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Authors:   Jan W. Matousek, Self-Employed;   Abstract

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Jan W. Matousek, Self-Employed;  
Tonnage oxygen plays a critical role in the primary production of two of the most important industrial metals ? copper and 
iron ? and minute quantities of oxygen play equally critical roles in determining the properties of the market products. For 
refined copper, oxygen in the final metal is balanced between maximizing electrical conductivity, neutralizing the effects of 
harmful impurities, and ensuring that the metal takes on the desired "set" during casting ? the surface texture and physical 
properties required for subsequent rolling and drawing. For refined iron, oxygen must be removed to minimize reaction with 
carbon during cooling from the molten state with the generation of CO and CO2 ?leading to a loss of carbon and the creation of 
"blow-holes" in the solid ingots and the potential for defects in rolled and forged products. This paper reviews the 
thermodynamics of oxygen in molten copper and iron at the levels of primary interest to production metallurgists.  
Paper No.: 8442  
Paper Title: Electrochemical Formation of RE-Ni (RE= Nd, Dy, Pr) Alloys in Molten Salts  
Kouji Yasuda, Kyoto University; Katsuya Kondo, Kyoto University; Seitaro Kobayashi, Kyoto University; Toshiyuki Nohira, 
Kyoto University; Rika Hagiwara, Kyoto University;  
For the establishment of a process for the electrochemical recovery of rare earth elements from used magnet scraps, the 
electrochemical formation of RE?Ni alloys in molten LiF?CaF2?REF3 and NaCl?KCl?RECl3 salts at 1123 K and 973 K, 
respectively, was investigated. Cyclic voltammetry and open-circuit potentiometry indicated the formation of several phases of 
RE?Ni alloys. Alloy samples were prepared by one- or two-step potentiostatic electrolysis of a Ni plate electrode at various 
potentials. Scanning electron microscopy observations and X-ray diffraction measurements confirmed the formation of RE?Ni 
alloys. The formation potential for each RE?Ni alloy phase was determined from experimental results. In addition, the 
optimum electrolysis conditions for the separation of Nd, Dy, and Pr are discussed.  
Paper No.: 8406  
Paper Title: Improvements in Saganoseki Flash Smelting Furnace Operation  
Yutaka Yasuda, Saganoseki Smelter; Tatsuya Motomura, Smelting Section, Saganoseki Smelter; Tomoya Kawasaki, Smelting 
Section, Saganoseki Smelter;  
Saganoseki Smelter, one of the largest Copper producers in Japan, currently operates single flash smelting furnace to produce 

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450,000 tons of new copper. The smelter used to employ two flash furnaces, and integrated two into one in 1996. Since then, 
various improvements to increase productivity have been executed for its facilities and technologies. To upgrade the operation 
efficiency, ?Stability? was considered as the key issue, and the measures were also achieved to increase the operation and 
facility reliability. Currently, the furnace is running at 215 mtph feeding rate, while the furnace availability is maintained at 
97%. This paper outlines the recent improvements for increasing furnace productivity and efficiency.  
Paper No.: 8413  
Paper Title: New Titanium Production Process via Molten Bi-Ti Alloy  
Tetsuya Uda, Kyoto University; Yuya Kado, Kyoto University; Akihiro Kishimoto, Kyoto University; Kazuki Tsuchihashi, Kyoto 
A continuous production process for titanium is proposed with some experimental results. In the process, titanium 
tetrachloride is reduced by Bi- Mg alloy and form Bi-Ti alloy at 1173 K. As the obtained alloy is liquid, it is possible to take out 
it from the reaction chamber continuously. The main benefit is continuous removal of the reduction heat. The obtained Bi-Ti 
alloy was vacuum-distilled at 1273 K for 24 hr, and 96 wt % titanium was obtained in the form of powder. We expect the form 
is suitable for the use in powder metallurgical process, although a sintering process which allows to reduce the impurity level 
of Bi is required. The reason why we choose Bi is the higher titanium solubility at 1173 K and the moderate vapor pressure 
among the candidate metals (Sn, Pb, Zn, and Sb).  
Paper No.: 8455  
Paper Title: Upgrade of autocatalyst scrap for recycling platinum group metals  
Yu-ki Taninouchi; The University of Tokyo; Akinari Suzue, The University of Tokyo; Toru H. Okabe, The University of Tokyo;  
In order to develop an environmentally friendly and efficient process for recycling platinum group metals (PGMs), the physical 
separation and enrichment of PGMs from autocatalyst scrap was studied. In general, an autocatalyst has a honeycomb-
structured ceramic body that is coated with a catalyst layer containing platinum, palladium, and rhodium. The concept of the 
new upgrade process is based on physical separation of the PGM-containing catalyst layer directly from the ceramic body. As 
an example, a ferromagnetic metal, such as nickel and iron, was plated on the autocatalysts, which were then crushed and 
magnetically separated. Consequently, PGMs were concentrated in the magnetic powder and recovered efficiently. As an 
alternative method, microcracks were introduced into the autocatalysts by utilizing the volume expansion of water when 
frozen. When the water penetrating the catalyst layer was frozen quickly, the PGM-containing catalyst layer was effectively 
separated from the ceramic body and selectively collected after sieve classification.  
Paper No.: 8347  
Paper Title: Molten oxidation of copper slag for magnetite precipitation  
Yong Fan, Tohoku University; Etsuro Shibata, Tohoku University; Atsushi Iizuka, Tohoku University; Takashi Nakamura, 
Tohoku University;  
Magnetic separation of precipitated magnetite as iron resources in copper slag is one of the potential effective ways to recycle 
the slag. It is preferable to convert molten fayalite slag after copper smelting process to magnetite slag via oxidation. With a 
TTT (Time- Temperature-Transformation) diagram, the crystal composition of the slag obtained after air isothermal oxidation 
could be estimated through a designed cooling path. The crystallization behaviors concerned with molten oxidation was 
studied for better understanding of the trade-off relationship between magnetite and hematite during molten heat treatment. 
Moreover, a brief consideration was implemented of the reaction mechanism.  
Paper No.: 8529  

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J.C. Moreno, Atlantic Copper (Subsidiary of Freeport McMoran Copper & Gold); Guillermo Rios, Atlantic Copper (Subsidiary of 
Freeport McMoran Copper & Gold); F. Jimenez, Atlantic Copper (Subsidiary of Freeport McMoran Copper & Gold); M. Palacios, 
Atlantic Copper (Subsidiary of Freeport McMoran Copper & Gold);  
The Huelva smelter was commissioned in 1970 coinciding with the shutdown of the old smelter in the Rio Tinto mine site. 
That new smelter consisted of two Momoda blast furnaces with a capacity of 500 dmtpd of concentrate. Nevertheless, soon 
after their start up, it was clear that an increase of the smelting capacity was needed. After an analysis of the existing 
alternatives at that time, the flash smelting technology was chosen. The new Outokumpu Flash Smelting Furnace (FSF) came 
into operation on September 18th 1975 with an initial capacity of 900 dmtpd of concentrate, using four Ventury type burners 
and preheated atmospheric air. Since that date, the Huelva Smelter team, together with Outokumpu (nowadays Outotec), have 
continuously improved our FSF design, process conditions and operational practices, leading to a present capacity of 3,500 
dmtpd of concentrate. Since 1975, five smelting campaigns have been accomplished, ending last October 2013 with the 
rebuilding of the original FSF hearth. This paper describes the history of these improvements and the lessons learned from 
Paper No.: 8555  
Paper Title: INVITED: Maximizing Power Generation From Metallurgical Sulphuric Acid Plants  
Hannes Storch, Outotec GmbH; Collin Bartlett, Outotech GmbH;  
Modern metallurgical processes operating with oxygen enriched air, such as the Outotec Flash Smelter and Flash Converter, 
generate very concentrated SO2 off-gas, which in combination with Outotec?s sulphuric acid plant technology allow for the 
production of high pressure steam to be used for power generation. Many of the process technologies employed have their 
historical roots in sulphur burning acid plants and have subsequently proven their value in metallurgical reference plants over 
the years. The application of Outotec?s proven LURECTM process enables processing of SO2 gas of up to 25 vol.-%. This 
process maximizes the energy recovery from the SO2 oxidation at a suitable high temperature level which can be turned into 
high pressure steam. The application of the Outotec HEROSTM heat recovery system enables the generation of low pressure 
steam from the absorption energy released at the intermediate absorption step. Additionally, energy is also recovered in the 
acid coolers for boiler feedwater pre-heating. The concept of integration of high and low pressure steam in combination with 
the pressurized operation of the boiler feedwater deaerator, thus heating up the boiler feed water to temperatures around 
160-170°C, enables indirect transfer of low pressure steam (for deaerator operation) into more valuable high pressure steam, 
which improves the degree of heat recovery. This is the characteristic of Outotec?s HIPROSTM process. The thus increased 
generation of high pressure steam will in turn enable the generation of more electricity when compared to a traditional 
sulphuric acid process.  
Paper No.: 8462  
Paper Title: Recycling of Rare Earth Magnet using Molten Fluoride  
Kiyotaka Nakano, Tohoku University; Osamu Takeda, Tohoku University; Yuzuru Sato, Tohoku University; Hongmin Zhu, 
Tohoku University;  
Recycling of rare earth magnet wastes is essential for stable supply of resource. For the development of a novel recycling 
process, the removal of rare earth oxide from an off-spec alloy magnet was investigated by melting the alloy magnet at 1503 K 
together with fluoride flux, LiF-50 mol% NdF3 and LiF- 25 mol% NdF3-25 mol% DyF3. As a result, the separation of magnet 
alloy from the fluoride flux after melting was fine, and neither suspension of alloy in the flux nor suspension of flux in the alloy 
was observed. Oxygen concentration in the alloy decreased from 5000 mass-ppm to 160 mass-ppm by putting in the flux of 1.5 
times of equivalent amount for complete dissolution of oxide. Substitution of neodymium in the alloy and dysprosium in the 
flux was observed. The investigated process is suitable for mildly contaminated waste such as a used (end-of-life) magnet 
because of its simplicity, low energy consumption and small limitation on location for operation.  

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Paper No.: 8539  
Suping YAO, China NERIN Engineering Co., Ltd; Chuanyu JIANG, China NERIN Engineering Co., Ltd;  
In the last decade, the copper industry in China has witnessed a significant change. The capacity and production of refined 
copper has grown remarkably from 1.5 million tons in 2002 up to 5.88 million tons in 2012. And now, China has become the 
biggest copper producer in the world, and counting about 30% of the global refined copper production. NERIN played an 
important role in the engineering works for these copper projects and accumulated intensive experiences in integrating and 
developing modern technologies in large scale copper plants. This paper summarized modern copper smelting and converting 
technologies employed in China copper industry, such as OT flash technology, TSL (ISA/Ausmelt), SKS Bottom Blowing, 
Jinfeng, etc?This paper also compared these different technology?s advantages and disadvantages and highlight NERIN 
contribution with the development and improvement through these large projects. Moreover, the paper presented China?s big 
efforts in increasing energy efficiency, controlling waste emission, and increasing copper recovery . 
Paper No.: 8437  
Paper Title: Integrated experimental and modelling research on copper slags physico-chemical properties in support 
of optimisation of copper making processes  
Evgueni Jak, PYROSEARCH, The University of Queensland, Australia; Peter Hayes, PYROSEARCH, The University of Queensland, 
Copper smelter operations around the world are under sustained pressure to reduce costs and increase output. Through the 
provision of reliable data on fundamental properties of the chemical systems the opportunities for improvements of industrial 
copper production can be identified. Experimental and modelling studies on phase equilibria, thermodynamics and viscosities 
of copper slag/matte/metal/gas systems have been combined into an integrated research program undertaken at 
PYROSEARCH. Experimental phase equilibria studies involve high temperature equilibration in controlled gas atmospheres, 
rapid quenching and direct measurement of compositions of equilibrium phases with electron probe X-ray microanalysis 
(EPMA). Thermodynamic modelling is undertaken using the computer package FactSage in conjunction with advanced models 
used for complex solution phases. Slag viscosities are characterised through systematic modelling supported by experiments. 
Progressive development of these research methodologies has brought significant advances in characterisation of these 
complex systems. The new data and models can now be applied to assist in improvements of the processes. The effects of 
changes to chemistry and process conditions within the smelting reactor can be examined. Examples of multivariate analysis 
of trends in a range of conditions relevant to a typical copper smelter operation parameters are provided. These examples 
examine the potential impact of impurity elements on slag properties, fluxing requirements, metal losses, fuel requirements 
and operating temperature. These demonstrate the potential of the theoretical, laboratory and plant-based studies, to improve 
smelter performance. Keywords: copper smelting, slag, phase equilibria, thermodynamic modelling, liquidus.  
Paper No.: 8352  
Paper Title: Factors Influencing the Selection of the Optimum Cathode - Current, Kilowatts, Corrosion, Coatings and 
Ernie R Hamilton, Limpact International Limited;  
There are approximately 3,000,000 permanent SS cathodes installed in about 200 electrolytic cooper refineries (EW and ER) 
across the globe. Similarly, there are approximately 1,000,000 Al cathodes in service in about 100 electrolytic zinc plants. In 
many of these operations, maintenance and replacement of cathodes accounts for the third largest operating cost after 
electricity and labour. This paper will present an overview the basic factors that influence the life cycle operating cost of 
cathodes in Zn and Cu refineries. Methods of applying these basic factors to guide the operator in the selection of the ?best? 

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cathode for use in his specific plant environment will be presented. Technical advancements in the areas of corrosion 
protection, resistance reduction and cathode handling machinery will be presented. Cathode performance data from 
measurements taken in operating plants will be presented. Finally, the direction for future development work to reduce the 
raw material content and extend the service life of cathodes will be discussed.  
Paper No.: 8558  
Paper Title: Review of Eco-Clean YGJ Lead Production Using SKS-YGLTM Oxygen Bottom Blowing Smelting-Direct Lead 
Reduction Technology  
Johnny Zhang, Dongying Fangyuan Non-ferrous Metals Co. Ltd.; Weifeng Li, Dongying Fangyuan Non-ferrous Metals Co. Ltd.; 
Zueyi Guo, Central South University;  
SKSTM lead smelting technology was developed at pilot and commercial scale in the 1990s to reduce the emission and energy 
consumption. Up to now almost 50% of the lead production (annual volume: 4 million tonnage) is produced using SKS process. 
While the two-step SKS-YGLTM lead smelting-direct reduction technology has been developed and commissioned at YGJ Lead 
Smelter since 2009 to produce annually 100,000t of cathode lead. In the past 6 year operation, numerous technique 
innovations have been implemented in the SKS-YGL furnace design for both smelting and direct reduction operations. The 
plant has been successfully demonstrated its unique excellent performances on all aspects from processing capacity, product 
quality, energy reduction, cost reduction and emission reduction. The purpose of this report is to update all these 
improvements with proven production data and records. To demonstrate the superior performances for the modified SKS-
YGLTM technology, the following aspects are discussed and compared with other similar advanced technologies: Plant design 
and operating conditions; Mass and heat balances, metal recovery; Consumables, oxygen gun and refractory lining life; Energy 
consumption and operating costs; Sulfur capture and emission reduction etc. It is concluded that the modified SKS-YGLTM 
process is an eco-clean process which met high international emission limit standard. The process is characteristic of other 
features such as low fuel addition, low capital with a very small foot-print design, low operating cost, high processing capacity, 
easy operation, long refractory lining life and high productivity (95%+ on line time annually). It offers an alternative cost-
effective technology for lead smelting industry.  
Paper No.: 8527  
Paper Title: The Effects of High Antimony in Electrolyte at the Freeport McMoRan Copper Refinery in El Paso Texas  
Brad Wesstrom, Freeport-McMoRan Copper & Gold, Inc.;  
An overview of the challenges encountered at the Freeport McMoRan El Paso Copper Refinery during electro-refining of 
copper with higher antimony electrolyte will be shared. The observations will cover the detrimental effects on copper starting 
sheets, commercial cathodes and anodic slimes. The study will show negative effects on quality, productivity and cost. 
Experimental work utilized a test cell to study the effects of the following: (1) Lower antimony electrolyte, (2) Higher 
antimony electrolyte, (3) Lower Molar Ratio anodes and (4) Higher Molar ratio anodes. In addition, actual Tank House data 
will be included. Best practices will be shared for producing high quality cathodes while effectively managing the detrimental 
effects of higher antimony electrolyte.  
Paper No.: 8536  
Paper Title: Arsenic’s Behavior and Benefits in Copper Electrorefining  
Michael Scott Moats, Missouri University of Science and Technology; Nigel James Aslin, Glencore XT; Addin Pranowo, Glencore 
XT; Gerardo R. F. Alvear Flores, Glencore XT;  
The toxicity of arsenic is well known and documented. However, the presence of arsenic in copper electrorefining anodes and 
electrolyte is critically necessary to produce high quality cathode. Arsenic as well as antimony and bismuth concentrations 
vary depending on their relative concentration in the anodic copper received from the smelter. This paper will discuss the 

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behaviour and benefits of arsenic in copper electrorefining and the detrimental effects of antimony and bismuth on cathode 
quality and tankhouse performance. This will include the minimization and mitigation of problems associated with arsenic, 
antimony and bismuth including cathode contamination, floating slimes, scaling and anode passivation.  
Paper No.: 8537  
Paper Title: A Review of Copper Electrorefining Operating Data ? 1987 to 2013  
Michael S. Moats, Missouri University of Science and Technology; Timothy Robinson, Republic Alternative Technologies, Inc; 
Shijie Wang, Rio Tinto - Kennecott Utah Copper;  
In 1987, John Schloen published a survey and analysis of copper electrorefining tank room data. Following this paper, a series 
of copper electrorefining surveys have been conducted and presented at each of the Copper-Cobre meetings over the past 20+ 
years (1991, 1995, 1999, 2003, 2007, 2010 and 2013). For most of these surveys, William Davenport has been the key driving 
force in the collection and analysis of data. To honour Professor Davenport?s contribution to copper processing, a review of 
the data was conducted. Historic trends and possible future technologies are discussed.  
Paper No.: 8507  
Paper Title: Study on Recovery Process for Ruthenium from Scraps by Hydrometallurgical Methods  
Katsuhiro Nose, The Massachusetts Institute of Technology and The University of Tokyo; Semih A. Sunkar, Dowa HD Europe 
GmbH; Yuzuru Nakamura, Nippon PGM America Inc.; Toru H. Okabe, The Univesity of Tokyo;  
Ruthenium (Ru) is known as a platinum group element with a very small production volume. In fact, the worldwide annual 
production of primary Ru metal is only about 20?30 tons, and it depends on the amount of Pt produced, since Ru is a 
byproduct from Pt smelting. The primary uses of Ru are as a material for resistors, as a catalyst for electrode materials, and as 
a sputtering target for hard disk memory storage. In order to recover Ru from the spent sand-blasting abrasive media 
generated during the cleaning of the apparatus used for Ru sputtering, a hydrometallurgical recovery process using sodium 
hypochlorite solution has been investigated. In this talk, various types of recycling processes that are presently under 
development are also introduced, and their features and differences are discussed. The advantages and disadvantages of the 
new recycling processes are evaluated, and the possibility of establishing new recycling processes in the future is discussed 
from a multilateral perspective.  
Paper No.: 8448  
Paper Title: 20 years of DON process and its new benefits for Cu-Ni-PGM bulk concentrates  
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