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Stream: Light Metals Production, Processing and 
Applications  
 
Paper No.: 8620  
Paper Title: Laser Beam and Friction Stir Welding of AA 5083- H321 Aluminum Alloy Plates  
Authors:  
K. Subbaiah, SSN College of Engineering; M. Geetha, SSN College of Engineering;  
Abstract 
Aluminum-Magnesium alloy AA5083-H321 is used extensively as a structural material in aerospace, automobile and marine 
applications. Fusion welding processes such as Metal Inert gas welding, Tungsten Inert Gas welding and Laser beam welding 
generally result in lower joint efficiencies mainly due to defects such as porosity, large columnar grain structure, loss of strain 
hardening effect in fusion zone and heat affected zone and loss of magnesium due to evaporation. Friction Stir (FS) welding is a 
solid state welding process which has been proved to solve the above mentioned problems. In this study Bead-on-Plate (BoP) 
welds were made on 5 mm thick plates of AA5083-H321 using both Laser Beam (LB) and Friction Stir welding processes. 
Studies using light microscopy revealed that FS welding results in fine recrystallized grains in the weld zone. Hardness values 
and tensile testing of the joints revealed that FS welding results in superior mechanical properties compared to LB welding 
process. It is concluded that Friction Stir Welding process resulted in significantly stronger joints and is more suitable to join 
AA5083-H321 aluminum alloys  
 
Paper No.: 8283  
Paper Title: METALLURGICAL PROPERTIES OF LARGE ALUMINIUM AlSi7Mg03 (A356) SAND CASTINGS  
Authors:  
Franco Chiesa, Centre de Métallurgie du Québec; David Levasseur, Centre de Métallurgie du Québec; Bernard Duchesne, 
Collège de Trois-Rivières;  
Abstract 

 
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A 500kg aluminium AlSi7Mg03 casting has been poured and the metallurgical quality at different locations inside the casting 
has been thoroughly investigated. It included measuring the local tensile properties (YS, UTS, El) in the T6 condition, the 
dendrite fineness (DAS) and the level of microporosity. A correlation was found between the microporosity level and the local 
solidification time and solidus front velocity; this correlation allows to predict the porosity level in large aluminium castings 
(solidification times between 20 and 200 minutes). Quite expectedly, properties varied widely within the casting and the 
actual mechanical properties were much less than the ?textbook values? based on measurements carried out on separately 
cast standard specimens. A correlation between the secondary dendrite arm spacing (DAS) and the local solidification time 
was in keeping with previously published data. Finally the conditions to obtain an acceptable finish on machined surface have 
been determined.  
 
Paper No.: 8494  
Paper Title: Formability improvement for AZ31 magnesium alloy rolled at wide range of rolling speed and reductions  
Authors:  
mehdi sanjari, mcgill university; abu seyed kabir, mcgill university; jing su, mcgill university; kenjiro hara, osaka university; 
leo kestens, gent university; steve yue, mcgill university;  
Abstract 
Manufacturing of thin sheet is difficult in industries. Some approaches, such as small-draft multi-pass rolling, intermediate 
annealing, isothermal rolling and high-speed rolling were proposed to overcome the deformability. In this study, different 
rolling speeds from 15 to 1000 m/min were employed to twin rolled cast AZ31B magnesium alloy to different reductions. The 
results show that AZ31B sheets rolled at 15 m/min and 100 °C has fractured for reductions of more than 30% per pass. 
However, by increasing the rolling speed to 1000 m/min the rollability was improved significantly and the material can be 
rolled to reductions of more than 70% per pass. The high speed and heavily deformed materials are fully recrystallized even at 
100 °C and the room temperature tensile tests shows significant formability improvement  
 
Paper No.: 8433  
Paper Title: Static Recrystallization and Texture Evolution of Fast Rolled AZ31 during Annealing  
Authors:  
Mehdi Sanjari, McGill; Abu Kabir, ; In-ho Jung, McGill; Steve Yue, McGill; Hiroshi Utsunomiya, Division of Materials and 
Manufacturing Science, Graduate School of Engineering; Leo Kestens, Ghent University;  
Abstract 
The microstructure and texture evolution of low temperature rolled AZ31 magnesium alloy during annealing were 
investigated. The specimens were rolled at the temperature of 100? at a fast speed of 1000m/min with a reduction of 30% in 
one pass. Annealing was conducted at various temperatures ranging from 200? to 500? for different times from 15sec to 4hrs. 
To study the effect of fast speed rolling, the same annealing procedures have been applied for the specimens rolled at a 
significantly lower speed of 15m/min. The microstructure was characterized by optical microscopy and scanning electron 
microscopy, while the texture was analyzed by X-ray diffraction analysis and electron backscattered diffraction analysis. 
Texture weakening occurred during annealing at both fast and slow rolling speeds. However, at the same annealing condition, 
fast rolled specimens always had weaker intensity of basal texture than slow rolled ones. The kinetics of static recrystallization 
has also been studied by Johnson?Mehl?Avrami?Kolmogorov (JMAK) model.  
 
Paper No.: 8324  
Paper Title: A Novel Approaches to Advanced Rapid Thin Slab Casting and Hot Rough Rolling of Carbon Steels  
Authors:  
Farid Haddadi, GIFT-POSTECH University; Jung-Wook Cho, GIFT-POSTECH University;  
Abstract 
A new generation of thin slab casting is determined to hit ~10 m/min combined with direct rolling to approach a more energy 
efficient production technology. Cracking near the surface is the most serious problem during rough rolling. Therefore, the 
surface microstructure should be controlled to avoid failure. In this study the effect of chemical composition on microstructure 
evolution and texture has been investigated for the steel plates rough rolled from 70 to 25 mm. Low carbon (0.05 wt.%) steel 
demonstrated mainly ferrites with minor pearlite islands where changed to ferrite-pearlite structure with increasing carbon 

 
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to 0.5 wt.%. A fine grain structure was observed in the plate top surface due to development of rapid static recrystallization 
after rough rolling which gradually coarsened in the mid-section. Mainly ND and RD fibre textures were observed after 
transformation showing inhomogeneity with increasing distance towards the plate depth. Failure of ferrite at 600 °C was 
investigated as the work roll chilling has a significant effect on temperature reduction in the plate surface leading to lower 
ductility due to formation of massive ferrites and thus crack during rough rolling process. Keywords: High speed casting, 
Rough rolling, Steel, Dynamic/Static recrystallization, EBSD, Texture and Failure analysis.  
 
Paper No.: 8429  
Paper Title: Blending of AA 2024 and AA 7075 as a potential recycling method for aircraft aluminum alloys: 
Characterization of the microstructure and mechanical properties  
Authors:  
Jose Alberto Muniz Lerma, McGill University; In-Ho Jung, McGill University ; Mathieu Brochu, McGill University ;  
Abstract 
Aerospace companies face an increasing amount of waste generation coming from aircraft at their end of life (EOL). It is 
estimated that over the next 20 years, approximately 12,000 aircraft will be at their EOL. The fuselage, mainly composed of 
aluminum alloys (AA) from the 2XXX and 7XXX series, are sent to graveyards, downgrading the value of these AA. One of the 
main valorization problems of these alloys is the lack of recycling methods that remove or take into consideration alloying 
elements such as Cu and Zn to generate high-valued aluminum products. This presentation will highlight a potential recycling 
method for aircraft AA 2024 and AA 7075 taking Cu and Zn into consideration. Simulations of melting and casting of different 
blends between AA 2024 and AA 7075 were performed and analyzed in terms of chemical compositions after casting. 
Microstructural observations and mechanical properties of different alloy blends will be presented.  
 
Paper No.: 8441  
Paper Title: The origin of enhanced mechanical properties by ultrasonic treatment in Al-Cu binary alloy  
Authors:  
Jae-Gil Jung, Korea Institute of Materials Science; Jung-Moo Lee, Korea Institute of Materials Science; Young-Hee Cho, Korea 
Institute of Materials Science;  
Abstract 
The origin of enhanced mechanical properties by ultrasonic melt treatment (UST) in an Al-4 wt.%Cu binary alloy was 
investigated. To exclude the effect of thermal rate from the effect of UST, the specimens held at the same temperatures without 
UST were also examined. The density of Al-Cu alloy gradually increased with increasing the UST temperature up to 700 oC due 
to the degassing effect of UST. The grain size of a-Al remained to be less than 200 um regardless of the UST temperature
whereas it was significantly increased up to 600 um with increasing the thermal rate temperature. Despite the similar grain 
sizes of ultrasonic-treated specimens, both yield and tensile strengths increased with increasing the UST temperature. The 
amounts of eutectic phases were reduced, and instead the amount of solute Cu atoms in the a-Al matrix increased with 
increasing the UST temperature. It is suggested that the enhanced mechanical properties by UST in Al-Cu binary alloy is due to 
the increased solid-solution hardening of Cu.  
 
Paper No.: 8473  
Paper Title: An Examination of the Factors Influencing the Melting/ Dissolution of Solids in Liquid Titanium  
Authors:  
Jun Ou, UBC, Department of Materials Engineering; Lu Yao, UBC, Department of Materials Engineering; Carl Reilly, UBC, 
Department of Materials Engineering; Ainul Akhtar, UBC, Department of Materials Engineering; Steve Cockcroft, UBC, 
Department of Materials Engineering; Daan Maijer, UBC, Department of Materials Engineering;  
Abstract 
The melting/dissolution behaviour of a solid in liquid titanium has been investigated with the aid of an Electron Beam Button 
Furnace (EBBF) to understand the phenomena contributing to the melting/dissolution of exogenous solids introduced into 
liquid titanium during melt processing and casting. Cylindrical rods of Ti-Al alloy were dipped into a molten CP titanium pool 
for various periods of time to investigate the melting/dissolution behaviour. The dimensions of the dipped rods were 
measured before and after various immersion times allowing quantification of the evolution of the solid/liquid interface and 

 
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melting rate. The temperature within the dipped rod was also measured during melting/dissolution to provide additional 
quantitative data on heat transport. The results show that the molten titanium initially solidifies onto the cold rod. The 
solid/solid interface formed between the rod and the solidified titanium was found to significantly reduce the heat transfer to 
the rod. Since the dipped material has a substantially lower melting temperature compared to CP titanium, internal melting 
occurs in the rod prior to the remelting of the solidified titanium layer. Analysis with the model has confirmed that both 
thermally and compositionally induced buoyancy and Marangoni forces contribute significantly to the melting/dissolution 
process. A numerical model has been developed to describe the solidification and melting process, the results of which are 
shown to correlate well with experimentally obtained data.  
 
Paper No.: 8482  
Paper Title: Characterization of alpha case on Ti-6Al-4V castings  
Authors:  
Martine Comtois-Parr, Cégep de Trois-Rivières; Guy Morin, Centre de métallurgie du Québec (CMQ); Jeremy Carignan, Centre 
de métallurgie du Québec (CMQ); Gheorghe Marin, Centre de métallurgie du Québec (CMQ); Alexandre Bois-Brochu; Cégep de 
Trois-Rivières 
Abstract 
The presence of an alpha case on titanium parts produced by investment casting is problematic and has to be eliminated. The 
traditional techniques for the evaluation of the thickness are metallographic measurements and micro-hardness profiles. To 
obtain a better understanding of how the alpha case is formed with the underlying objective of limiting its depth, the present 
study proposes to characterize the alpha case, both its microstructure and its chemical composition. FEG ? SEM and electron 
micro probe analyzer (EMPA) linescans were used to quantify the oxygen and substitutional elements which come from the 
mould and promote the formation of alpha case. The chemical profiles were correlated with metallographic and micro-
hardness measurements. For microstructure, SEM and optical microscopy (etched and polarized light analysis) were used. For 
phase analysis, samples were chemically milled step by step and analysed using X-ray diffraction. Furthermore, surface 
analysis techniques such as XPS and Auger Microscopy were evaluated but results were found to be inconclusive because the 
formation of the oxide layer was faster than its ablation and the matrix could thus not be analysed. The alpha case was 
observed on Ti-6Al-4V castings with various sample thicknesses, shell face coat and mould preheating temperature.  
 
Paper No.: 8339  
Paper Title: Development of Oxidation Resistant Titanium Alloys by Niobium Addition  
Authors:  
Carsten Siemers, TU Braunschweig, Institut fuer Werkstoffe; Florian Brunke, TU Braunschweig, Institut fuer Werkstoffe; Karel 
Saksl, Slovak Academy of Sciences Institute of Materials Research; Maren Kohnke, TU Braunschweig, Institut fuer Werkstoffe;  
Abstract 
The application of Titanium alloys is limited to 550°C due to their poor oxidation resistance. It is known that the addition of 
Niobium to Titanium improves the oxidation resistance of Titanium whereas the underlying mechanisms are not well 
understood. In the current study, between 0.1% and 2% Niobium were added to CP-Titanium. Oxidation experiments were 
carried out at 800°C up to 288 hours followed by metallographic analyses to study the oxide layer morphology as well as the 
microstructure at the interface. SEM-EDS-mappings were used to identify possible changes in the Nb distribution. In addition, 
micro-focused hard X-ray experiments have been performed to layer-wise analyse the phase composition in selected samples. 
Depending of the Niobium content, a Niobium-rich layer developed below the metal-oxide-interface hindering Oxygen 
diffusion into the Titanium matrix. Based on these results, the minimal needed Niobium content was identified and new, 
oxidation resistant alloys of technical relevance were developed.  
 
Paper No.: 8574  
Paper Title: OPTIMIZATION OF A TILT POURED PERMANENT MOLD CASTING VIA SOLIDIFICATION MODELING  
Authors:  
David Levasseur, Centre de Métallurgie du Québec; Bernard Tougas, Centre de Métallurgie du Québec; Franco Chiesa, Centre 
de Métallurgie du Québec; 
Abstract 

 
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In the present paper, the optimization of a tilt poured permanent mold will be carried out using filling and solidification 
modeling. This exercise resulted in 3 modifications of the initial mold design which was based on the foundry experience. The 
optimization resulted in a 20% improvement in the yield while increasing the output from 10 to 15 castings per hour. In a 
subsequent study, the value of the critical fraction solid of AlSi7Mg (A356) alloy was verified by radiographic analysis of the 
castings produced in the first 5 cycles of a run, which are necessary to bring the mold to a dynamic thermal equilibrium.  
 
Paper No.: 8508  
Paper Title: Thermal Analysis of B206 Aluminum Alloy Solidification  
Authors:  
Nima Haghdadi, The University of British Columbia; A.B. Phillion, The University of British Columbia; Daan M. Maijer, The 
University of British Columbia;  
Abstract 
B206 is a recently-developed high-strength Al-Cu casting alloy with reduced Ti and Fe as compared to the well-known 206 
variant for improved hot tearing resistance. In the current study, the solidification kinetics of this alloy as a function of cooling 
rate from 1 to 50 K/min were studied using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and microscopy. Specifically, the evolution 
in fraction solid, grain size, and secondary dendrite arm spacing have been characterized. The DSC results show the 
occurrence of three peaks during cooling from liquid state, which are related to the formation of primary aluminum, a pre-
eutectic intermetallic, and the eutectic phases. Thermal analysis also indicates that while the liquidus temperature is not 
sensitive to the cooling rate, the temperature at which pre-eutectic and eutectic phases form are strongly coupled to the rate of 
heat extraction. A decrease in the latter temperatures was observed when the rate of solidification was increased, leading to a 
lengthening of the freezing range of the primary phase. The results will be useful for improving B206 casting processes, 
specifically through modification of mould cooling conditions.  
 
Paper No.: 8518  
Paper Title: Measurement of Anode Electrical Resistivity for Quality Control in Aluminum Industry  
Authors:  
Duygu Kocaefe, Universite du Quebec a Chicoutimi; Y. Kocaefe, Universite du Quebec a Chicoutimi; D. Bhattacharyay, 
Universite du Quebec a Chicoutimi;  
Abstract 
The carbon anodes used in the electrolytic production of aluminum are made of petroleum coke, recycled anodes, anode butts, 
and coal tar pitch. Due to technological advancements in the aluminum production technology with the objective of increasing 
the production, decreasing the energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions, better quality anodes are required. 
Presently, the anode quality is evaluated by visual inspection and the analysis of a small core taken per 80 to 100 anodes. 
Visual inspection is susceptible to human error and limited to surface imperfections. Analysis of cores take time, therefore, it is 
difficult to determine an existence of a problem and intervene at right time. In addition, the core does not represent the whole 
anode due to their nonhomogeneous nature. A validated online anode quality control system can highly improve the situation. 
In this article, an electrical resistivity measurement method developed for this purpose is presented.  
 
Paper No.: 8550  
Paper Title: 3D Numerical Modeling of the Production of Al-Mg-Sc-Zr Alloy Strips using the Horizontal Single Belt 
Casting (HSBC) Process  
Authors:  
Sa Ge, McGill Metals Processing Centre; Mihaiela Isac, McGill Metals Processing Centre; Roderick I. L. Guthrie, McGill Metals 
Processing Centre;  
Abstract 
The Al-Mg-Sc-Zr alloys have shown exceptional potential as structural materials for transportation applications. These alloys 
have proved to be good candidates to be processed as thin strips via the Horizontal Single Belt Casting (HSBC) process. The 
HSBC process is a near-net- shape casting technology, which involves casting molten metal directly into thin strips close to the 
final product thickness, at high cooling rates. It offers an efficient, economical and environmentally-friendly approach to the 
production of metal strips. Fluid mechanics and associated heat transfer are important aspects of any casting process. The 

 
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novel HSBC process is no exception. Three dimensional Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations using ANSYS 
FLUENT 14.5, were performed, in order to assess the importance and effects of the various operational conditions of the HSBC 
process. This enabled process parameter optimization. Numerical predictions were validated against experimental casting 
results. Micro- analyses were conducted to compare the advantages of Al-Mg-Sc-Zr alloys produced by the HSBC process over 
those produced conventionally.  
 
Paper No.: 8551  
Paper Title: Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Al-Mg-Sc-Zr Alloy Strips Manufactured using the Horizontal 
Single Belt Casting (HSBC) Process  
Authors:  
Sa Ge, McGill Metals Processing Centre; Mert Celikin, McGill Metals Processing Centre; Mihaiela Isac, McGill Metals Processing 
Centre; Roderick I. L. Guthrie, McGill Metals Processing Centre;  
Abstract 
Horizontal Single Belt Casting (HSBC) is a near- net-shape casting process in which molten metal is directly cast into thin 
strips, at high cooling rates (order of several 100°C/s), with the potential for high volume, friction-free, continuous production 
of metal strips. This casting process was used in the present work to produce strips of Al-Mg alloys in the AA5000 series, with 
additions of Sc and Zr. These Al alloys show exceptional potential as a structural material for transportation applications. To 
demonstrate the suitability of the HSBC process to manufacture competitive strip products of Al- Mg-Sc-Zr, the mechanical 
properties and microstructures of the strips produced using the HSBC process were compared with conventionally cast 
products. The effects of annealing on the microstructures and mechanical properties of the ingot- and HDBC strip-cast samples 
of Al-Mg-Sc-Zr alloys produced were also then investigated.  
 
Paper No.: 8579  
Paper Title: The Formation of Al-(Fe,Mo)-Si Dispersoid Phase During Solution Heat treatment of an Al-Si-Cu-Mg-(Mo) 
Casting Alloy and its Effect on Strength and Creep Resistance  
Authors:  
Amir Rezaei Farkoosh, McGill; X.-Grant Chen, UQAC; Mihriban Pekguleryuz, McGill;  
Abstract 
Nano-scale Al-(Fe,Mo)-Si dispersoids form during solution treatment in grain interiors (intradendritic regions) of cast 
Al7Si0.5Cu0.3Mg alloyed with 0.3Mo (wt.%). Unlike the Q-Al5Cu2Mg8Si6 and ?-Al2Cu age-hardening precipitates which 
coarsen resulting in loss of strength in Al-Si-Cu-Mg alloys, these Mo-containing dispersoids are thermally stable and retain 
their strengthening effect at elevated temperatures. Consequently, the age-hardened Al7Si0.5Cu0.3Mg0.3Mo (wt.%) exhibits 
high strength and creep resistance at 300oC.  
 
Paper No.: 8584  
Paper Title: Effect of grain size on the texture evolution and anisotropy of mechanical behavior of rolled WE43 
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