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Authors:   Shifullah Md Khaled, Thurber Engineering Ltd.;   Abstract

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Shifullah Md Khaled, Thurber Engineering Ltd.;  
Laboratory investigations were conducted on three types of uranium tailings samples obtained from Key Lake Operation, 
Northern Saskatchewan. The investigated slurries were found to be silty-sand type materials with negligible amount of fines. 
Results indicated that the initial slurry conditions govern the settling behavior of uranium tailings. Both of the initial hydraulic 
conductivity and settling potential were found to increase with increasing initial void ratio. Segregation was insignificant for 
initial solids content ranged from 25% through 40% and was observed at 15% initial solids content.  
Paper No.: 8263  
Paper Title: Thermodynamic and Kinetic Observations on Toxic Metal Removal  
Hesam Hassan Nejad, Memorial University of Newfoundland ; Shirin Shafiei Zahef, Memorial University of Newfoundland;  
Data are presented on different extractant behaviors on toxic metal removal from spent catalyst produced by North Atlantic 
refinery plant in Newfoundland and Labrador. Aliquat 336 was selected due to its potential capabilities on separation of Co, As 
and Ni from the leachate solution produced by aqua-regia. The solvent extraction process was mathematically modeled using 
Central Composite Design (CCD) and the numerical optimization was conducted to achieve the most optimum points for toxic 
metal recovery for each extractant. The observations on thermodynamic and kinetic behaviors are also presented in this paper 
and the comparison on efficiency and selectivity is also reported.  
Paper No.: 8269  
Paper Title: Clean Technology in Coke Production  
Fathi Habashi; Université Laval;  
A new technology first introduced by Nippon Steel Corporation at Kitakyushu in Japan in 1976 now used at few plants in other 
countries, known as dry quenching of coke, uses nitrogen in a closed circuit to avoid environmental emissions. In addition, 
heat is recovered in form of steam, from the red-hot coke. In steel plants oxygen is used extensively and therefore by-product 
nitrogen from air liquefaction can be effectively utilized in this way.  
Paper No.: 8285  
Paper Title: Using of Marble Waste in Concrete Making  
Zainelabdin Khalid Elfaki, Mining House Company;  
This paper of using of marble waste in concrete making aims to show the influence of partial replacement of cement with 
marble waste on the workability and compressive strength of concrete. Three replacement percentages of 10%, 20% and 30% 
were used with different curing times of 7, 14 and 28 days. For the optimum results and in order to reduce the effect of human 
errors on the study accuracy, two specimens were prepared for each percentage and curing time. For this study, marble 

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powder from Mining House Company in Saudi Arabia was used. After doing all the experiment works it was observed that the 
replacement of Concrete brick with marble waste enhanced the loading strength and the workability of prepared concrete 
bricks. It was also observed that the 20% replacement of cement with marble waste is the best replacement percentage 
compared to the other replacement percentages. Marble waste from manufacturing companies either in powder, sludge or 
slabs form has serious bad effect on the environment. Furthermore, the usage of marble waste in such industries has many 
other benefits such as economical benefit of selling the marble wastes and saving the natural resources.  
Paper No.: 8306  
Paper Title: The Hydration Kinetics of Magnesium Oxide Obtained by Calcination of Magnesite MgCO3 or Synthetic 
Nesquehonite (MgCO3?3H2O)  
Kunming Zhai, ; Yan Zhang, ; Zhibao Li, Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences;  
The hydration kinetics of MgO, namely magnesia or magnesium oxide, obtained by calcination of magnesite MgCO3 or 
synthetic MgCO3?3H2O has been studied. Nesquehonite (MgCO3?3H2O) was prepared by the reaction of MgCl2 with Na2CO3 
in a mixed-suspension mixed-product removal (MSMPR) crystallizer at 40°C. Three magnesium oxide samples were obtained 
by calcination of magnesite MgCO3 or synthetic MgCO3?3H2O in muffle furnace at 900°C, 1100°C and 1300°C for 3 h, 
respectively. The hydration experiments of MgO samples were investigated at 25°C, 35°C and 45°C for 24 h in a stirred batch 
reactor. The hydration results indicate that the rate and extent of hydration of magnesia decrease remarkably with hydration 
temperature and increase with the decrease of calcination temperature at the same hydration temperature. The whole 
hydration reaction of magnesia was supposed to experience the promotive period and declining period. An empirical kinetic 
model ( ) and a modification of the classical shrinking core model for diffusion control ( ) have been applied to fit the 
experimental data of hydration in two stages, respectively. The values of kinetic parameters ( and ) were obtained by 
regression analysis and the activation energy of the sample at 900°C was estimated to be 34.23kJ/mol. The comparison 
between MgO from calcination of synthetic MgCO3?3H2O and a commercial MgO used in silicon steel production was carried 
out, indicating that special silicon steel grade MgO can be obtained by calcination of MgCO3?3H2O below 900°C.  
Paper No.: 8491  
Paper Title: Case Study of Plant Trial on Improvement of Gold Recovery With Preg-Robbing Ores by Surfactant  
Ryan Ravenelle, Barrick Goldstrike Mines Inc.; Henry Cay, Barrick Goldstrike Mines Inc.; Ted Olsen, Barrick Goldstrike Mines 
Inc.; Todd Esplin, Barrick Goldstrike Mines Inc.; Wayne Douglas, Barrick Goldstrike Mines Inc.; Guy Barrett, Akzo Nobel Surface 
Chemistry LLC; Peter Zhou; AkzoNobel Surface Chemistry LLC; 
From collaboration between Barrick Gold Corp and Akzo Nobel Surface Chemistry LLC, cationic surfactant additives were 
identified as effective blinding agents in cyanide leaching of carbonaceous gold ores. Significant improvement of gold recovery 
from carbonaceous ores after treatment of the ore by surfactants was consistently demonstrated in previous lab and pilot 
studies. A plant trial for feasibility study was conducted at Barrick Goldstrike plant using Ethomeen T12 surfactant in CIL 
leaching of high preg-robbing POX feed. This paper reviews the plant trial results together with lab bench results obtained 
correspondingly on plant leaching feed during the trial period. The benefits and issues of using surfactant in plant CIL circuit 
and possible ways to overcome the plant issues are discussed.  
Paper No.: 8492  
Paper Title: Determining the Critical Coalescence Concentrations (CCC) for Inorganic Salt Solutions  
Joshua Mitchell Sovechles, McGill University; Kristian Edmund Waters, McGill University;  
Froth flotation and gas dispersion in saline solutions has generated much attention in recent years. Much of the literature 
concerning gas dispersion in inorganic salt solutions focuses on their ability to inhibit bubble oalescence. Several researchers 
have attempted to quantify the effect of inorganic salts on bubble coalescence. The aim of this project was to develop critical 

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coalescence concentrations (CCC) in a laboratory-scale mechanical flotation cell for a series of coalescence inhibiting inorganic 
salts (NaClO4, NaCl, KCl, Na2SO4, CaCl2, MgSO4 and Al2(SO4)3) and a synthetic seawater. The concept of CCC was developed 
to quantify the effect of frother concentration on gas dispersion in flotation machines, i.e., frother strength. The CCC values 
were used to examine the relative strengths of the various salts and to investigate if ionic strength is a determinate of CCC 
Paper No.: 8444  
Paper Title: An influence of temperature and mineral composition on arsenic removal from copper concentrates by 
heat treatment  
Chiharu Tokoro, Waseda university; Shunta Shibuya, Waseda university; Takahiko Okura, Waseda university;  
Copper concentrates bearing arsenic as enargite (Cu3AsS4) or tennantite (Cu12As4S13) have disadvantage on copper 
smelting environmentally and economically, so those concentrates should be treated decently. In this paper, some 
experiments of arsenic removal from several kinds of copper concentrates by heat treatment in an inert atmosphere were 
discussed. In this study, several samples in which arsenic contents varied 0.18 to 8.3 wt % were used. Each concentrate was 
heated to the temperature range of 400 oC to 700 oC under argon gas flow in 1 hour. The heat residues and volatilized 
materials (V.M.) were analyzed by XRD, XRF, ICP-AES, XAFS and MLA to analyze residual concentration of arsenic and residual 
mineral composition. Experimental results showed that arsenic removal from copper concentrates advanced in 2 steps; at the 
temperature range of 500 oC to 550 oC and of 550 oC to 650 oC, respectively. MLA analysis showed that a few of arsenic in 
enargite was removed by 550 oC heating and a majority of it was still combined with copper and sulfur as tennantite. On the 
other hand, arsenic in tennantite was removed almost completely by 650 oC heating. Furthermore, a particular type of arsenic 
mineral, such as Cobaltite (CoAsS) still remained after heating at 700 oC. Additionally, second heating test was conducted for 
the purpose of separation between arsenic and sulfur in the V.M. Two step heating showed that separation between arsenic 
and sulfur in the V.M. was possible, because 74 % of sulfur was volatized in the first step and 96 % of arsenic was volatized in 
the second step.  
Paper No.: 8447  
Paper Title: Quantitative Modeling for Neutralization/Co-precipitation Treatment of Acid Mine Drainage  
Chiharu Tokoro, Waseda university; Shinya Suzuki, Waseda university; Taisuke Sakakibara, Waseda university; Shuji Owada, 
Waseda university;  
Acid mine drainage (AMD) from about 80 abandoned or closed mines in Japan has been actively treated by neutralization. 
Because the government spends billions of yen every year to protect the environment from these discharges, more efficient 
and cost effective treatment process has been demanded for AMD. In this study, quantitative modeling was conducted for 
actual AMD to predict pH or residual concentration of toxic elements after neutralization/co-precipitation process. Simple 
chemical equilibrium calculation was not enough for quantitative prediction of pH after neutralization, because residual 
concentration of major elements of AMD, such as Fe or Si, could not be quantitatively calculated. When oxidation rate of Fe(II) 
to Fe(III) and precipitation rate of kaolinite were added to the model, quantitative prediction of pH and Fe or Si concentration 
was achieved. Surface complexation at the interface between hydroxide such as ferrihydrite or aluminum hydroxide and AMD 
was most important mechanism for removal of dilute toxic ions. When surface complexation model at the interface of 
ferrihydrite was added to the model, residual As(V) and Pb(II) concentration after neutralization/co-precipitation process was 
successfully calculated. On the other hand, surface complezation model of aluminum hydroxide was also needed for 
quantitative prediction of residual Zn(II) concentration after neutralization/co-precipitation process.  
Paper No.: 8460  
Paper Title: Distribution Ratios of Platinum Group Metals between CaO-SiO2-Al2O3 or FeO-CaO-SiO2 Slag Systems and 
Molten Iron  

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Katsunori Yamaguchi, Iwate University; Hidehiro Sekimoto, Iwate University;  
Platinum Group Metals (PGMs) used as catalyst which reduces toxic substances in emission gas exhausted from an automobile 
should extensively be recycled because they are rare metals produced only at the limited regions. The recycling process is to 
smelt an alumina honeycomb, in which PGM is built, in molten iron with flux such as lime and silica to separate them. PGMs are 
concentrated in molten iron while alumina in slag. The objective of this study is to understand the factor to concentrate PGMs 
in liquid iron as much as possible. Distribution ratios of Pt, Rh and Pd between liquid iron and CaO-SiO2-Al2O3 or FeO-CaO-
SiO2 slag systems were experimentally obtained at 1873K. Besides, activity coefficients of PtO and PdO in CaO-SiO2-Al2O3 and 
FeO-CaO-SiO2 slags were determined from the distribution ratios obtained.  
Paper No.: 8460  
Paper Title: Distribution Ratios of Platinum Group Metals between CaO-SiO2-Al2O3 or FeO-CaO-SiO2 Slag Systems and 
Molten Iron  
Katsunori Yamaguchi, Iwate University; Hidehiro Sekimoto, Iwate University;  
Platinum Group Metals (PGMs) used as catalyst which reduces toxic substances in emission gas exhausted from an automobile 
should extensively be recycled because they are rare metals produced only at the limited regions. The recycling process is to 
smelt an alumina honeycomb, in which PGM is built, in molten iron with flux such as lime and silica to separate them. PGMs are 
concentrated in molten iron while alumina in slag. The objective of this study is to understand the factor to concentrate PGMs 
in liquid iron as much as possible. Distribution ratios of Pt, Rh and Pd between liquid iron and CaO-SiO2-Al2O3 or FeO-CaO-
SiO2 slag systems were experimentally obtained at 1873K. Besides, activity coefficients of PtO and PdO in CaO-SiO2-Al2O3 and 
FeO-CaO-SiO2 slags were determined from the distribution ratios obtained.  
Paper No.: 8540  
Paper Title: A Novel Separation Process for Detoxifying Cadmium-containing Residues from Zinc Purification Plants  
Dian Kun Lu, School of Materials and Metallurgy, Northeastern University; Yong Feng Chang, School of Materials and 
Metallurgy, Northeastern University; Feng Xie, School of Materials and Metallurgy, Northeastern University; Edouard Asselin
Department of Materails Engineering, The Universty of British Columbia;  
A novel separation process for detoxifying cadmium-containing residues arising from zinc hydrometallurgical processes has 
been developed. The mixture of sulfuric acid and ammonium citrate ((NH4)3C6H5O7) is used to extract metals from the 
residue at room temperature. Copper in the leachate is recovered by solvent extraction (SX) with LIX 973. Cobalt in the 
raffinate from the copper SX process is recovered by precipitation with a-nitroso-ß-naphthol. Zinc remaining in the solution, at 
high concentrations, is further separated from cadmium by solvent extraction with P204 (di(2-ethylhexly)phosphoric acid, 
D2EHPA). The results show that more than 50% of the copper and virtually all the zinc, cadmium and cobalt in the residue can 
be leached under the experimental conditions used here. Virtually all dissolved copper and cobalt can be recovered in the 
subsequent solvent extraction and precipitation processes. The presence of (NH4)3C6H5O7 could significantly facilitate the 
extraction of zinc by D2EHPA. More than 97% of the dissolved zinc can be recovered through a two-stage counter current 
solvent extraction process. After separating copper, cobalt and zinc, cadmium can easily be recovered from the solution either 
by cementation with zinc powder or by electrowinning, while the purified solution can be recycled back to the leaching 
Stream: Rare Earth Elements (REE) Extraction, 
Processing, Separation and Economics

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Paper No.: 8607  
Paper Title: Rare Earth Separation: More Green and Efficient  
Chun-Hua Yan, Peking University; Chun-Sheng Liao, Peking University, Rare Earth Institute of China Minmatals; Sheng Wu, 
Peking University, Rare Earth Institute of China Minmatals; Fu-Xiang Cheng, Rare Earth Institute of China Minmatals;  
Besides the exploration and development of rare earth natural resources, the environmental problem of the rare earth 
separation and utilization becomes the biggest challenge to both academic and industrial communities in the world. In this 
talk, we try to introduce the recent progresses of rare earth separation by solvent extraction, including (1) the development 
and application of Theory of Countercurrent Extraction, (2) the novel solvent extraction process and its industrial application 
for separating heavy rare earth elements (Tm, Yb, Lu), yttrium (Y), and scandium (Sc) in high purity, (3) the on-line analysis 
and automatic control of countercurrent extraction cascades, (4) the eco-friendly process for RE/Th separation of bastnasite 
and electrochemical process for Eu/RE separation, and (5) the optimized separation flowcharts for typical rare earth minerals 
to meet the green and efficient demand.  
Paper No.: 8450  
Paper Title: Status and causes of ecological imbalance of abandoned weathered crust elution-deposited rare-earth 
mine in South China  
Yangwu DENG, ; Caigui LUO, ; Xianping LUO, ; Yan ZHANG, ; Nana ZHOU, ; Yangwu DENG, ; Caigui LUO, ; Xianping LUO, ; Yan 
ZHANG, ; Nana ZHOU, ;  
The ecological imbalance status of abandoned weathered crust elution-deposited rare-earth mine in South China is serious, 
such as a large area of vegetation damage , serious soil erosion , heavy metals, water and soil pollution, fluorine pollution and 
so on. These all endanger the safety of lives and property of people who live in mine and its downstream . The ecological 
imbalance status and causes of abandoned weathered crust elution-deposited rare-earth mine are detailed and analyzed 
respectively in this paper, and finally make a few suggestions to improve the ecological imbalance status of abandoned 
weathered crust elution-deposited rare earth mine in South China.  
Paper No.: 8567  
Paper Title: Evolution in Rare Earth Material Science, Production and Resource Development: The Mt Pass Paradigm  
Constantine Karayannopoulos, Molycorp;  
Constantine Karayannopoulos, Chairman of the Board of Molycorp, will provide a landscape review of the rare earth industry 
and the status of global markets. He also will discuss the technological, mineralogical, and economic challenges to bringing 
new rare earth resources online. In greater detail, he will discuss the advances made in the environmental performance of rare 
earth processing at Molycorp?s new, state-of-the-art production facility at Mountain Pass, and how this new level of 
performance is dovetailing with downstream market demand.  
Paper No.: 8630  
Renata Dias Abreu , Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear, CDTN/CNEN; Carlos A. Morais, Centro de 
Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear, CDTN/CNEN;  
The present work describes a study of the fractionating of the terbium and dysprosium from heavy RE concentrate through 
solvent extraction circuit in a counter-current system. The efficiency of the REE extraction through acid extractants rises with 
the increase of the atomic number of the element. So the aim of this work is to extract the elements with higher atomic number 
maintaining the Tb and Dy in the aqueous phase. In this way, the terbium was separated first with subsequent separation of 

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dysprosium. The experiments were carried out by using IONQUEST®801 as the extractant and a REE-hydrochloric liquor as 
feed solution in a circuit composed by mixer-settler units. For the terbium separation, the optimum operational circuit was 
comprised of 37 stages: extraction, scrubbing, striping and solvent regeneration. For the dysprosium separation 39 stages 
were required. A terbium product attaining 99% purity with a yield of 90 % was obtained. The dysprosium product presented 
99% purity with a yield of 97 %. The total operation time was 370 hours for the separation of Tb and 160 hours for separation 
of dysprosium. The purity of the elements could be improved through some changing in the system, like increasing the number 
of the mixer settlers and some adjustment in the concentration and in the flow of the scrubbing solution.  
Paper No.: 8528  
Eliza Ngai, Matamec Explorations;  
The metallurgical development of the Kipawa Heavy Rare Earth deposit was initiated in 2010, and a positive feasibility study 
for the project was completed in 2013. Rare earth elements (REE) from the Kipawa deposit are contained in coarse-grained 
Eudialyte, Mosandrite and Britholite minerals. The deposit contains an in-pit reserve of 19.8 Mt averaging 0.41% rare earth 
oxides (REO), of which approximately 40% is valuable heavy rare earth. Beneficiation of the ore is carried out using 2 stages of 
magnetic separation, which upgrades the mineral concentrate to approximately 1.0% REO. Three different sulphuric acid 
leaching routes has been tried in order to maximize the leaching extraction of REE, namely Acid bake, Atmospheric leach, and 
Counter-current leach. This paper compares the extraction performance for each of the leaching routes, and discusses the 
advantages and disadvantages for each for the Kipawa ore.  
Paper No.: 8532  
Tony Hadley, Northern Minerals Pty Ltd.; E. Ecatovic, Northern Minerals Pty Ltd.;  
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