Stuart F. Bruny, P. E. Orsanco commissioner
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Stuart F. Bruny, P.E.
Eight signatory States (IL, IN, NY, KY, OH, PA, VA,
“Pledge cooperation” to abate interstate water
pollution in Ohio River valley compact district
3/state (gubernatorial appointments); 3 federal
State EPA director ex-officio
One federal is EPA Regional Administrator
Budget: $2.5 million from states & USEPA
Staff – 23
981 Miles from Pittsburgh to
Drinking water source for 5
million people (33 intakes)
230 million tons of cargo
transported annually; 20
locks and dams
Recreational water resource
38 power generating
Regulatory – establish Ohio River Pollution
Monitoring (lots of it) & assessment
Spill Detection/Response (monitoring,
implementation coordination (TMDLs, NPDES,
Applied research (pharmaceuticals, mercury)
Public Involvement programs (volunteer
monitoring, River Sweep, mobile aquarium)
Referred to as 305(b) report
ORSANCO completes for Ohio River.
Recommendation for states’ 303(d) Lists of
waters requiring TMDLs.
Based on ORSANCO monitoring data.
All 981 miles impaired for PCBs and dioxin based on
historical high volume water quality data.
630 miles impaired for contact recreational use based on
exceedances of E. coli &/or fecal coliform criteria.
dissolved oxygen impairments in lower river.
Commission initiated study to characterize total
dissolved solids (TDS) and its primary
constituents in the Ohio River and selected
Weekly sampling conducted at 11 Ohio River
sites and on 5 tributaries for a suite of
Sampling effort ran for 1 year (Dec 2011 – Dec
Data assessment is ongoing.
Final report to be completed June 20
Dissolved Solids Analytes
Total Dissolved Solids
sampling when possible
low-flow period in
Levels on the Ohio
River did not
approach the 500
(max observed 368
TDS was higher on
particularly the Big
Mission (per Compact) has been
focused on water quality
Growing importance of integrating
quality and quantity management
“west of the Mississippi” issue
2009 Strategic Planning Workshop
Outcome: ORSANCO should become more
“holistic” in its services to the states
ORSANCO and Water Resources
To study, discuss and evaluate water resources issues of
concern or interest to the Commission and basin states
Provides a forum for states and federal agencies to discuss
water resources issues (meets 3 times annually)
Current membership includes:
Committee must be financially self-supporting
Tennessee Valley Authority
US Army Corps of Engineers
US Geological Survey
Effort funded by private foundation grants
Water resources inventory and characterization
Characterize current water resources issues (i.e. water use, inter-
basin transfers, climate change, E-flows)
Examination of laws and regulations
Comparison of existing state and federal rules/regs governing
Evaluation of Commission role in water resources
Define appropriate role for Commission and develop funding
mechanism for future WR activities
Reports #1 and #2 to be completed 2013
Report #3 to be completed 2014
Methyl Mercury fish tissue data was collected
in hybrid striped bass samples.
40% of samples exceeded ORSANCO’s MeHg
fish tissue criterion of 0.3 mg/kg.
Hybrid striped bass considered “worst case”
ORSANCO’s Technical Committee decided
river would remain “unassessed” until fish
tissue data from other commonly consumed
species was collected and evaluated.
Some states have listed Ohio River for
mercury impairments. OEPA does not include
Ohio River in any listings.
ORSANCO prohibition on mixing zones for
bioaccumulative chemicals of concern
Effectively will require discharges to meet
0.012 ug/L for total mercury at end of pipe.
PPG requested and received a variance from
Ironton has requested a variance from
ORSANCO – has already received variance
ORSANCO is developing formal variance
•Project at Hannibal L&D in
area of mercury discharge
variance request by PPG
Inc. Natrium, WV mile 120
•A single site-specific
bioaccumulation factor for
•Calculated from direct
measurement of methyl
mercury in water and
methyl mercury in tissue
12 Equal Discharge Increment (EDI)
composite water samples (1 year/Monthly)
Analysis for total and methyl mercury, filtered and
Known methylation factors: DOC, D SO4,
12 composite fish tissue analyses:
4 TL4 composites
4 TL3 composites
4 TL2 composites
4 sediment samples
Create inventory of FGD systems and ash ponds
on the Ohio River (FGD type, installation date,
Characterize total and methyl mercury discharges
from FGD systems.
trend analyses to investigate potential impacts
from these discharges.
Four sample events (quarterly) at four
coal-fired power generation facilities
Three sample locations per facility:
Upstream baseline or raw inflow
FGD wastewater post treatment
Fly/bottom ash pond final discharge
Analytical parameters to be monitored:
•Filtered total Hg
•Unfiltered total Hg
•Filtered methyl Hg
•Unfiltered methyl Hg
•Dissolved Organic Carbon
•Total Dissolved Solids
2012 revisions of bacteria criteria for protection
of recreational use.
Fecal coliform criteria removed.
Numeric E. coli criteria revised as follows:
130 cfu/100mL as 90-day geometric mean.
240 cfu/100mL in more than 25% of samples.
Previously single sample max.
Max. Temperature criterion of 110 deg F added
for protection of human health from body
USEPA Region 5 is completing a bacteria TMDL for
the entire Ohio River.
About 2/3 of the river is listed as impaired.
ORSANCO has been involved:
Monitoring to generate data to support the modeling effort.
Provide technical expertise on the Ohio River.
Collection of other necessary data.
Army Corps of Engineers HEC-RAS model being
There will be a continued public involvement
process (one set of meetings held in 2009).
See ORSANCO’s website for additional info.
Fish Community 1957-present
Macroinvertebrate Community 1964-present
Fish Tissue Contaminants 1970-present
Supplemental Data Collections
Mussel Community 2012
Periphyton Community 2007-2012
Water & Sediment Chemistry 2007-present
Mobile Aquarium Displays ~2001-present
Lockchamber Rotenone 1957-2005
Long term trends analysis
Night-time Boat Electrofishing 1990-present
Aquatic Life Use Assessments [305(b)]
Uses Modified Ohio River Fish Index (mORFIn)
Probabilistic Pool Surveys (15 sites/pool)
18 Riverwide Fixed Stations (sampled annually since 2004)
Benthic Trawling 2006-2008
Exploration as supplement to EF
Collected at electrofishing sites
Hester-Dendy (HD) 1968-present
Shallow (2-3’ of water) & Deep (10’)
D-Frame Net Kicks (Kicks) 2004-present
Recently developed multi-metric index
Uses combination of Deep HD & Kicks
Draft numeric index has been developed and will
be evaluated over the next couple years.
Initial results seem to compare reasonably with
Provide information to states to support fish
consumption advisories (
Mercury (total & methyl) & other metals
DDTs, Chlordanes, and other pesticides
PBDEs, PFCs, Dioxins, etc on occasion
Fish tissue contaminants of concern include
PCBs and mercury
Mussel Community 2012
Initial explorations for use as bio-indicators
Periphyton Community 2007-2012
Draft diatom multi-metric index recently completed
Water & Sediment Chemistry 2007-present
Used to create condition gradients for biotic data
* All collected at electrofishing zones
2200 Gallon Mobile Aquarium
Set-up at various events along river
Approximately 10-12 events April-October
Filled at event with
water & fish
Generally 20-30 species
In May 1977, the Commission voted to expand it’s
monitoring capabilities to include volatile organics (VOC’s), in
response to an ongoing Carbon Tetrachloride release into
Kanawha River that February.
6 downstream water utilities were unprotected and vulnerable with no
ability to detect volatile organics routinely; water quality was
compromised and communities were served contaminated water for
over a week.
ODS is designed to be a Spills Detection Network.
Samples collected from Ohio River at 14 drinking water
utilities (one on Kanawha River).
At least 1 source water sample is analyzed per day from each
In 2012, nearly 4,200 VOC samples were collected from ODS
locations and analyzed.
Less than 2% of the time, reportable detections found–(that’s a good thing!)
Most common detections are Chloroform, (THM’s), Benzene,
1,1-Dichloroethylene, and TCE.
Continued partnerships with water utilities, the
Water Users Advisory Committee (WUAC), and
industry has kept ODS operational for 34 years.
In kind services provided by ODS host sites over the past
two years totals over $1.4M.
Operational and maintenance costs are estimated
to be over $200,000 annually when renovation is
1,2 Dichloroethylene Trichloroethylene
1,3 Dichloropopene Dichlorobromomethane
1,1, 2,2 Tetrachloroethane Tetrachloroethylene
Styrene (co-elutes with o,p xylenes)
Early 90’s technology
CMS5000 process GC
In 2008-2010 ORSANCO was able to obtain
$4.4 Mil in funding to support a network wide
renovation and upgrade. The Renovation will
allow the ODS to:
Use automated sample injection to increase
frequency of analysis to 4-6 times daily
Reduce analysis time
Increase number of VOC’s that can be identified
Increase number of monitoring sites
Involve and educate public with interactive website
Project began with Electric
Power Research Institute
2008 feasibility study.
Power plants compliance cost
ranged from $20-180 per lb
Typical farmer BMP cost $2-4
Project funding to date
from project partners and
grants: $5 Million
Advisory groups from
Power Industry, Agriculture,
WWTP advisory group from
Electric Power Research Institute
An option for compliance with permit limits.
A permitted source of nutrients with a high
compliance cost pays a non-point source
with a lower reduction cost to install nutrient
best management practices.
Non-point source reductions must be new.
Full Scale Program
38 Power plants
Thousands of WWTP
Millions of Pounds of Nutrients
Pilot phase will test out procedures developed
for the program
Pilot Trading Plan signed by Ohio EPA,
Indiana DEP, Kentucky DEP August 9, 2012
$100,000 will be spent on BMP’s in each
Projects are currently being scoped
Installation of BMP’s this spring/summer
First credits for sale in September 2013
Project will go full scale in 2015.
Nutrients are one of the most common causes of
impairments to water in the U.S.
USEPA has directed all States to develop numeric
Collect a long term dataset for development of numeric
Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs)
Some algae cause taste and odor problems with drinking
water. These issues have become more common on the
Some algae can produce toxins which are harmful to humans
12 months/year for
months/year for algae.
West View, PA ORM5
Wheeling , WV ORM87
EPA has mandated that states develop numeric
Criteria development for the main stem of the Ohio
River began in 2002.
Development of numeric criteria have proved to be a
There are not obvious cause-effect relationships
between concentrations of nutrients and impairments
caused by nutrients.
There are occasional algae blooms and drinking water
taste & odor problems that are associated with
Continuing to look at other indicators such as
changes in macroinvertebrate communities resulting
Unknown as to when numeric criteria may be
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