting lodge), 244, 245, 249

Quṣayy, 21; seized Mecca, 21; took over 

custodianship of Kaʿba, 21

Raḍrāḍ (silver mine), 53



rajaz, 310

al-Raʿlāʾ, 98

al-Ranq, 326n.2; poet of Medina, 308

al-Rashīd, Hārūn, caliph, 88, 92, 122, 310n.17

Rasūb, 98, 304; 

see also swords

Red Sea, 10; as alternative route for interna-

tional trade, 33; as Byzantine lake, 31; as 

Christian lake, 52

Rhaithou, 11

Rhomaic Christianized Arabs, 300



Rhomaioi, 6–9, 24, 61, 301

rhymed prose, 120, 335

robes, 166–68, 253; 

see also clothing

Roha. 


See Edessa

Romanus the Melode, 292, 315; alleged 

composer of a thousand hymns, 193; 

as hymnographer, 321; perfected 



kontakion, 321

Royal Kinda, 74

royalty: relationship to poets, 105

Ruhm: chief female martyr, 64n.10, 84, 172, 

197n.61; as martyr of Najrān, 67; speech 

breathes the spirit of Christianity, 333; 

speech preserved in Syriac, not Arabic, 

333


Ruṣāfa. 

See Sergiopolis

Sabaic Dam inscription, 44

Sabas, St., 320; monastery of, 320

saints: invoked for aid, 220; 



see also individual 

saints

Salīḥids, 25, 309; as 



foederati, 262; kills 

Dāwūd, 211; as predecessors of 

Ghassānids, 61

Salmā, 100–101, 238–39, 327

salt, 32; source of, 27

Samaritans, 8

Sanʿāʾ: products sold and bought at, 54

sarcophagi, 273, 274

Sasānid kings, 52; 

see also Chosroes 

Anūshravān, Chosroes Parvīz

ṣaydāʾ, 272

security concerns, 9; nomadic threat, 7; 

protection of caravans, 10, 20, 22, 23; 


389

Index


reign of King Mundir, 7–8; threat from 

Sasānid Persia, 8; threats from nomadic 

raids, 263

Sergiopolis, 71, 220, 221, 257, 265; and horse 

racing, 236, 266; most important pil-

grimage center after Jerusalem, 70; path 

around, used for circumambulation, 

236; and 



praetorium of Mundir, 277, 

279; as prominent urban center, 265

Sergius, St., 36, 68, 71, 228; and Bacchus, 212; 

becomes mosque, 198; military saint, 70, 

200, 198n.66, 222, 345, 

sericulture, 14, 162; 



see also silk

Severa, Marcia Otacilia, 83

Severan dynasty, 83

Severus of Antioch, 281

Sharāhil, 280n.13

Shaybān: encounter with Taghlib, 116

al-Shay

˙

zam Ibn al-Ḥarith, 326n.2



Shayzar: and lions and tigers, 242

Shulamite, in Song of Songs, 337

silk, 173; embraced by Christianity but 

frowned upon by Islam, 173; privileged 

position among textiles and fabrics, 173; 

red, 166


silk industry: becomes state monopoly, 14; two 

stages of, in Oriens, 14

Silk Road, 12n.7; two routes of, 10

silk robes, 15

silkworms, 162; and silk industry, 132

silver, 47, 50; and mines, 53

Simeon of Bēth-Arshām, 110 

singing: antiphonal, 198, 199; responsive, 

198; Rhomaic Byzantine, 199; 

see also 

psalmody


Sīrīn (songstress), 190, 191

Skythopolis: Samaritans and, 8



solidus: Constantine’s new gold, 48

Solomon, King, 47, 237, 313, 336, 337; as 

builder of Palmyra, 337n.9

Song of Songs, 336, 337

songs, 270; mourning, 195; sacred, 195

songstresses, 185–91; dance performed by, 

205; providing entertainment for the 

social life of Arabs, 186; questions raised 

by, 187

Sozomen (ecclesiastical historian), 30, 68, 84, 



209, 211

spice route, 15, 24, 25, 30, 31, 36, 37, 43; 

Byzantine-Persian rivalry in two sta-

tions of, 54; control of, changes, 55; 

and Ghassānids, 44, 55, 56; last leg of, 

24, 203; as most important of the four 

routes, 44; and Muḥammad, 57; reign of 

Justinian and, 53

stables: part of urban landscape, 269; person-

nel of, 231; and saddleries, 269

stations: along Darb Zubayda, 92

Stilicho, 113

Strabo, 50, 322

strife poems, 309, 323

Suspended Odes, 96, 200, 207, 239, 309, 321, 

326


Sword of the Vertebrae, 171

swords (safāʾiḥ), 37; dedicated to Theodore, 

223; importance of, 171; Mikhdam and 

Rasūb, 98, 221–23, 304

Symeon Stylites the Elder, 71

Symeon the Younger, St., 71, 89, 134, 213

Syriac, 320, 333; lingua franca of Semitic 

Oriens, 295, 298, 322

Syriac/Aramaic: language of Christ, 322

tabaddi (stay in countryside), 255, 256; 

activities engaged in during, 257; in 

Ghassānland, 257; permanent struc-

tures, 258; 



see also villeggiaturas

Tabarī, historian, 193, 293

Tabernacle of Moses, 11

Tabūk, 16–18, 19, 49

Tabūkiyya, 8

Taghlib: encounter with Shaybān, 116 

Taghlib group, 207

Ṭāʾif, 22; Arabian oasis of, 50; connection to 

Koranic paradise, 136; and urban life, 

135


Tall Qaswa, 72

Tamīm, 25

Tanūkhids, 309; 

foederati, 262; as predecessors 

of Ghassānids, 61

taverns, 152, 156, 270, 318; and boon 

companion, 152; and camaraderie, 152; 

centers of social life, 63, 151; elements 

of, 151–53; and entertainment, 151, 205; 

location of, 188; perfumes and ambience, 

152; seating, 152; and waiters, 151

taxation, 31n.66, 53; collection of taxes by 

Ghassānids, 30, 41–42, 41n.2, 55 

tax-dodging, 12, 14

Ṭayyiʾ, 184; strife between factions ended by 

Arethas, 310n.19

tecnonymics, 77, 340; combined with patro-

nymics, 77n.84

Telanissos: pilgrimage site, 71



390

Index


Thaʿālibi, 129

Thaʿlaba: buried in hypogeum, 274

bint Thaʿlaba, Ṣafiyya, 91; used to wear a  

veil, 92


theaters, 63, 283; Church Fathers frowned 

on, 283; degeneration into farce, 202; 

separation of odeium from, 284; venues 

for performance, 205

Theodora, empress, 86, 90, 100, 225, 226; built 

homes for fallen women, 85, 100; friend 

of Arethas, 114; making grants for 

monasteries, 89

Theodore, 270, 280; and Arab Monophysite 

Renaissance, 292; consecrated as bishop, 

293

Theodore, translator of treatise on falconry, 243



Theodosius, 11, 181

Theodosius II, 113, 210-11, 238; establishment 

of poetry, 321n.71

theological literature: rise of a, 299

Theotokos, 67, 84, 94; 

see also Mary (mother 

of Jesus)

Thessalonike: fair at, 36

thief 


(liṣṣ), 14n.11

Third Cyrenaica: legionaries of, 25

Tiberius II, emperor, 75; gives white robes to 

Mundir as gift, 167

Timna: copper mines of, 25

Tiyādhuq, 181

tombs, 272–75; attached to churches, 274; as 

landmarks, 274

toponyms, 197, 286

trade routes, 9–32, 57; change in, 24; control 

of western, 53; intra-Arabian, 53n.5; 

Mesopotamian, 10, 12–15, 13; overland 

Arabic route 

(via odorifera), 33, 228, 

263; protection of, 10; stations, 11, 53; 

three western, 55; 

see also caravans, 

frankincense, spice route

Transfiguration: and closeness to Mount Tabor 

and Mount Hermon, 66; as dominical 

feast day, 64

traps and snares, 246–49

troops, frontier 

(limitanei), xviii, xix, 7, 27, 30, 

263–64


Tumāḍir: the one who ties a donkey, 103

turbans, 159

Tzimisces, John, emperor, 323

Ubāgh, ʿAyn, 98

Udhruḥ. 

See Aḍruḥ 

ʿūd (musical instrument), 185

ʿUdrī: poetry type that expressed chaste senti-

ments of love, 316

Ukaydir Ibn ʿAbd al-Malik, 15, 115

ʿUkā


˙

z, 22, 23, 36; as most important Arab fair, 

33, 54

Umāma: Ghassānid queen, 108



ʿUmar Ibn Abi Rabīʿa: love poetry of, 

106n.134


Umayyad sites: and Ghassānid substrate, 287

Umayyads, 14, 69, 70, 255–58; acquisition 

of relics, 228; caliphs, 256; Christian 

elements in graphic arts, 245; first 

dynasty in Islamic history, 173; 

structures of, 265

Umm Ramla, 108, 156; wife of Yazīd, 119

al-ʿUqāb (the Falcon), 98, 98n.61, 239 

Usays, 188

ʿUthmān ibn al-Ḥuwayrith, 21

Valens: Arian emperor, 67; victory over, 79; 

see 

also Mavia

Valeriana, 225

Vandals, 208, 324–25; as 

foederati, 325; as her-

etics, 325

Vandal War, 48

veils, 92, 159

vestimentary system, 173–75; 

see also clothing

veterinarians, 176; 



see also hippiatry

victory celebrations: Christianization of, 210; 

elements of, 210; in fifth century, 210; 

in fourth century, 209–10; involvement 

of religion in, 208; in Oriens, 207; and 

triumphal arches, 208

Victory Day, 219

villeggiaturas, 255n.3, 326n.2; entertainment 

during, 258

vineyards, 45, 153; Christian associations, 141

Virgin Mary, 76, 94, 227n.34; as role model, 

316; 


see also Mary (mother of Jesus)

wādī: as gateway for caravans, 27; as narrow 

passageway, 25; protected by two 

fortresses, 27

Wādī ʿAraba, 24; and copper, 25, 45

Wādī Ḥalīma, 98 

Wādī al-Qurā: Arabian oasis of, 50

Wādī Sirḥān, 8, 10, 26, 27n.48; gateway to 

Orient, 245; historical geography of, 27; 

location of great fair, 27, 35

Wādī Sirḥān route, 25, 55

Walīd II, 257

Waraqa, 136n.3


391

Index


war, liturgy of, 215–17

War of Fijār. 



See wars: Sacrilegious War

wars: between ʿAbs and Dubyān, 235; Basūs 

War, 311, 329; battle of Adrianople, 

109n.148; battle of Adriʿāt, 38; battle of 

Antioch, 314; battle of Callinicum, 8, 

230, 310n.16, 339n.1; battle of Chalcis, 

8, 22, 86, 89, 97, 98, 105n.120, 134, 

170, 213, 214, 215, 216, 222, 294, 304, 

310, 328; battle of Dara, 212, 213, 230; 

battle of Dhī Qār, 92; battle of Karbalāʾ, 

197n.63; battle of Khazāza, 207; battle 

of Nakhla, 22; battle of Nineveh, 124; 

battle of Qinnasrīn, 200; battle of 

al-Qurnatayn, 103; battle of Thannūris, 

169, 225, 231; battle of Uḥud, 97; battle 

of Yarmūk, 57, 64, 97, 108, 119, 125, 

180, 219; battle of Yawm Ḥalīma, 209, 

329n.19; conquest of Dūma, 106, 107, 

115; conquest of Oriens, 107; Gothic 

war, 209; liturgy of, 228, 215–17; Ridda 

War, 107n.137; Sacrilegious War, 22, 54

wars (plant): essential for dyeing, 51

water: flavored with fruit, 138; like perfume, 

138; ponds and pools, 270

West-Arabian Route, 10, 15–25, 1618

western Arabia: agriculture in, 51; becomes 

Christian, 52. 



See also Arabia

widows and orphans, 176

wine, 139, 141, 148, 154; association with 

monasteries, 157; effect on devotees, 

156; elements added to, 152; and litur-

gical celebration, 141; prohibited by 

Koran, 141, 319; spiritualization of, 140; 

terms used in referring to, 155; 



see also 

vineyards

wine festivals, 158n.6

wine lyrics, 142, 319

wine vats, 155

women, 91, 96, 110, 198, 314; assisted men in 

war, 86, 95, 97, 99, 104, 109, 109n.147, 

179; and composition of elegies, 199; 

dress was modest and decorous, 97; as 

foederati, 86; in Ghassān, 81–117; and 

hospitality, 87; and martyrs in Najrān, 

227; mourned death of Nuʿmān, 87; 

and nursing, 179; in peacetime, 86–90; 

and pilgrimages, 91, 92; provided food, 

86; religious roles of, 84, 110, 111; role 

in Arab history, 83; and social wel-

fare, 82, 87, 88; status of, elevated by 

Christianity, 84

Wondrous Mountain: gravesite of Symeon the 

Younger, 71

wounds, 176

wreaths, 75, 172; 

see also Palm Sunday

xenodocheia, 88, 89, 269

Yāqūt, 72, 281; and 



Geographical Dictionary

317


Yathrib. 

See Medina

Yazīd, 55, 69, 102, 287, 320; and Christian 

connections, 70; conducts siege of 

Constantinople, 109, 115; heard Ramla 

mourning the death of Yazīd’s father, 

108n.145; led expedition against 

Byzantines in Anatolia, 109; married 

Umm Ramla, 119; a refined hedonist, 

108, 156

Yazīd I, 256; represents best link between 

Umayyad and Ghassānid periods, 239

Yazīd II: time spent in open spaces, 257

Yūsuf, 21, 100, 205; persecution by, 194; 

responsible for martyrdom in Najrān, 

227

Zacharia, 224



Zagwē dynasty (Ethiopia), 71 

Zenobia of Palmyra, 83

Zinbāʿ, 41

Zoghar, 27, 32

Zosimus, historian, 210

Zubayda bint-Jaʿfar: built aqueduct to Mecca, 

88; built Darb Zubayda, 92

Zuhayr, 311




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