Spe 145562 Life Without Barite: Ten Years of Drilling Deep hpht gas Wells With Cesium Formate Brine


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SPE 145562 Life Without Barite: Ten Years of Drilling Deep HPHT Gas Wells With Cesium Formate Brine

  • John Downs
  • Cabot Specialty Fluids
  • 2011 SPE/IADC Middle East Drilling Technology Conference, Muscat, 24-26 October

Cesium formate brine : Drill-in, completion, workover and suspension fluid for HPHT gas wells

  • Density up to 19.2 ppg/SG 2.3
  • Drill-in and completion fluid
  • Non-toxic, non-hazardous – safe to handle
  • Little or no risk to the environment
  • Compatible with all reservoirs
  • Extends the thermal stability of polymers
  • Less corrosive than bromide brines
  • Stabilises shales
  • Inhibits hydrates
  • 2011 SPE/IADC Middle East Drilling Technology Conference, Muscat, 24-26 October

Cesium formate brine produced by Cabot in Canada from pollucite ore

  • Pollucite ore
  • Cs0.7Na0.2Rb0.04Al0.9Si2.1O6·(H20)
  • Mined at Bernic Lake, Manitoba
  • Processed on site to Cs formate brine
  • Cs formate brine production 8,000 bbl p.a. of 19.2 ppg
  • Brine stocks > 30,000 bbl @ 19.2 ppg
  • Brine supplied on leasing terms (i.e. per bbl per day)
  • Currently manage 30-40 jobs per year
  • 2011 SPE/IADC Middle East Drilling Technology Conference, Muscat, 24-26 October

Leasing cesium formate brine Green and sustainable model – recognised by United Nations

  • 2011 SPE/IADC Middle East Drilling Technology Conference, Muscat, 24-26 October
  • Conservation ( i.e. minimisation of cesium formate brine losses during transport, use and reclamation) is a key and essential feature of Cabot’s Chemical Leasing business model

42 deep HPHT gas fields developed using potassium and cesium formate brines, 1995-2011

  • Country
  • Fields
  • Reservoir Description
  • Matrix
  • type
  • Depth, TVD
  • (metres)
  • Permeability
  • (mD)
  • Temperature (oC)
  • Germany (7)
  • Walsrode,Sohlingen
  • Voelkersen,I dsingen,
  • Kalle, Weissenmoor,
  • Simonswolde
  • Sandstone
  • 4,450-6,500
  • 0.1-150
  • 150-165
  • Hungary (2)
  • Mako , Vetyem
  • Sandstone
  • 5,692
  • -
  • 235
  • Kazakhstan (1)
  • Kashagan
  • Carbonate
  • 4,595-5,088
  • -
  • 100
  • Norway (10)
  • Huldra ,Njord
  • Kristin,Kvitebjoern
  • Tune, Valemon
  • Victoria, Morvin,
  • Vega, Asgard
  • Sandstone
  • 4,090-7,380
  • 50-1,000
  • 121-200
  • Pakistan (2)
  • Miano, Sawan
  • Sandstone
  • 3,400
  • 10-5,000
  • 175
  • Saudi Arabia (7)
  • Andar,Shedgum
  • Uthmaniyah
  • Hawiyah,Haradh
  • Tinat, Midrikah
  • Sandstone
  • and
  • carbonate
  • 3,963-4,572
  • 0.1-40
  • 132-154
  • UK (12)
  • Braemar,Devenick
  • Dunbar,Elgin
  • Franklin,Glenelg
  • Judy, Jura, Kessog
  • Rhum, Shearwater
  • West Franklin
  • Sandstone
  • 4,500-7,353
  • 0.01-1,000
  • 123-207
  • USA (1)
  • High Island
  • Sandstone
  • 4,833
  • -
  • 177
  • 2011 SPE/IADC Middle East Drilling Technology Conference, Muscat, 24-26 October

Conventional formate drilling fluid formulation - in field use since 1993 and good to 320oF

  • Component
  • Function
  • Concentration
  • Formate brine
  • Density Lubricity Polymer protection Biocide
  • 1 bbl
  • Xanthan
  • Viscosity Fluid loss control
  • 0.75 - 1 ppb
  • Ultralow vis PAC and modified starch
  • Fluid loss control
  • 3 or 4 ppb of each
  • Filter cake agent
  • 20 ppb
  • K2CO3/KHCO3
  • Buffer Acid gas corrosion control
  • 0 – 6 ppb
  • Simple, effective, non-damaging reservoir drill-in fluid
  • Used to drill entire wells, top to bottom, in sensitive environments (e.g. Barents Sea)

Formate-based drilling fluids

Cesium formate brine

  • Where does it provide the highest value ?
  • As a combined drill-in and completion fluid - enabling operators to construct high-angle open hole screen completions in HPHT tight gas reservoirs
  • Combined drilling and completion fluid (“one filtrate”)
  • Non-damaging to reservoir and screens
  • Cleans-up naturally during start-up (10-20 hours)
  • Low skins
  • No well stimulation required
        • Perhaps the only fluid that can do this in an HPHT environment
  • 8

Advantages of open hole screen completions in high-angle HPHT wells*

  • Improved economics and lower risk
  • Maximise reservoir contact and production
    • - Larger inflow areas in contact with reserves
    • - Allow higher flow rates with lower flow resistance
    • - Good results (low skins) with stand-alone screens
  • Lower cost
    • - Quicker and easier to install, less NPT
    • - 10% lower tangibles cost
  • More robust than cased holes
    • - Less affected by formation compaction over time
  • Lower HSE risk than cased holes
    • - No explosives , no live well work, fewer lifts, etc
    • * From “HPHT Wells Best Practices Course” by Think Well Ltd
  • 2011 SPE/IADC Middle East Drilling Technology Conference, Muscat, 24-26 October

Cesium formate brine used by BP and Statoil as combined HPHT drill-in and completion fluid in N. Sea

  • 28 high-angle development* wells drilled and completed in 6 HPHT offshore gas fields
    • Huldra (6 )
    • Devenick (1)
    • Kvitebjoern (8 O/B and 5 MPD)
    • Valemon (1)
    • Kristin (2)
    • Vega (5)
    • * Except Devenick and Valemon (appraisal wells)
    • Mostly open hole stand-alone sand screen completions
    • Also Tune field : drilled with 13.3 ppg K formate brine , completed in K/Cs formate brine and suspended in K/Cs formate brine for 6-12 months
  • 2011 SPE/IADC Middle East Drilling Technology Conference, Muscat, 24-26 October

Tune field – semi-HP/HT gas reservoir in the North Sea drilled and completed with formate brines

  • 4 wells : 1,100-2,950 ft (350-900 m) horizontal reservoir sections. Suspended for 6-12 months in K/Cs formate brine after completion
  • 2011 SPE/IADC Middle East Drilling Technology Conference, Muscat, 24-26 October

HPHT gas fields in northern North Sea drilled and completed with cesium formate brine

  • Almost every field development (oil and gas) on this map has used formate brines as well construction fluids . Zinc bromide brine no longer used in Europe – too hazardous and damaging
  • 2011 SPE/IADC Middle East Drilling Technology Conference, Muscat, 24-26 October

HPHT gas fields in the Norwegian Sea drilled and completed with cesium formate brine

  • Formate brines also used as well construction fluids in Asgard, Draugen, Morvin and Njord fields
  • 2011 SPE/IADC Middle East Drilling Technology Conference, Muscat, 24-26 October
        • Offshore Norway
    • Gas condensate field
    • 6 wells
    • BHST: 297oF (147oC)
    • TVD : 12,795 ft (3,900 m)
    • Fluid density: 15.76- 16.34 ppg (SG1.89-1.96)
    • 754-1,125 ft (230-343 m) x 81/2” reservoir sections
    • Hole angle : 45-55o
    • 1–2 Darcy sandstone
    • Open hole completions, 6 5/8” wire wrapped screens
  • Cesium formate brine first used as a combined drill-in and completion fluid in the Huldra field,
  • 2001
  • 2011 SPE/IADC Middle East Drilling Technology Conference, Muscat, 24-26 October

Huldra – drill-in, logging and completion times (days) with cesium formate brine in well

  • A-4
  • (189 m )
  • A-5
  • (263 m)
  • A-6
  • (344 m)
  • A-8
  • (257 m)
  • A-9
  • (230 m)
  • A-11
  • (336 m)
  • Average
  • (231 m)
  • Drill-in
  • 5
  • 8
  • 20
  • 15
  • 7
  • 11
  • 11
  • Logging
  • 0
  • 3
  • 1
  • 7
  • 3
  • 2
  • 2.7
  • Lower completion
  • 11
  • 6
  • 5
  • 6
  • 5
  • 5
  • 6.3
  • Upper completion
  • 4
  • 5
  • 4
  • 4
  • 9
  • 4
  • 5
  • Total
  • 20
  • 22
  • 30
  • 32
  • 24
  • 22
  • 25
  • 15
  • 2011 SPE/IADC Middle East Drilling Technology Conference, Muscat, 24-26 October
  • Drill, log and run lower completion in drilling fluid. Then displace to clean cesium formate brine and run upper completion. Finally displace to packer fluid

Huldra – Fluid losses while drilling (cubic metres)

  • A-4
  • (189 m )
  • A-5
  • (263 m)
  • A-6
  • (344 m)
  • A-8
  • (257 m)
  • A-9
  • (230 m)
  • A-11
  • (336 m)
  • Average
  • (231 m)
  • 2.6
  • 16.4
  • 48
  • 9.6
  • 23.8
  • 17.7
  • 19.7
  • Other surface
  • 1.5
  • 3.3
  • 10.1
  • 2.2
  • 12
  • 17.1
  • 7.7
  • Downhole
  • 7.6
  • 10.8
  • 46.4
  • 0
  • 0
  • 0
  • 10.8
  • Well displacements
  • 5.6
  • 28.3
  • 12.8
  • 24.3
  • 11
  • 15.7
  • 16.3
  • Tripping
  • 6.5
  • 7.2
  • 6.3
  • 3.6
  • 1.6
  • 2.8
  • 4.7
  • TOTAL
  • 23.8
  • 66
  • 123.6
  • 39.7
  • 48.4
  • 53.3
  • 59.1
  • 16
  • 2011 SPE/IADC Middle East Drilling Technology Conference, Muscat, 24-26 October

Huldra – Production of recoverable gas and condensate reserves since 2001 (NPD data)

  • 17
    • Plateau production from first 3 wells
    • - 10 MM m3 gas /day
    • - 30,000 bbl/day condensate
    • 80% of hydrocarbon reserves produced
    • by Year 6
  • 2011 SPE/IADC Middle East Drilling Technology Conference, Muscat, 24-26 October
        • Gas production from Tune and Huldra fields drilled and completed with K/Cs formate brine
    • 90% recovery of gas reserves (16-18 billion m3) produced in 7 to 8 years
    • Source : Norwegian Petroleum Directorate- Fact Pages - November 2009
  • 2011 SPE/IADC Middle East Drilling Technology Conference, Muscat, 24-26 October
        • Condensate production from Tune and Huldra fields drilled and completed with K/Cs formate brine
    • 90% recovery of condensate reserves (3-5 million m3) produced in 5 to 7 years
    • Source : Norwegian Petroleum Directorate- Fact Pages - November 2009
  • 2011 SPE/IADC Middle East Drilling Technology Conference, Muscat, 24-26 October
    • Offshore Norway, 190 m water depth
    • Gas condensate field, 775 bar
    • 13 wells to date – 8 O/B, 5 in MPD
    • BHST: 311oF (155oC)
    • TVD : 13,120 ft (4,000 m)
    • Fluid density: 16.8 ppg (SG 2.02) for O/B
    • 914 -1,910 ft (279-583 m) x 81/2” reservoir sections
    • Hole angle : 20-40o
    • 100 mD sandstone, long interbedded shale and coal sequences
    • 6 wells completed in open hole : 300-micron single wire-wrapped
    • screens. Remainder cased
  • Seven years of cesium formate brine use as combined drill-in and completion fluid in Kvitebjoern field, 2004 -present
  • 2011 SPE/IADC Middle East Drilling Technology Conference, Muscat, 24-26 October

A few of the highlights from Kvitebjoern

  • Kvitebjoern well
  • Completion time
  • (days)
  • A-4
  • 17.5
  • A-5
  • 17.8
  • A-15
  • 14.8
  • A-10
  • 15.9
  • A-6
  • 12.7 *
  • Fastest HPHT well completion
  • in the North Sea
  • 21
  • “The target well PI was 51,000 Sm3/day/bar This target would have had a skin of 7”
  • “A skin of 0 would have given a PI of 100,000”
  • “THE WELL A-04 GAVE A PI OF 90,000 Sm3/day/bar
  • (ANOTHER FANTASTIC PI)”
  • Operator comments after well testing (Q3 2004 )
  • The Well PI was almost double the target
  • 2011 SPE/IADC Middle East Drilling Technology Conference, Muscat, 24-26 October

Economic benefits from the use of cesium formate brine in HPHT gas field developments

  • Improved HPHT well control and safety
  • No well control incidents in 28 HPHT drilling and completion ops
  • over 10 years (maybe 800 days in HPHT high-angle open hole ?)
  • Factors contributing to improved well security and safety:
  • - Elimination of barite and its sagging problems
  • - Elimination of oil and its gas solubility problem
  • - Low solids brine  Low ECD* and swab pressures
  • - Inhibition of hydrates
  • - Ready/rapid surface detection of well influx
  • - No hazardous zinc bromide !
  • * ECD in Huldra, Kvitebjoern and Kristin wells : 0.33-0.50 ppg (SG 0.04-0.06)
  • 2011 SPE/IADC Middle East Drilling Technology Conference, Muscat, 24-26 October

Economic benefits from the use of cesium formate brine in HPHT gas field developments

  • Improved well performance and recovery of reserves
  • High production rates with low skin” *
  • “ We selected cesium formate to minimise well control problems
  • and maximise well productivity”*
  • * Quotes by Statoil relating to Kvitebjoern wells (SPE 105733)
  • 2011 SPE/IADC Middle East Drilling Technology Conference, Muscat, 24-26 October

Economic benefits from use of cesium formate brine in HPHT gas field developments

  • Faster completions
  • - Drill-in and completing with cesium
  • formate allows open hole completion
  • with screens
  • - Clean well bores mean no tool/seal
  • failures or blocked screens
  • - Completion time 50% lower than wells
  • drilled with OBM
  • Time saved per well: 25 days
  • Quote by operator:“ fastest HPHT completion operation ever performed in North Sea (12.7 days)”
  • 2011 SPE/IADC Middle East Drilling Technology Conference, Muscat, 24-26 October

Economic benefits from use of cesium formate brine in deep gas field developments

  • Operational efficiencies Lower NPT Lower costs
  • No differential sticking
  • No well bore instability*
  • Pipe and casing running speeds are fast
  • Mud conditioning and flow-check times are short
  • Displacements simplified, sometimes eliminated
  • Formate drilling fluid = formate completion fluid
  • * Quote by operator : “ No washouts were experienced in any of the wells during drilling through long sections of
  • interbedded shales in the Kvitebjoern reservoir (50/50 shale and sand ) with cesium/potassium formate fluid”
  • Duration of flow back
  • (minutes)
  • Fluid Gain
  • (bbl)
  • 30
  • 0.8
  • 15
  • 0.56
  • 20
  • 0.44
  • 30
  • 0.56
  • 2011 SPE/IADC Middle East Drilling Technology Conference, Muscat, 24-26 October
  • Flow check fingerprint
  • for a Huldra well

Economic benefits from the use of cesium formate brine in HPHT gas field developments

  • Good reservoir definition
  • High density filtrate and no barite
  • Filtrate Pe up to 259 barns/electron
  • Unique Cs feature - makes filtrate invasion
  • highly visible against formation Pe of 2-3 b/e
  • Ideal for defining permeable sands
  • Consistent and reliable net reservoir definition
  • from LWD
  • “Using photoelectric factor and bulk density data, combined with resistivity measurements from both the LWD drill pass and the ream pass, produces a very reliable and consistent net reservoir definition.” (SPE 105733)
  • 2011 SPE/IADC Middle East Drilling Technology Conference, Muscat, 24-26 October

Economic benefits from the use of cesium formate brine in HPHT gas field developments

  • Good reservoir definition
  • Highly conductive fluid
  • Clear resistivity images
  • Information provided:
  • - structural dip
  • - depositional environment
  • - geological correlations
  • 2011 SPE/IADC Middle East Drilling Technology Conference, Muscat, 24-26 October

Summary

        • 10 years of field use has demonstrated that cesium formate brine can improve the economics of HPHT gas field developments by:
  • Enabling long high-angle well constructions completed in
  • open hole with screens
  • Making the well construction process faster and easier
  • Improving well/operational safety and reducing risk
  • Delivering unimpaired wells with high production rates
  • Enhancing reservoir definition
  • 2011 SPE/IADC Middle East Drilling Technology Conference, Muscat, 24-26 October

www.formatebrines.com



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