Statistical Handbook of Japan 2019

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Yulduzkhon Suvanova Case No. 2: Budget sector analysis
0-6A-17 Macroeconomic Analysis

Case Study No. 2

Analysis of the Budget Sector of Japan

(1) National Government Finance

Japan's national budget consists of the general account budget, special account budgets, and the budgets of government-affiliated agencies. Using revenues from general sources such as taxes, the general account covers core national expenditures such as social security, public works, education and science, and national defense.

Special accounts are accounts established for the national government to carry out projects with specific objectives, and their management and administration are independent of the general account. The number and particulars of special accounts change from year to year; for fiscal 2019, there are a total of 13 special accounts, including the National debt consolidation fund, the Local allocation tax and local transfer tax, and the Reconstruction from the Great East Japan Earthquake.

Government-affiliated agencies are entities established by special laws and are entirely funded by the government. Currently, the Japan Finance Corporation, the Okinawa Development Finance Corporation, Japan Bank for International Cooperation, and the Japan International Cooperation Agency (Finance and Investment Account) are operated.

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