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Aoife E. Brady, Mkango Resources Ltd.; Saffaa Al-Ali, Camborne School of Mines, University of Exeter; Sam Broom-Fendley, 
Camborne School of Mines, University of Exeter; Frances Wall, Camborne School of Mines, University of Exeter; Richard Wall, 
Camborne School of Mines, University of Exeter; Gavyn Rollinson, Camborne School of Mines, University of Exeter; William 
Dawnes, Mkango Resources Ltd.;  
TThe Songwe Hill Rare Earth Element (REE) Project in Malawi is a near surface carbonatite hosted deposit with synchysite 
and apatite as the key REE bearing minerals. A strong focus has been placed on understanding the REE mineralogy of the 
Songwe Hill carbonatite as REE mineralogical characterization is a crucial component at all steps, ranging from exploration to 
production, in the development of REE deposits. Extensive mineralogical work has been completed at Camborne School of 
Mines (CSM), Natural History Museum (NHM) London, British Geological Survey (BGS), Nottingham, Aberystwyth University, 
Wales, Mintek, South Africa, and SGS Inc. Canada (SGS). The following analytical techniques were used: scanning electron 
microscopy (SEM), electron microprobe analysis (EMPA), laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-
ICP-MS), and QEMSCAN®. The detailed studies have demonstrated that while synchysite is light-REE enriched as expected, 
apatite, abundant in all stages of carbonatite emplacement at Songwe, is anomalously enriched in mid- to heavy-REE relative 
to apatite in other carbonatite deposits. The distribution of REE within synchysite and apatite at Songwe has had important 
implications for the direction of the metallurgical work with respect to the behaviour of light and heavy REE through the 
flotation and hydrometallurgical stages of the flow sheet.  
Paper No.: 8514  
Paper Title: The Processing of REE's from Search Minerals' Foxtrot Resource - an Update  
David Dreisinger, University of British Columbia; Niels Verbaan, SGS Minerals;  
The Search Minerals Foxtrot project in Labrador represents a significant Canadian resource of rare earth elements with Dy 
contents of 218 g/t Dy2O3. A preliminary economic assessment of the project indicated that the project is feasible. A variety of 
metallurgical test programs have been undertaken which have led to significant streamlining and simplification of the process 
flowsheet. The improved flowsheet should allow Search to reach production earlier and will use conventional processing 
equipment. The results of these test programs will be presented in this paper.  
Paper No.: 8520  
Paper Title: Extraction of Rare Earth Elements from Various Ion-adsorption Clay Materials  

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Vladimiros G Papangelakis, University of Toronto; Frank Cheuk, University of Toronto; Simon Abendschein, Technische 
Universität München; Georgiana Moldoveanu; University of Toronto; 
Systematic studies have been conducted at the University of Toronto in order to evaluate lanthanide extraction from clay 
minerals from different geographical regions. It was found that rare earth elements (REE) are easily recovered into an 
aqueous solution via an ion-exchange mechanism by leaching with electrolyte solutions containing monovalent cations, under 
ambient conditions. In this study we assessed extraction levels of individual REE as a function of initial clay composition and 
leaching conditions. It was found that, in spite of variations in clay origin, all REE consistently reached peak extraction levels 
with fast kinetics; however, terminal extractions were clay-specific. Second stage leaching with fresh lixiviant did not provide 
significant extraction improvement if efficient residue washing was performed.  
Paper No.: 8525  
Paper Title: New and Innovative Rare Earth Technology for Low-level Phosphorus Removal  
Joseph Carlston, Molycorp Inc.;  
High levels of phosphorus being discharge into bodies of water have increased the risk of eutrophication, leading to algae 
blooms and causing harm to aquatic life. Regulatory agencies are addressing this issue by limiting the discharge of phosphorus 
from facilities such as water resource recovery facilities. With environmental regulations continuing to restrict the discharge 
of phosphorus from wastewater treatment facilities, traditional methods of phosphorus removal are proving inadequate. To 
achieve the phosphorus control necessary, cerium chloride has been studied in several municipal and industrial wastewater 
treatment facilities which must meet a phosphorus discharge limit of 0.5 mg/L or lower. These various studies demonstrated 
the high phosphorus removal capabilities of cerium chloride. In several studies, the cerium chloride was introduced prior to 
the secondary clarifier, and the solids generated were recycled through the return activated sludge. This recycle allowed the 
cerium-rich solids to continue to reduce phosphorus upstream of the chemical addition point with no adverse effects to the 
biological nutrient removal system. With phosphorus continuously reduced upstream, a facility will have the ability to 
maintain a reliable phosphorus discharge with cerium chloride usage.  
Paper No.: 8458  
Paper Title: The Recovery of Niobium and Tantalum from Flotation Concentrate Produced by the Nechalacho Rare 
Earth Project.  
William Mercer, Avalon Rare Metals; David Marsh; Avalon Rare Metals ; 
In addition to the abundant heavy rare earth elements present in the Nechalacho Rare Earth deposit, there are significant 
quantities of both Niobium and Tantalum. However, the nature of their mineralogy and distribution renders their recovery 
difficult across the rare earth process flowsheet to the point where the majority reports to a silica based solid residue. A 
testwork program was implemented which focused primarily on extracting these valuable metals from the solid residue using 
both physical and chemical processes. Further investigations were also undertaken to investigate recovering those portions of 
the metals reporting into solution during the Rare Earth Hydrochloric Acid leaching process. This paper traces the deportment 
of the niobium and tantalum from mineralogy, through the Nechalacho flotation circuit and hydrometallurgical rare earth 
recovery flowsheet. It then presents an overview of the processes adopted for their recovery into marketable products and 
some high level economics.  
Paper No.: 8475  
Paper Title: Characterization of Rare Earth Element Ores with High Spatial Resolution and High Counts Rate with a 
Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope  
Hendrix Demers, McGill University; Chaoyi Teng, McGill University; Nicolas Brodusch, McGill University; Kristian E. Waters, 
McGill University; Raynald Gauvin, McGill University;  

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Rare earth elements (REEs) play an increasing important part in renewable energy devices and high-end electronics. In this 
project, the composition and morphology of REEs-bearing minerals are characterized with a field-emission scanning electron 
microscope at high spatial resolution and high counts rate using silicon drift detector (SDD) systems with two different 
geometries. In the first geometry, a conventional SDD is located on the side of the specimen. In the second geometry, an 
annular SDD is inserted below the objective lens, which gives a higher solid angle (up to 1.2 sr). Also, a lower working distance 
and probe current can be used. With this geometry, an improved spatial resolution becomes possible during x-ray 
microanalysis. Since the count rate can be as high as 1,500 kcps with our annular SDD system, the detection limit of trace 
elements is significantly lower as well the minimum feature sizes of different phases that can be distinguished. For example, x-
ray maps were acquired with the annular SDD and a 300 nm width phase containing Yttrium and Niobium was visible inside a 
10 µm width Zirconium phase. At this point, the time required for x-ray imaging is of the same order as for the atomic number 
contrast images achieved through backscattered electrons imaging, but with composition information.  
Paper No.: 8481  
Paper Title: Historical and Present Day Metallurgical Development of the Strange Lake Alkalic Complex  
Yemi Oyediran, Quest Rare Minerals Ltd.; M.C. Robart, Quest Rare Minerals Ltd.; I.S. Zajac, I.S. Zajac Consulting Geologist;  
This paper presents an overview of the metallurgical work on the Strange Lake Alkalic Complex (SLAC), from historical 
development of the ?Main Zone? to present day develoment of the ?B-Zone?. The SLAC, originally discovered by the Iron Ore 
Company of Canada (IOC) in the northeastern Canadian Shield of Québec and Labrador, is one of the world?s largest deposits 
of yttrium, heavy rare earths and zirconium. It is part of a Precambrian, post-tectonic complex of peralkaline granites which 
intruded along the contact between gneisses and monzonites of the Churchill Province of the Canadian Shield. Mineralization 
of interest at Strange Lake occurs within peralkaline granite-hosted pegmatites and aplites and, to a lesser degree, within the 
host granites, particularly in intra-pegmatitic granites. The highest grade and metallurgically most favorable mineralization is 
in the upper, open pit mineable parts of the SLAC. Metallurgical development has been conducted under a number of mining 
companies, and various value metals have been targeted throughout the history of the deposit, including yttrium, zirconium, 
niobium, and rare earths. Historic processing routes tested have included ore beneficiation, atmospheric leaching, solvent 
extraction, and metal precipitation. This paper also presents the metallurgical development supporting Quest Rare Minerals 
Ltd.?s 2013 Pre-Feasibility Study.  
Paper No.: 8484  
Paper Title: High Level Overview of Avalon Rare Metal?s Nechalacho Flotation and Hydrometallurgical Process  
Jiayi Guan, Avalon Rare Metals; Dave Marsh, Avalon Rare Metals; Henrietta Notzl, Tenova;  
A feasibility study on Avalon Rare Metal?s Nechalacho deposit located in the Northwest Territories was released in 2013, with 
an update to the feasibility study released in 2014. The deposit contains rare earth element minerals such as allanite, 
monazite, synchysite, columbite, fergusonite, zircon and bastnaesite with a higher than usual concentration of heavy rare 
earths. When the feasibility study was published in 2013, a number of optimization targets were identified. These were 
considered further and the process was updated according to objectives such as: improve recoveries in flotation, simplify 
current flotation flowsheet, increase HREE recoveries across the hydrometallurgical process, produce a high value Zr product 
and recover Nb/Ta. This paper will discuss a high level overview of the changes to the flotation and hydrometallurgical 
Paper No.: 8486  
Paper Title: Solvent Extraction of Rare Earth Elements Using CYANEX® 572  
Tyler McCallum, Cytec Industries Inc; Alejandro Quilodran, Cytec Industries Inc; Matthew Soderstrom; Cytec Industries Inc 

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Cytec has developed a new organophophorus based solvent extraction reagent for rare earth separations. The new product, 
CYANEX® 572, has been formulated to allow efficient extraction while minimizing the strip acid requirements. The 
optimization of formulation strength is expected to significantly reduce the operating costs of these circuits by reducing acid 
and base usage. Modeling capabilities (similar to those used successfully in Cu and Co/Ni SX) have also been developed to aid 
in the design and optimization of CYANEX® 572 SX circuits. Simulations will be shown comparing extractants and the impact 
of changing circuit conditions.  
Paper No.: 8493  
Paper Title: The Effect of Activating Ions on the Adsorption of a Benzohydroxamic Acid Collector onto a Rare Earth 
Adam Jordens, ; Kristian E. Waters, ;  
The beneficiation of rare earth (RE) element bearing minerals has become an active area of research as applications for these 
elements grow while the non-Chinese supply is restricted by export quotas. One of the most interesting beneficiation 
techniques for RE minerals is froth flotation as the unique chemistry of these minerals suggests that collectors with a specific 
affinity for RE cations should be able to selectively recover these minerals. Existing literature, focusing mainly on bastnäsite 
flotation, identifies hydroxamic acids as excellent collectors for RE minerals. The high stability of hydroxamate-RE cation 
complexes is the explanation most often offered for the observed selectivity of these reagents in bastnäsite flotation however 
some research has also suggested that mineral solubility plays a crucial role in the success of hydroxamic acid flotation of RE 
minerals. This work investigates the interaction of allanite, a relatively insoluble RE-silicate mineral, with benzohydroxamic 
acid using zeta potential measurements and microflotation. The effects of potential activating ions (cations that form stable 
hydroxamate complexes) on benzohydroxamic adsorption to the allanite surface are investigated as a potential solution to 
promote hydroxamic acid adsorption.  
Paper No.: 8501  
Richard Frederick Hammen, IntelliMet LLC; John Philip Hammen, IntelliMet LLC; Chris Richard Hammen, IntelliMet LLC;  
The production of salable Rare Earth Element (REE) products necessitates a sequence of chemical separation steps between 
the mine and the magnet commodities. The effectiveness of the chemical separations that purify REE salts is critical to the 
success of the producer, as the purity of REE salt products affects their market price. This is due to the fact that impurities in 
REE salts, even at low levels, can be deleterious to the function and usability of the end product. The purification of REE by 
removal of low levels of contaminant has been referred to as ?product polishing?. The technologies commonly in use for 
product polishing, Solvent Extraction (SX) and Ion Exchange (IEX), are challenged by the availability of separation chemistries 
to separate the contaminant from the desired REE salt. In simple terms, if a product specification is 99.9% purity, the SX or IEX 
separation reagents need to have at least a 999:1 selectivity ratio. We report the results of work with Solid Phase Extraction 
(SPE) columns that are used to extract low-level impurities such as aluminum or zinc from REE product streams. The SPE 
columns are nano-composite materials that have extraordinarily rapid equilibration kinetics with solutes being processed by 
the columns. The SPE matrices have been modified with chelating/ion exchange ligands that bind the contaminating ion with 
great selectivity in seconds of residence time. Thus, REE streams with 1 or 2 per cent of contaminating metal ions have been 
polished to >99.99% purity.  
Paper No.: 8589  
Paper Title: Advances in process development for Concentration of rare earths and niobium for GeoMega?s Montviel 
Carbonaceous ore  
Tesfaye Negeri, NRC; Micheline Boisclar, NRC; G. Langeroudi, NRC; Ahmed Boujajila, ;  

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CanmetMINING has been working on process development for separation and concentration of rare earth bearing minerals 
from various ores. Among others, the flowsheet development for the Montviel Rare Earths/Niobium deposit, located at the 
north end of the Abitibi region in Quebec and owned by Geomega Resources Inc. (GeoMegA) is now at an advanced stage. The 
concentrate produced by flotation-only process at the early stage of the project accounted for higher than 90% TREO and Nb 
recovery in 40% mass. This concentrate was submitted to SGS Lakefield for hydrometallurgical processing. Lixiviation of the 
concentrate using hydrochloric acid yielded excellent REE extractions (~ 99%). An overall (from ore in ground to final 
precipitate) REE recovery of 80% was obtained through a series of selective precipitation steps. Recently significant 
developments have been made. CanmetMINING is steadily improving the quality of concentrate produced through a simplified 
more efficient flowsheet which consists of flotation, magnetic separation and a thermal treatment procedure. The paper 
discusses aspects of the process that allowed obtaining 82% recovery of TREO and Nb in 16% of mass, the best result to-date.  
Paper No.: 8534  
Paper Title: Novel Solution Injection Technology of In-situ Leaching on Weathered Crust Elution-Deposit Rare Earth 
Ru an Chi, ; Zhi gao Xu, ; Zhen yue Zhang, ; Zheng yan He, ; Yao yang Ruan, ;  
Weathered crust elution-deposited rare earth ore as the specific rare earth resources in China is rich in the middle and heavy 
rare earth. The weathered crust elution-deposit rare earth ores can be divided into humic layer, completely weathered layer, 
partly weathered layer and bedrock from surface to bottom. The exchangeable rare earth ions mainly exist in the completely 
weathered layer and partly weathered layer, and the exchangeable aluminum ions mainly exist in the humic layer. A novel 
solution injection method in the in-situ leaching technology of weathered crust elution-deposit rare earth ores was put 
forward based on the different distributions of RE3+ and Al3+ in the four layers. Avoiding the humic layer, only the completely 
weathered layer and partly weathered layer were leached by controlling the height of liquid level of leaching solution. In this 
way, aluminum, the primary impurities in the RE leaching solution, can be decreased and the purity of RE product can be 
improved. Meanwhile, the choices of available leaching reagents were broadened and the landslides disaster could be reduced.  
Paper No.: 8603  
Richard Amata, African Rare Earths; Serame Masheong, Montero Mining and Exploration; Michael Evens, Montero Mining and 
Exploration; Antony Harwood, Montero Mining and Exploration; Ben Yu, SGS;  
Developing an economic process for the recovery of Rare Earth Elements (REE) from a REE mineral deposit requires the 
examination of a diverse number of different process steps. Some of the important process steps include crushing, physical 
sorting, milling, roasting, flotation, and hydrometallurgical extraction. Whether or not to include a particular process step 
depends largely on the mineralization of the REE deposit, which in most cases are site specific. Several of these processing 
steps have been examined for the economic recovery of REE from high-grade bastnaesite-rich deposit at Wigu Hill, a high- 
grade, undeveloped Light REE deposit located in Tanzania. In this paper, processes for the economic recovery of REE from the 
Wigu Hill REE deposit are proposed.  
Paper No.: 8602  
Paper Title: Rare Earth Metal Production using INFINIUM? Pure Oxygen Anodes?  
Adam Powell, Infinium; Matthew Earlam, Infinium;  
: INFINIUM, Inc. is scaling up a new molten salt electrolysis process for producing rare earth metals. Instead of conventional 
carbon anodes, this process uses Pure Oxygen Anodes? which employ a stabilized zirconia solid electrolyte between the 
molten salt and anode. This eliminates two problems with today's rare earth metal production technology. First, it eliminates 

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carbon anodes, and contamination of the product by carbon and its impurities, enabling 10-100 times larger batch size than 
current practice, and lower labor cost. Second, it eliminates emissions of perfluorocarbons (PFC) such as CF4 and C2F6, which 
are very problematic greenhouse gases with 6000+ times the global warming potential of CO2. The zirconia also enables a 
sealed vessel with no LiF emissions, creates a reducing environment enabling use of low-cost welded steel vessels, and either 
produces a high-purity oxygen by-product, or can use natural gas to reduce the necessary electrical energy with no HF 
production. INFINIUM is scaling this process to start production of Dy-Fe alloy in 2014, and neodymium in 2015. This talk will 
describe the technology and the current status of rare earth metal production.  
Paper No.: 8523  
Yemi Oyediran, Quest Rare Minerals Ltd.; Neri Roux, RPC; Ross Gilders, RPC; Leo Cheung; RPC 
Quest Rare Minerals Ltd. is developing their Strange Lake B Zone REE deposit located in Northern Quebec. An extensive batch 
bench scale testing program was launched to investigate open circuit rougher flotation performance under different 
conditions. The primary objective of the flotation study was to demonstrate the effectiveness of rejecting gangue minerals to a 
flotation tailings product while concentrating rare earth elements as well as yttrium, zirconium and niobium into a 
concentrate suitable for further hydrometallurgcal processing. Mineralization of interest at Strange Lake occurs within 
peralkaline granite-hosted pegmatites and minor aplite. The REE and high field strength element (HFSE)-bearing phases are 
hosted primarily in pegmatites as relatively fine-grained phases or pseudomorphs. The gangue phases comprise quartz, 
feldspar, amphibole and pyroxene. Potential minerals comprise predominantly of kainosite, gerenite, gadolinite, zircon, 
pyrochlore and gittinsite. These complex mineralogical characteristics increase the difficulty for processing and provide a 
challenge for choosing the correct reagent scheme in rougher flotation. Process options including reverse flotation to reject the 
gangue minerals and de-sliming prior to the rougher flotation were investigated. Optimization trials were conducted using 
various reagent regimes and under different conditions. Encouraging results were found using a combination of collector 
reagents supplied by Cytec Canada Inc.  
Paper No.: 8533  
Paper Title: Separation and treatment of thorium resources  
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