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Paper Title: Cyanide Destruction: Best Practices Lead to Lowest Cost  
Randy Agius, Gekko Systems; Nick Katiskaros, Gekko Systems; Ben Adaszynski, Gekko Systems;  
With stricter limits globally being imposed on cyanide discharge levels in plant tailings, having a reliable and well designed 
cyanide detoxification circuit is critical for any operation. The INCO SO2/Air method is most commonly used for cyanide 
detoxification where sulfur dioxide and oxygen combine to oxidize cyanide to the much less toxic cyanate. This paper 
discusses the steps involved with the development, from laboratory through to design, of a robust cyanide detoxification 
circuit. The goal is to produce a cyanide detox circuit that reliably meets discharge target with the lowest operating and capital 
cost. Design begins in the laboratory where continuous tests simulate full scale operation of a detoxification circuit. Detailed 
design relies on several design parameters, based on theory and experience, to ensure the reactor can satisfy requirements of 
the cyanide destruction reaction. Selection of the correct reagents and their supply to the reactor is important to an operable 
process with minimal operator workload. The operability of the system relies on correct process control strategies to maintain 
optimal reagent addition and chemical conditions in the reactor. These design factors are critical to providing a robust plant 
that will consistently meet cyanide discharge levels, ensuring uninterrupted production and plant profitability.  
Paper No.: 8516  
Paper Title: New Process for Treating Complex Lead-Rich-Copper Matte and -Copper Scrap by Using Iron Carburization 
at 1473K  
K. Muhlenbrock, Universidad de Chile; Leandro Voisin A., Universidad de Chile;  
A new pyrometallurgical process is proposed for cleaning complex copper matte and for recovering copper from its 
corresponding copper scrap with a high content of lead, In the process, a given amount of pig iron is added to the complex 
material under a reducing condition to produce two or three liquid phases, depending on the content of sulfur in system, of 
copper-rich and iron-rich alloys, and matte, respectively. The novel process is proposed based on the experimental results 
obtained by performing a series of laboratory scale test in an electrical furnace at 1473 K follows by a quenching method on 
the final stage. The samples obtained from the experiments were analyzed by using Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS), 
Inductively Couple Plasma (ICP) and Carbon Infrared Spectrometry (CIS) techniques. The results were discussed on the basis 
of the distribution of lead as impurity in the miscibility gap where equilibrated phases coexist. According to the mass balance 
calculations, the elimination of lead into the iron-rich alloy phase as a harmless and smaller deposit might be feasible and the 
process proposed for cleaning the complex matte would be promising.  
Paper No.: 8521  
Paper Title: Recent Developments in Preconcentration Using Dense Media Separation  
Ishwinder Grewal, Met-Solve Laboratories Inc.; Mauritz Lundt, Sepro Mineral Systems Corp.; Wilhelm Tse, Met-Solve 
Laboratories Inc.; Darren Wong, Met-Solve Laboratories Inc.;  
Dense medium separation (DMS) is one of several preconcentration methods used for early waste rejection from run of mine 
ores at relatively coarse particle sizes prior to additional milling and beneficiation. DMS has been used extensively in the coal, 
diamond and iron ore industries but lab scale and pilot test work has demonstrated successful separation and upgrading of 
other minerals such as lead, zinc, copper and lithium based ores using DMS. This paper reviews historical dense media 
systems, results from the pilot scale Condor DMS system as well as associated laboratory heavy liquid separation (HLS) test 
Paper No.: 8559  
Paper Title: Bringing a VMS Deposit to Production in East Africa ? From Scoping to Detailed Engineering, The Sunridge 
Asmara Project  

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David Middleditch, Bluecoast Research; Chris Martin, Bluecoast Research; Scott Ansell, Bluecoast Research;  
The Asmara Project is a group of VMS deposits located within 50km of Asmara, the Capital city of Eritrea in North Eastern 
Africa. The project consists of 3 distinct VMS deposits and a gold deposit all with varying grade, pay mineral and lithological 
characteristics. The successful design of an appropriate and robust process flowsheet was paramount to the success of the 
project. The input of mining blocks into the mine and processing schedule based on $VPT (Dollar value per tonne) alone would 
have resulted in processing ?conflicts?. One such conflict was the desire to avoid the co-processing of supergene copper ore 
with ore containing significant sphalerite values due to the difficulty in achieving copper-zinc separation in the presence of 
chalcocite and digenite. There was also a desire to prioritise higher grade mining blocks early in the mine life in order to 
maximise cash flow and payback, as well as a metallurgical limit on copper/zinc head grade ratio to reduce zinc misplacement 
to copper concentrate. To this end, a metallurgical testwork program was designed and executed under the direction of Blue 
Coast. This included detailed QEMSCAN mineralogical characterisation on Master and Variability composites to aid in 
flowsheet selection and pre-emptively identify processing ?conflicts?; bench scale rougher, cleaner and locked cycle testing to 
project robust statements of metallurgical performance of Master Composites as well as select variability composites. Robust 
metallurgical data was in turn fed back into the mine and processing schedule to better define the life of mine project 
economics and reduce the risk of project failure due to incomplete or inadequate metallurgical investigation. This paper 
summarises the methodologies adopted by Blue Coast through the scoping, prefeasibility and feasibility study phases of the 
project and attempts to provide the metallurgical community with a benchmark standard for taking a project from scoping to 
detailed engineering, and ultimately to successful and profitable production.  
Paper No.: 8639  
Paper Title: From Drill Core to Metal - Efficient and Effective Flowsheet Development  
Mika Muinonen, XPS Consulting & Testwork Services; Dominic Fragomeni, XPS Consulting & Testwork Services; Virginia 
Lawson, XPS Consulting & Testwork Services; Jorge F. Oliveira, XPS Consulting & Testwork Services; Norman O. Lotter, XPS 
Consulting & Testwork Services;  
Development of metallurgical flowsheets from receipt of drill core to production of finished metal involves 2 main domains; 
process mineralogy to sample the ore and develop a successful flowsheet producing saleable concentrate; and extractive 
metallurgy to convert that saleable concentrate to finished metal. Effective flowsheet development for a new concentrator and 
processing facility in a greenfield project is essential to project schedule and likely return on investment. Over the last decade 
in particular, the integration of geology, mineralogy, sampling, and mineral processing have empowered the development of 
an improved practice in flowsheet development. The identification, characterization and variability studies of geomet units set 
a foundation for the project. Best practice sampling of the drill-core within each geomet unit then delivers representative 
sample material to the laboratory for characterization and testing. Modern automated mineralogy such as by microprobe and 
QEMSCAN characterizes the whole rock assembly and paymetal mineral hosting, listing process implications. Batch scale 
flotation testing then uses this information to design and perform well-focussed testing strategies. In the ensuing flowsheet 
evaluation performed by the Extractive Metallurgy team, the challenge is to convert the saleable concentrate into finished 
metal. The team evaluates available technologies, assesses the impurities and key properties of the given concentrate. Site 
conditions, availability of infrastructure, energy and power all play an important role. Modern metallurgical simulation tools 
such as FACT SAGE? and METSIM? can quickly define the appropriate test program for each process. Bench scale testing can 
confirm simulations and provide design criteria, but typically require larger scale piloting to reduce risk and more accurately 
define commercial scale-up factors. Case studies show how effective use of these tools can accelerate flowsheet development, 
while reducing costs and ensuring that the designed processing facilities are effective with minimum risk.  
Paper No.: 8615  
J.T. Barlett, PROWARE; Alex Holtzapple, PROWARE; Curtis Rempel, AMEC Americas Limited;  

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METSIM is a powerful program capable of modelling and simulating every known metallurgical and inorganic chemical 
process. METSIM is used by companies throughout the world to design, simulate and control operations from mine to tailings 
and everything in between. At its absolute simplest, METSIM can be used to create a process flowsheet. METSIM modules and 
built-in unit operations cover mass and heat balances for either steady-state or dynamic simulations of mine, stockpile, heap 
leach, material handling, comminution, beneficiation, hydrometallurgy, pyrometallurgy, gas and steam handling, and tailings 
management processes. Data for the material being processed can include mineralogy, particle size analysis, grade by size or 
multicomponent size analysis, washability characteristics, mechanical, physical and thermodynamic properties. METSIM is 
based on A Programming Language (APL). Unlike C++, APL is simple and easy to learn allowing the user to program whatever 
they can imagine, without first obtaining a degree in computer science. METSIM can also interface with EXCEL and other 
software through dynamic data exchange (DDE), allowing data to be imported and exported for viewing, analyzing and 
controlling. METSIM can answer simple or complex metallurgical and process questions allowing the user to predict and 
engineer without the issues of clumsy and tortuous spreadsheets.  
Paper No.: 8629  
Ana C. Zuccheratte, Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear, CDNT/CNEN; Carlos A. Morais, Centro de 
Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear, CDNT/CNEN;  
The computer monitors have as internal coating a compound consisting of oxysulphide, with considerable concentration of 
indium and zinc, and other metals. This paper describes the study of separation of the metals In and Zn, by solvent extraction, 
from a sulphuric liquor generated from the leaching of the coating dust of the scrapped computer screens. The parameters 
investigated were: (1) type and concentration of reagents. (2) Acidity of the aqueous phase. (3) The contact time between the 
aqueous and organic phases. The best results were obtained with DEHPA and IONQUEST®801, however in the case of 
IONQUEST®801, the acidity of the liquor needed to be reduced. The continuous experiment was carried out using DEHPA 1.0 
mol.L-1 as the extractant. A loaded organic solution containing 7.5 g.L-1 of In and 0.003 g.L-1 of Zn and a raffinate containing 
9.4 g.L-1 of Zn with an In content lower than 0.001 g.L-1 was obtained. The metals content in stripped solution were 26.7 g.L-1 
of In and 0.001 g.L-1 of zinc. This process contributes to the reduction and recovery of discarded materials, minimizing the 
environmental impact, with economic and social return.  
Paper No.: 8633  
Paper Title: The use of centrifuge technology in the removal of Crud and fine particles in Mineral Processing  
Derek Ettie, GEA Mechanical Equipment US, Inc.;  
The presentation will review the latest developments with centrifuge technology and how these developments have improved 
the efficiency in mineral processing. The discussion will focus on the use of the decanter centrifuge in the removal of Crud in a 
typical SX plant. A brief review of the decanter operation in the SX flowsheet will be followed by an economic comparison 
between a plant without crud removal versus one with crud removal. Some other mineral applications in fine particle removal 
will be discussed also.  
Stream: Process Control Applications in Mining & 
Metallurgical Plants  
Paper No.: 8637  
Paper Title: Modeling and data reconciliation for control of quality of hydraulic classifier  

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Version: May 1, 2014 
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Claude Gosselin, Arcelormittal;  
The vast majority of the industries currently generate large amounts of data related to the quality of the products as well as 
other elements essential to a healthy business management. This mass of information is rich from the statistical point of view, 
because it often contains relevant answers to business questions. The development and application of modern techniques 
related to the processing of this information therefore represent an essential step to meet the economic and environmental 
challenges. This paper proposes a new approach of management for a process of hydraulic classification of hematite iron ore. 
The methodology is based on four successive stages of industrial process information such as the modeling of a system or 
process, the reconciliation of data, the development of the command and control specifications, and finally, the quality control. 
This last step will be ensured by the use of the desirability function for statistical tracking on a control map, typical to EWMA 
(Exponentially - Weighted Moving Average).  
Paper No.: 8632  
Sarthak Kaushik, Portage Technologies Inc.; M. Schaffer, Portage Technologies Inc.;  
The control room in a mineral processing plant has become increasingly complicated with increasingly complex unit 
operations coupled with rapidly evolving systems of sensors and control. Even with significant automation, human 
intervention is required to counter various scenarios that play out every day. A typical concentrator control room operator 
must monitor over 300 individual points of data in order to ensure the safe and efficient operation of the plant. At the same 
time, the experience of the workforce is decreasing as operators retire and the new generation enters the concentrators. 
Global competition for skilled operators continues to be strong and the opportunity to apprentice has diminished. The 
challenge is to provide a skill foundation for the operators so that they can be effective in the concentrator in a timely and safe 
manner. Progressively, the industry is turning to dynamic simulation tied into the operating system. The simulator 
environment operates behind the control system to emulate the plant operation, reacting as the plant would when a change is 
made. The operator drives the process, with realistic feedback, which enables learning in a safe environment. This paper will 
take the reader through a greenfield case study and discuss the effectiveness of various approaches on the operator?s training 
Paper No.: 8588  
Paper Title: XRF, XRD, and NIR for Rock Characterization  
Christopher James Butz, Innov-X Canada / Northern ANI; . Sophie Cameron; Northern ANI 
Purpose: To outline the fundamentals of portable XRF, XRD, and NIR analytical techniques, with their application in regards to 
mine planning and processing. Attendees should leave with a wider perspective of how these techniques can be applied. 
Topics: XRF, XRD, NIR, metals, clays, oxides vs. sulphides.  
Paper No.: 8645  
Paper Title: Real time on-belt elemental analysis using PGNAA for mineral processing plant control  
Henry Kurth, Scantech International Pty Ltd;  
This paper discusses how elemental analysis of conveyed bulk flows in real time using PGNAA (Prompt Gamma Neutron 
Activation Analysis) technology has resulted in significant improvements in advancing plant control in mineral processing 
operations. Basis of operation of the PGNAA through belt, full stream, continuous, multi-elemental, real time analysis 
technology is explained. Capabilities and limitations in plant operating environments are discussed including comparison with 
other real time, on-line technologies through review of published information available for on-conveyor minerals applications. 
Case studies demonstrate benefits provided by this technology in two operating mines. The iron ore company had prior 

Speakers’ List 
Version: May 1, 2014 
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experience with the PGNAA analyser technology, implementing an early model in a minerals application in 2003 to develop 
confidence in its measurement performance and usefulness of the data. A number of analysers were subsequently included 
throughout the new plant design for extensive measurement and control of conveyed bulk flows, from conveying after mining 
through to rail load-out. The copper-gold company installed an analyser to address copper ore blending issues where an on-
belt system was the only viable option for the degree of control required. Analyser suitability was evaluated through test work 
on site samples to determine customised multi-element precision guarantees for each application. Analyser results from 
normal operation are compared against laboratory analyses of multiple cross stream samples collected from conveyed flows 
to assess performance. Both projects discussed were able to realise benefits previously unattainable for plant quality control, 
surpassing capabilities of traditional technologies which were either unsuitable for measuring conveyed flows with adequate 
accuracy or in real time. Equipment pay back within a few months was achieved for both sites. Through proven performance 
in these applications, the companies consider the technology an essential component in advanced plant control necessary in 
new process flow sheet designs, rather than an optimisation tool.  
Paper No.: 8375  
Stefan Smit, Mintek;  
The control of carbon concentration in a counter current carbon absorption circuit is critical to optimise gold recovery. Mintek 
has designed a carbon movement controller that forms part of its LeachStar control suite to address this potentially 
problematic area in gold extraction. This controller reduces operator interaction by automating carbon movement. Elution 
schedules are entered into the control system, which then moves the carbon through the circuit into the first adsorption tank 
until enough carbon is available for elution. This is done while maintaining the specified carbon profile within the circuit. To 
simplify the control of carbon movement further, Mintek has also developed an online carbon concentration meter to measure 
carbon concentration in pulp. The meter uses an ultrasonic measurement technique. Long term testing has shown the 
measurement to be robust and require minimal maintenance. Results from a gold mine in South Africa?s well known 
Witwatersrand gold producing area has shown a decrease in soluble gold loss between 30 ? 50% when the controller was 
Paper No.: 8509  
Paper Title: Operating Culture Impact On APC Application Design: Approaches and Case Studies  
Alan Morrow, Invensys;  
Consulting engineers are well aware of large variations in plant operating cultures between countries, companies, and even 
within single sites and operating crews. These operating cultures must be considered when designing Advanced Process 
Control (APC) applications in order to maximize utilization rates and return on investment. Designs must be driven by an 
understanding of the totality of unit operations. Economic factors, equipment constraints, management philosophy, 
maintenance department responsiveness, instrumentation reliability, operating crew skills and teamwork, and individual 
operator concerns are all important and must be considered during application design. A general approach to incorporating 
operating culture considerations into APC application design is described. Case studies for applications on iron ore 
concentrator plants and nickel reduction furnaces will be presented.  
Paper No.: 8601  
Paper Title: Integrated Operations for Maximizing Returns  
Many Sidhu, Spartan Controls; Terry Chmelyk, Spartan Controls;  
Reduced access to knowledgeable workers is creating challenges for operations. We are doing more 4D Operations - dirty, dull, 

Speakers’ List 
Version: May 1, 2014 
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dangerous, and distant. Personnel costs in these environments are high, and it is not always possible to get the people where 
you need them. Integrated Operations is a strategy to integrate people, process, and technology for faster and better decision 
making. Adopting an integrated operations approach can help to relocate personnel, improve collaboration, and align 
objectives to deliver reduced costs and improved performance. In this paper, the authors will highlight the required 
infrastructure to enable an Integrated Operations platform. Key decision points for enabling this technology for both 
greenfield projects and existing mines will be discussed. Furthermore, the benefits and improved return on investment that 
result from deployment of an Integrated Operations strategy will be presented.  
Paper No.: 8598  
Paper Title: Dynamic modelling of an acid plant in a smelter  
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