Speakers’ List Version: May 1, 2014 Page 1


Authors:   Helen Johnston, ALS Metallurgy - Kamloops;   Abstract


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Authors:  
Helen Johnston, ALS Metallurgy - Kamloops;  
Abstract 

 
Speakers’ List 
 
Version: May 1, 2014 
Page 32 of 104 
 
There are currently a number of options in terms of plant feed comminution tests: Bond work index tests, JK drop weight and 
SMC tests, low impact crusher work index tests, to name a few. But information regarding specific energy requirements for 
regrind mills is often requested, which can be difficult or very expensive when only a small mass of concentrate is produced 
from bench-scale flotation tests. This research was aimed at developing a test methodology that would produce a similar 
result as an IsaMill Signature Plot but require less sample mass; allowing for preliminary estimates of regrinding power at a 
lower cost. Initially, the laboratory test methodology was completed on a single sample in comparison to the IsaMill signature 
plot for that sample. Results indicated a very good correlation between the laboratory tests and the full scale signature plot for 
this sample, though some parameters did impact laboratory regrind mill efficiency. The developed methodology is 
subsequently being applied to a range of concentrates, investigating a range of material particle sizes and material types, in 
comparison to a full IsaMill Signature Plot on the same sample.  
 
Paper No.: 8428  
Paper Title: Developments in Crushing Circuit Designs  
Authors:  
David Meadows, FLSmidth USA Inc.; D. Rose, FLSmidth USA Inc.; W. Malone, FLSmidth USA Inc.;  
Abstract 
With the continuing need to treat higher throughput rates of increasingly lower grade copper and gold ores, comminution 
circuit sizes have continued to grow over time, and machine sizes have increased to sizes that would never have been dreamt 
of two decades ago. In the last few years, these more competent ores have necessitated the need for much more focus on the 
best way to treat them economically in the comminution circuits. This paper discusses developments in the areas of primary 
crushing and also stage crushing ? in particular, implications of the use of pre-crush circuits to debottleneck circuits treating 
harder ores. Specific topics include safety, maintenance, plant design and processing solutions. The design basis for 
considering pre-crush circuits is reviewed. Finally, one or two case studies are cited to illustrate recent activities and 
developments in this area.  
 
Paper No.: 8435  
Paper Title: Phase chemistry study to support the technology development for the recycling of Lithium ion batteries  
Authors:  
Evgueni Jak, University of Queensland; Peter C. Hayes, University of Queensland; Elien Haccuria; University of Queensland; 
Abstract 
The use of the lithium ion batteries significantly increased over the last few years, which is mainly due to their application in 
electrical cars. Recycling of the batteries is essential to safely dispose hazardous materials as well as to recover valuables (Cu, 
Ni, Co...). A growing amount of used manganese containing materials in the battery cathode, will lead to increasing 
concentrations of manganese present in the high temperature smelter slag. In order to optimise the recycling process of these 
metals, accurate information is required on the phase equilibria in the battery smelter slag. The slag is a multi-component 
system containing alumina from the battery cases, silica and lime from fluxes, and manganese and lithium from the electrode 
materials. When studying the quaternary system Al2O3-CaO-?MnO?-SiO2, discrepancies were identified between different 
studies in the ?MnO?-Al2O3-SiO2 sub-ternary system. The present study accurately determined the phase equilibria in this 
system at metal saturation. Particular focus was given to the accuracy and reliability of the final results by highlighting the 
different reaction pathways, mass transfer mechanisms and reaction mechanisms taking place in the system, to enable 
improved design experiments and measurements. The work was extended to the quaternary system at low ?MnO? 
concentrations, which closely represents the future recycling industrial slags. Experiments were undertaken using platinum 
envelops to contain the slags under a fixed oxygen partial pressure, 10-11 atm. The slag reacted with the platinum foil and 
manganese dissolved in the platinum. The activity coefficients of ?MnO? in the slags were derived from the new experimental 
data.  
 
Paper No.: 8456  
Paper Title: Steel Mill Dust Recycling through the ?2sDR Process?  
Authors:  

 
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Version: May 1, 2014 
Page 33 of 104 
 
Christoph Albert Pichler, University of Leoben; Jürgen Antrekowitsch, University of Leoben;  
Abstract 
During the production process of steel and other metals a lot of different by products are generated in high amounts. Some of 
these residues are recycled to recover valuable metals like zinc, lead, copper and others. Especially the treatment of steel mill 
dust presents a great challenge. The need for new technologies can be seen in the wide range of available recycling concepts 
for steel mill dust treatment, however most of them have significant disadvantages. An example is the waelz process, which 
generates about 650 to 700 kg slag during the treatment of 1000 kg steel mill dust. This so called ?waelz slag? must be dumped 
in the most cases. To avoid a landfilling all generated products must be able to get reused in another application. A so called 
?Zero Waste Process? can be reached with the new ?2sDR Process? (Two Step Dust Recycling Process), in which the dust is 
treated on an liquid iron bath and generates cast iron, inert slag and zinc oxide. The generated products have a further usage 
and can also be sold. The paper focuses on the process development through theoretical calculations with thermodynamic 
programs and trials in lab and technical scale up to planned pilot scales, with an accompanying characterisation of the 
generated products were done.  
 
Paper No.: 8476  
Paper Title: Thermal and Mineralogical Analysis to Resolve Complex Sinter Feedstock Issues  
Authors:  
Arthur R. Barnes, XPS Consulting & Testwork Services; Rajan Pandher, XPS Consulting & Testwork Services; Paul Gover, 
Brunswick Smelter, Glencore Canada Corporation; Ted Shannon, Brunswick Smelter, Glencore Canada Corporation;  
Abstract 
Following the closure of the Glencore Zinc Brunswick mine, the Glencore Brunswick smelter has transitioned to treating 
external feeds, and currently treats a number of secondary Pb-Zn concentrates. Processing these concentrates has in some 
cases been challenging due to the diverse mineralogy of the feeds. Certain feeds are difficult to ignite or show inadequate 
sulphur removal during oxidation on the sinter strand, while in other cases, combinations of feeds produce a sinter with 
unsuitable properties for further handling. This paper discusses two methods developed in collaboration with XPS Consulting 
& Testwork Services to characterize these feeds prior to processing them and to identify which ones are most likely to pose 
challenges during processing.  
 
Paper No.: 8001  
Paper Title: A New Process to Upgrade Ilmenite to Synthetic Rutile  
Authors:  
Fathi Habashi, Laval University; Fouad Kamaleddine, Magpie Mines; Ernesto Bourricaudy, SGS Minerals Services;  
Abstract 
Ilmenite occurs in black sand at the mouth of great rivers as in India, or as massive deposits like in Quebec Province in Canada. 
It is unsuitable for processing into pigment or for metal production because of its high iron content and its low grade. 
Pyrometallurgical and hydrometallurgical methods have been developed to cope with this problem which resulted in the 
production of two commercial products that became known as synthetic rutile and Sorelslag. Attempts are also underway to 
produce TiO2 pigment directly from ilmenite. This report presents a newly developed process called the Magpie process
which enables to produce high-grade synthetic rutile (over 95% TiO2) from low grade ilmenite (10-12% TiO2). Naturally, if 
such process is applied for low-grade ore it can be applied with advantage to high grade material.  
 
Paper No.: 8002  
Paper Title: A New Era In Pressure Hydrometallurgy  
Authors:  
Mr. Fathi Habashi; Université Laval;  
Abstract 
A new era in pressure hydrometallurgy is marked when the roasting - leaching - electrowinning process in the zinc industry 
was replaced by direct pressure leaching of zinc concentrate. Since then the technology has received recognition as the 
technology of the future. Large autoclaves of unprecedented size have been manufactured and installed in a number of 
metallurgical plants for recovering copper and nickel from their concentrates or liberating gold from its refractory ores. An 

 
Speakers’ List 
 
Version: May 1, 2014 
Page 34 of 104 
 
attempt to recover alumina from clay using pressure technology is underway. Autoclaves lined with acid resisting bricks or 
with titanium clad may weigh as much as 800 tonnes were transported successfully from the manufacturing workshop to the 
mine site over long distances.  
 
Paper No.: 8240  
Paper Title: Experimental Studies on Thermal Conductivity Property and its Effecting Factors of Hot Pressed Carbon 
Brick  
Authors:  
Dong Hu, University Science and Technology Beijing; Shaojun Chu, University Science and Technology Beijing;  
Abstract 
Thermal conductivities of two different hot pressed carbon bricks were detected with laser thermal conductivity instrument. 
Some possible effecting factors such as quantity of inclusions, grain size , pore diameter distribution and temperature 
fluctuation were investigated by mercury injection instrument, physical-chemical absorption instrument, thermal expansion 
apparatus and SEM. Results showed that temperature fluctuation lead to decrease of thermal conductivity and expansion of 
pore diameter. Thermal conductivity varied directly as pore diameter distribution and grain size, and it was slightly influenced 
by amount of inclusions. Technical schemes that improving thermal conductivity was to increase percentage of pore diameter 
distribution in interval (0.1µm, 1µm) and decrease percentage of that in interval (1µm,+8) .  
 
Paper No.: 8299  
Paper Title: Application of Exergy Analysis in Metallurgical Industry  
Authors:  
Javad Khosravi; Worley Parson ;  
 
Abstract 
Exergy analysis has received lots of attention in recent years due to its application in the waste heat management in various 
industries. However, the exergy analysis still is not a common tool for metallurgical industries to use as useful and accurate 
method of energy measurement. This paper intends to briefly review the exergy concept and its applicability in energy 
management of metallurgical processes. Two case studies were analyzed: exergy analysis of a copper smelter at different 
matte grade production. In another study the impacts of copper concentrate grade on exergy of copper production were 
analyzed.  
 
Paper No.: 8323  
Paper Title: WORLD?S FIRST POWER DEMAND STABILIZATION SYSTEM FOR A 3-ELECTRODE ELECTRIC ARC FURNACE 
FOR SHIELDED ARC NICKEL SMELTING  
Authors:  
Mohammad Rifai, PT Vale Indonesia Tbk; Rustam Saleh, PT Vale Indonesia Tbk; Jason Cheung, Hatch; Dong Shen, Hatch; Brad 
Lueger, Hatch; Mohammad Sedighy, Hatch;  
Abstract 
The world?s first active power demand stabilization system for a 3-electrode electric arc smelting furnace was commissioned 
at PT Vale Indonesia in December 2012 on Furnace No. 2 using an SPLC (Smart Predictive Line Controller). The SPLC 
technology in combination with the Furnace No. 2 rebuild and other upgrades has enabled PT Vale to increase the electrical 
input to the furnace by up to 20% on a stable and sustainable basis by eliminating peak powers that overload and trip out the 
electrical equipment, and by reducing power unbalances. The SPLC technology maintains smooth arc power using a 
continuously variable thyristor controlled series reactor. The SPLC compensates variations in the furnace arc with predictive 
changes in the circuit reactance at a speed of up to 60 times a second. The system started up quickly and has been shown to be 
easy to operate and maintain by PT Vale. PT Vale?s Operations Team has been testing the new system at set points of up to 90 
MW on the newly re-built Furnace No. 2. Over the last 12 months, the throughput of Line 2 has increased by approximately 
10% on an annual average; however, debottlenecking in other design areas of the operation is required in order to achieve 
90MW operation on a sustainable basis. This outstanding success results from a combination of the furnace and other 
upgrades, the SPLC active power stabilization, and the skill of PT Vale in quickly adopting new technologies and maximizing 

 
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Version: May 1, 2014 
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the combined benefits of each technology in their operation.  
 
Paper No.: 8328  
Paper Title: Fabrication of Al/Al2O3 functionally graded composites via centrifugal method by using a polymeric 
suspension  
Authors:  
majid eslami, ;  
Abstract 
Abstract: Functionally graded materials (FGMs) exhibit heterogeneous microstructures in which the composition and 
properties gently change in specified directions. The common type of FGMs consist of a metal in which ceramic particles are 
distributed with a graded concentration. There are many processing routes for FGMs. An important group of these methods is 
casting techniques (gravity or centrifugal). However, the main problem of casting molten metal slurry with dispersed ceramic 
particles is a destructive chemical reaction between these two phases which deteriorates the properties of the materials. In 
order to overcome this problem, in the present investigation a suspension of 6061 aluminum and alumina powders in a liquid 
polymer was used as the starting material and subjected to centrifugal force for making FGMs. The size rang of these powders 
was 45-63 and 106-125 µm. The volume percent of alumina in the Al/Al2O3 powder mixture was in the range of 5 to 20%. 
PMMA (Plexiglas) in different concentrations (20-50 g/lit) was dissolved in toluene and used as the suspension liquid. The 
glass mold containg the suspension of Al/Al2O3 powders in the mentioned liquid was rotated at 1700 rpm for different times 
(4-40 min) while the arm length was kept constant (10 cm) for all the experiments. After curing the polymer, burning out the 
binder, cold pressing and sintering , cylinderical samples (f=22 mm h=20 mm) were produced. The density of samples before 
and after sintering was quantified by Archimedes method. The results indicated that by using the same sized alumina and 
aluminum powders particles, FGM sample can be produced by rotation times exceeding 7 min. However, by using coarse 
alumina and fine alumina powders the sample exhibits step concentration. On the other hand using fine alumina and coarse 
alumina results in a relatively uniform concentration of Al2O3 along the sample height. These results are attributed to the 
effects of size and density of different powders on the centrifugal force induced on the powders during rotation. The PMMA 
concentration and the vol.% of alumina in the suspension did not have any considerable effect on the distribution of alumina 
particles in the samples. The hardness profiles along the height of samples were affected by both the alumina vol.% and 
porosity content. The presence of alumina particles increased the hardness while increased porosity reduced the hardness. 
Therefore the hardness values did not show the expected gradient in same sample. The sintering resulted in decreased 
porosity for all the samples investigated.  
 
Paper No.: 8374  
Paper Title: Hydrometallurgical Process For Treatment Of Zinc Fume Dusts  
Authors:  
Bjorn Saxen, Outotec (Finland) Oy; Marko Lahtinen, Outotec (Finland) Oy;  
Abstract 
Oxidic zinc fume dusts are formed in electric arc furnace (EAF), Waelz furnace operations, and also in the Top Submerged 
Lance (TSL) furnace of Outotec Ausmelt. These dusts are normally considered as secondary raw materials for zinc metal 
production, as they are mainly originated from steel scrap recycling or zinc plant residue processing. The latest development 
in zinc fuming is direct smelting of zinc concentrates in the Ausmelt TSL furnace and hydrometallurgical treatment of 
produced fume dust. This technology is for primary zinc production like roasting and concentrate direct leaching, as 
concentrates are directly treated. The various oxidic zinc raw materials differ in composition and content of impurities. Thus, 
they require different hydrometallurgical processes to produce pure zinc metal. In addition to zinc these dusts typically 
contain also lead, silver and indium, which can be recovered and can increase recovered metal value significantly. From the 
impurity point of view the most relevant elements in the fume dusts are iron, arsenic, fluoride, chloride and cadmium. This 
paper describes hydrometallurgical processes to treat Ausmelt TSL fume dusts to extract valuable metals at high recovery and 
also to control and separate various impurities efficiently.  
 
Paper No.: 8401  
Paper Title: Study of Gold Leaching with Bromine and Bromide and the Influence of Sulphide Minerals on this Reaction  

 
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Authors:  
Chris Andrew Fleming, SGS Canada Inc.; Inna Dymov, SGS Canada Inc.; Mani Manimaran, Albemarle Corporation; Joe O'Day, 
Albemarle Corporation;  
Abstract 
This paper presents experimental evidence that supports the use of bromine/bromide as a potential alternative to 
conventional cyanidation for gold leaching. It is well known that bromide ions stabilize gold in aqueous solution by forming a 
complex in acidic to neutral pH conditions. The oxidizing agent normally used in this process is bromine. This is, however, a 
corrosive liquid with high vapor pressure, which can lead to high reagent losses and/or difficulty in handling. This study 
evaluated several bromine-based lixiviants with considerably lower vapour pressure than liquid bromine. Using a rotating 
devise, the rate of gold dissolution was determined at various concentrations of these reagents and pHs. The reactivity of pure 
pyrite, arsenopyrite and chalcopyrite minerals was also evaluated in stabilized bromine reagent. Furthermore, bromine 
leaching of a number of gold bearing ores and mixtures of ores was undertaken. Results showed that significantly higher gold 
recovery can be achieved with bromine than with cyanide when leaching gold encapsulated in sulphides, but bromine 
consumption was very high owing to oxidation of the sulphides. The greatest promise for the bromine leach process was with 
oxidized gold ores. The recovery of gold from oxide ores with bromine was comparable to that achievable with cyanide and 
bromine consumption was reasonable when leaching was conducted at a near neutral pH of ~6. In the case of oxidized gold 
ores containing copper mineralization, it is possible that bromine consumption may be significantly lower than cyanide 
consumption, since there is evidence to suggest that bromine is less reactive than cyanide with copper minerals.  
 
Paper No.: 8478  
Paper Title: Pilot Smelting of Ring of Fire Chromite Ores  
Authors:  
Arthur R. Barnes, XPS Consulting & Testwork Services; Rajan Pandher, XPS Consulting & Testwork Services; Mika Muinonen, 
XPS Consulting & Testwork Services; Moe J. Lavigne, KWG Resources Inc.;  
Abstract 
Over the past three years, Ring of Fire chromite ores have been tested extensively at both the bench scale and pilot scale at 
XPS. Following bench scale testwork, three smelting campaigns were completed using a 300 kW DC arc furnace on different 
chromite deposits from the Ring of Fire. A CHEMSHEET model was developed to aid in the design and optimization of the 
recipes, and its predictions were confirmed with both the bench scale and pilot scale tests. A total of 20 tonnes of chromite ore 
has been smelted to date at XPS. The results of the testwork demonstrate excellent reducibility for the ores tested with good 
reduction kinetics when compared with South African chromites.  
 
Paper No.: 8489  
Paper Title: Investigation of phase equilibria in the Si-Cu-Fe-Mg-O system  
Authors:  
Tijl Crivits, University of Queensland; Peter Charles Hayes, University of Queensland; Evgueni Jak, University of Queensland;  
Abstract 
Copper production slags mainly consist of silica and iron oxide, combined with certain amounts of copper oxide and impurities 
such as MgO. The present study focuses on the phase equilibria in the Si-Cu-Fe-Mg-O system in equilibrium with metallic 
copper. Though several studies have been performed on the subsystems, there is still a lack of data due to experimental 
difficulties. Recently, an experimental procedure has been developed that resolved a number of these difficulties. This 
procedure has been successfully applied to characterise several complex industrial copper slags. It includes a high-
temperature equilibration followed by rapid quenching and electron probe X-ray micro-analysis (EPMA). The methodology 
was adapted to the present system and used to determine the liquidus at SiO2 saturation and in contact with high-MgO phases 
in between 1100 and 1250 °C and 10 to 80 wt% Cu in slag. Results indicate that an addition of 2 wt% MgO changes liquidus 
temperatures by up to 200 °C, while shifting the boundary line between tridymite and spinel 5 wt% towards the SiO2 apex of 
the phase diagram. These new data on the high-copper slags are important for optimisation of the direct-to blister slag fluxing 
and for analysis of the interactions between slag and magnesia refractories.  
 
Paper No.: 8499  

 
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