Taсдиқлайман” “Чет тиллар” кaфедраси мудири


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TOШКЕНТ ДАВЛАТ ТЕХНИКА УНИВЕРСИТЕТИ

Чет тилларкaфедраси



Taсдиқлайман” ___________

Чет тиллар” кaфедраси мудири



М. Б. Ганиханова.

сонли баённома



Геология ва қидирув, Кончилик иши ва Металлургия факультети 3 курс _____ гурух талабаси______________ нинг Хорижий тил фанидан жорий назорат иши

Variant № 1

I. Test: Find all possible derivatives;



Не thinks that his ideas are more_______ than mine.

progress






Try to use your_______________

to imagine






Your_________will be thoroughly considered.

to propose






It was___________to see her there.

tosurprise






The hotel takes no_________________for the loss of property.

responsible






The_______________of this problem is clear to everybody.

important






Are you_______________in politics?

interest






He spoke in a_________voice.

friend






His stories are full of_______________and love of nature.

beautiful






He won't come and it's__________to ask him another time.

use




II. Translate and make short summary of the text.

Read the text without using a dictionary and give a sum­mary of it

OUR EARTH

The earth is a huge, slightly lopsided ball of rock, so enormous that we can scarcely imagine how heavy it is; it weighs about 6,6·1020 tons. It’s diameter through the equator is 7,926, 68 miles, but from pole to pole the diameter is 7,899,98 miles, or 26,7 miles less.



In spite of this very small flattening, and an even smaller bulge in the southern hemisphere, the earth is still nearly a perfect sphere.

When geologists talk of the earth as a ball of rock, they do not mean it is solidly made up of the stones you see on a rocky beach.



Scientists actually know very little about the rocks deep inside the earth, and even the definition of a rock itself may seem vague and complicated. It is easy to define chemical elements and the minerals they form, but it is not easy to define the rocks of which the earth is made of.

All life is as we know, spread out in a thin layer on, or close to the surface of the rocky earth. Some plants and animals make their homes two or three miles above the sea level.

Others can survive an equal depth below the surface of the sea.

But it is within this thin six-mile layer, that over 99, 99 percent of all plants and animals live, grow, and die. The story of where rocks came from is closely related to the origin of the earth, and this mystery is yet to be unraveled.



III. Give the English equivalents for:

остров, поддерживать, развивать, изобретать, ударять, исследовать, возраст, хребет, образец, черта, землетрясение, извержение, измерять, удивляться, объяснение, предлагать, согласно, направление, двигаться, внутренний, гора, главный, поверхность, знаменитый, землетрясение, сдвиг, успех, движение, кузница, древний, вовлекать, поток, расплавленный, сгибать, защищать, раскаленный, возможно, зола, неудивительно, через, изменяться, полагать.


IV. Give the English for:

Cho‘l -biyobon, kon, aralashma, suyuqlik, botqoqlik, sun’iy, tekis, ko‘mir, odatiy, nisbiy, qumbarhanlari, biroq, kon, mavjudligi, silliqlamoq, отождествлять (identify), sun’iy, tuproqlislanes,odatiy, nisbiy, bo‘lsaham, biroq.


V. Presentation by the specialty



TOШКЕНТ ДАВЛАТ ТЕХНИКА УНИВЕРСИТЕТИ “Чет тилларкaфедраси

Taсдиқлайман” ___________

Чет тиллар” кaфедраси мудири



М. Б. Ганиханова.

сонли баённома



Геология ва қидирув, Кончилик иши ва Металлургия факультети 3 курс _____ гурух талабаси______________ нинг

Хорижий тил фанидан жорий назорат иши

Variant 2

I. Test: Find all possible derivatives;



The_______________for the party took about two days.

to prepare






He listened to me very_______________

attention






The next____________in tennis will be held in our city.

champion






Will you____________yourself, please.

introduction






it's an old______________building.

to impress






There wasn't much____________in his face.

happy






What is the greatest__________of the 20th century?

to discover






Is there any_________to finish this work earlier?

possible






Your___________of the place helped me to find it.

to describe






The most------------------building in the city is the Cathedral.

to impress




II. Translate and make short summary of the text.WHAT IS MATTER?

Scientists can measure the age of rocks that contain uranium quite accurately. Uranium in a rock slowly but steadily decays into one kind of lead. Thus, careful measurements to find the relative weight of uranium and lead in the rock can be used to measure the rock's age. When about one quarter of the uranium has changed to lead. two billion years passed. This is almost the age of the oldest known rocks, found in the mountains of India.

In recent years, astronomers and geologists have shown that the story of the origin of the world is very complicated. Yet everyone agrees that the earth, the planets and the sun are made of matter.

Therefore, comprehension what is meant by matter is the first step in understanding rocks.

Matter is anything which occupies space, has weight and be detected by so new means or another. Each bit of matter on the earth or in the universe attracts all other bits of matter. This ever present attraction is known as gravity or gravitation.

All matter is made of 105 chemical elements listed in the Mendeleyev Periodic Table. Over 99 per cent of the material in the earth is made of about 30 lightest elements. If the sun and the other stars are included, the two lightest elements - hydrogen and helium make up nearly all of the matter in the universe.

On the hot surface of the sun, most atoms (the smallest particles of an element) are independent of each other. On the earth atoms usually combine to form molecules. Sometimes two or more atoms of the same kind will join together. Atoms of hydrogen and oxygen are usually joined in pairs. More often, two or more different elements unite, forming a molecule made of several kinds of atoms.

III. Match each word from a) to o) with a suitable translation from 1) to 15)


a) radioactive waste

b) bluff

c) melt

d) acid rain



e) surface

f) crust


g) boulder

h) environment

i) contaminated water

j) molten

k) Hood plain

1) gravel

m) fracture

n) fossil fuels

o) debris


1) валун

2) загрязненные воды

3) расплавленный, литой

4) заливные луга

5) отвесный берег

6) радиоактивные отходы

7) плавиться

8) кислотный дождь

9) природные ископаемые

10) осколки, обломки породы

11) окружающая среда

2) поверхность

13) земная кора

14) трещина, разлом

15) гравий


IV. Presentation by the specialty


TOШКЕНТ ДАВЛАТ ТЕХНИКА УНИВЕРСИТЕТИ

Чет тилларкaфедраси



Taсдиқлайман” ___________

Чет тиллар” кaфедраси мудири



М. Б. Ганиханова.

сонли баённома



Геология ва қидирув, Кончилик иши ва Металлургия факультети 3 курс _____ гурух талабаси______________ нинг

Хорижий тил фанидан жорий назорат иши

Variant 3

I. Test: Find all possible derivatives;



He was not____________with his results.

to satisfy






We agreed to meet at the__________to the theatre.

to enter






You have a complete_________of actions.

free






I learnt a_________lesson from it.

use






Does he understand the____________ofregular studies.

important






Everyone was very_________when they heard the story.

toamuse






All of them got the____________to the party.

to invite






Mr. Field is a very_________neighbour.

to help






Your___________will be taken into consideration.

to propose






He is an_________singer, very few people have heard his songs.

to know




II. Translate and make short summary of the text.

TYPES OF MINERALS

The hundred or more kinds of atoms can combine in millions of different ways. In each case a different molecule is formed. Living things contain large, complex molecules.

Nearly all of them include atoms of carbon joined with atoms of hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur and phosphorus. In the crust of the earth 30 or so lightest elements have joined together to make thousands upon thousands of different molecules.

These molecules form chemicals which occur naturally in the crust of the earth. When these natural chemicals have a definite crystal structure and are not formed in or by living things*, they are then called minerals. Thousands of kinds of minerals are known, but only a hundred or so are common. These common kinds are made mainly of eight elements: oxygen, silicon, aluminum, iron, calcium sodium, potassium and magnesium. These of eight elements, joined together in various ways, make up nearly 99 per cent of the crust or outer part of the earth.

One important group of minerals in the earth's crust are the oxides. Here, the molecule is made of one or more atoms of oxygen combined with one or more other elements. Best known and most important of all the oxides is silicon dioxide, the chemical name for quartz or sand. Quartz is the most widespread mineral that is found in the earth's crust. Another common group of minerals are the silicates.

Here silicon and oxygen are once again combined.

But in addition, one or more metals such as aluminum, calcium, sodium or potassium are part of the molecule. Silicates are the most important group of rock forming minerals.

Whether in the form of silicon dioxide or in the form of silicates, the two elements – silicon and oxygen – together make up 83 per cent of the crust of the earth.

Six metals make up 16 per cent; other elements add up to one per cent*. Iron, the most important metal, is in the less-than -one per cent group; so are all the precious metals.

All of these together are the materials comprising the earth’s crust.



III. Give the Uzbek or Russian equivalents for:

Internal, Shape, Landform, Plain, Involve, Flow, Molten, Emerge, Island, Earthquake, Eruption, Frequently, Occur, Measure, Surprise, Direction, Suggest, Fold, Bend, Skillful, Craftsman, Iron, Forge, Cause, Ash, Vary, Slip;



IV. Pronounce the following words and translate:

Immediately, cement, temperature, desert, swamp, asphalt, sponge, microscopic, diamond, to yield, to identify, smooth, granite, angle, civilization, alike, through, to exist, distinct brick, steel, even though, however, solid, liquid, affect.



V. Presentation by the specialty



TOШКЕНТ ДАВЛАТ ТЕХНИКА УНИВЕРСИТЕТИ

Чет тилларкaфедраси



Taсдиқлайман” ___________

Чет тиллар” кaфедраси мудири



М. Б. Ганиханова.

сонли баённома



Геология ва қидирув, Кончилик иши ва Металлургия факультети 3 курс _____ гурух талабаси______________ нинг

Хорижий тил фанидан жорий назорат иши

Variant 4

I. Find synonyms among the given words:

To seem, to discover, due to, piece, matter, combine, bed.

to find, to appear, layer (stratum), because of, bit, substance, join together.

II. Find antonyms among the given words:

heavy, thick, ancient, high, far, perfect, equal

unequal, thin, recent, imperfect, light, near, low

III. Translate and make short summary of the text.

Text THE NATURE OF ROCKS

To the geologist, rock is the natural, solid material that makes up the earth. The first word, natural, immediately eliminates man-made materials like cement, glass, brick, and steel, even though these all come from the crust of the earth.

The second word, solid, rules out the air and other gases, the oceans, rivers, lakes, and other liquids.

However, solids can be changed to liquids and gases by being heated; liquids and gases can be changed into solid by being cooled.

The definition of a rock means solid at temperatures which normally occur in the earth's crust.

Even this does not cov­er everything, because one of the most common chemical compounds on the surface of the earth may or may not be rock, depending on its temperature.

This chemical com­pound is water — H2O.

Water makes up nearly three fourths of the surface of the earth.

Most of it is in the form of a liquid, and while liquid water affects the rocks of the earth in many ways, water is not a rock.

However in the arctic and Antarctic regions, and in the temperate regions during winter, millions upon millions of tons of water are a hard, frozen solid.

In the Antarctic, ice occurs in layers nearly two miles thick.

Ice is, therefore, a rock, and geologists study the great ice fields just as they study other rock for­mations.

In speaking of rocks, geologists use the word solid in its technical sense.

A solid is the matter that is not a liquid or gas.

What the geologists would sometimes call solid rock might seem strange to you.

The wet sands on the beach and the shifting sands in the desert are a solid and a rock.

This is also true of the layers of mud and muck in the swamps, or the ash and cinders from volcanoes. They are rock also.

IV. Give the English equivalents for:

внутренний, остров, гора, главный, поверхность, знаменитый, землетрясение, сдвиг, успех, движение, кузница, древний, вовлекать, поток, расплавленный, сгибать, защищать, раскаленный, возможно, зола, неудивительно, через, изменяться, полагать.



V. Match synonyms among the following words.

to vary to start to involve to bend to break to name to make to choose to limit wide precise to begin to draw into to fold to change to call to collapse to do to restrict to select exact broad


VI. Match antonyms among the following words.

Ancient Thin Possible Likely Simple Mountainous Always colorless regular heavy

Impossible Thick Modern Smooth Complex Unlikely colorful irregular light never
VII. Presentation by the specialty



TOШКЕНТ ДАВЛАТ ТЕХНИКА УНИВЕРСИТЕТИ

Чет тилларкaфедраси



Taсдиқлайман” ___________

Чет тиллар” кaфедраси мудири



М. Б. Ганиханова.

сонли баённома



Геология ва қидирув, Кончилик иши ва Металлургия факультети 3 курс _____ гурух талабаси______________ нинг

Хорижий тил фанидан жорий назорат иши

Variant 5

I. Test: Find all possible derivatives;



Your_____________is not very clear to me.

to explain






They say they are very__________________in their new house.

comfort






I can't_____________him at all.

character






The_____________of the two things showed their difference.

to compare






What wash is____________toit?

to react






I have some__________with English pronunciation.

difficult






It's a very_________street.

noise






He has passed his exams_____________

success






I'll never forget your-------------------

kind






One can_________ lose his way in this forest.

easy




II. Translate and make short summary of the text.

Industry in the UK

Britain is one of the most highly industrialized countries in the world: for every person employed in agriculture 12 are employed in industry. The original base of British industry was coal, mining, iron and steel, and textiles. Today the most productive sector includes high-tech industries, chemicals, finance and the service sectors, especially banking, insurance and tourism.

England is a steel producer for shipbuilding and car manufacture.

Approximately 25 million tons of steel is produced annually. Sheffield and Leeds are important steel centers of engineering and shipbuilding. Liverpool is the center of aerospace engineering, chemicals and car manufacture. Manchester is one of the world's centers for the manufacture of cotton. Manchester's industries also include aircraft, machinery, chemicals and most important fishing port.

Birmingham developed engineering, chemicals, electronics and car manufacture.

Cambridge is famous for software engineering (making programs for computers) and bio-chemical and bio-genetic products.

Cattle-farming is the speciality of the west of England, Northern Ireland and Scotland. Wheat and fruit are widely grown in the south-east of England.

Near the east and north-east coast of England and Scotland there are vast reserved of oil and gas.

The UK is a member of OPEC - the Producers and Exporters Cartel.

III. Match synonyms among the following words.


1

to vary

a

to begin

2

to start

b

to draw into

3

to involve

c

to fold

4

to bend

d

to change

5

to break

e

to call

6

to name

f

to collapse

7

to make

g

to do

8

to choose

h

to restrict

9

wide

i

exact

10

to limit

j

to select

11

precise

k

broad


IV. Presentation by the specialty


TOШКЕНТ ДАВЛАТ ТЕХНИКА УНИВЕРСИТЕТИ

Чет тилларкaфедраси



Taсдиқлайман” ___________

Чет тиллар” кaфедраси мудири



М. Б. Ганиханова.

сонли баённома



Геология ва қидирув, Кончилик иши ва Металлургия факультети 3 курс _____ гурух талабаси______________ нинг

Хорижий тил фанидан жорий назорат иши


Variant 6

I. Test: Find all possible derivatives;



The weather in May here is very-------------------

to change






TV____________are sometimes very silly.

to advertise






The_____________was signed by both sides.

to agree






He has packed all things_____________into the bag.

care






There's a_____________of rain, but never mind.

possible






The trip was not___________at all.

to excite






Your_____________is not very clear to me.

to explain




8.

Mr. Field is a very_________neighbour.

to help




9.

Your___________will be taken into consideration.

to propose




10.

He is an________singer, very few people have heard his songs.

to know




II. Translate and make short summary of the text.

Strength of materials.

From the earliest times when people started to build, it was found necessary for them to have information regarding the strength of structural materials so that rules to determine safe dimensions of members could be drawn up. The Egyptians are believed to have some rules of this kind, for without them it would have been impossible to erect their great monuments and pyramids, some of which still exist. The Greeks further advanced the art of building.

The Romans are considered to have been great builders too. They are known to have used arches in their buildings. But they are unlikely to have known how to select the proper shape, as they usually took semicircular arches of a rather small span.

Most of the knowledge that the Greeks and Romans had got in structural engineering was lost during the Middle Ages, and only since the Renaissance has it been recovered.

Leonardo da Vinci (1452 – 1519) is known to be the most outstanding man of the Middle Ages. He was not only the leading artist of that time, but also a great scientist and engineer.

He proved the strength of beams supported at both ends to vary inversely as the length and directly as the width.

The first attempts to find safe dimensions of structural elements were made in the 17-th century. Galileo’s famous book “Two New Sciences” is said to represent the beginning of the science of strength of materials.

III. Give Uzbek (Russian) equivalents to:

Extraction enterprises, the largest mining, slake slime factory, two transport offices, the Kalmakyr and Sary- Cheku quarries, the sulfuric acid complex, copper smelting factory, including copper,

for full capacity, all the above products, refined copper, 18 types of industrial products, on the world market, general membership meeting.

IV. Give the translation:

a) man-made, smooth, alive, common, relative, liquid, to polish, desert, pattern, mixture, cement, shale, coal, aid, mud, deposit, to exist, to identify


b) ice field, sea animal, ocean life, mineral like substance, diamond saw, paper thin, glass slide

c) as, for, until, still, though, however.


V. Presentation by the specialty


TOШКЕНТ ДАВЛАТ ТЕХНИКА УНИВЕРСИТЕТИ

Чет тилларкaфедраси



Taсдиқлайман” ___________

Чет тиллар” кaфедраси мудири



М. Б. Ганиханова.

сонли баённома



Геология ва қидирув, Кончилик иши ва Металлургия факультети 3 курс _____ гурух талабаси______________ нинг

Хорижий тил фанидан жорий назорат иши

Variant 7

I. Test: Find the synonym of the following words written in capitals.

1. It was the voice of a born ORATOR. A) addressee B) speaker C) talker D) order E) chatter box

2. Boxing was his PROFESSION, people came and paid money to see the fight.

A) subject B) wish C) trade D) life E) interest

3. There was something CRUEL in his voice. A) strange B) severe C) funny D) fresh E) worry

4. One of the novels by Jack London was “Martin Eden”, in which the writer DESCRIBED his life.

A) printed B) depicted C) pointed out D) noticed E) touched upon

5. The whole excursion took APPROXIMATELY ten hours

A) exactly B) about C) precisely D) apparently E) respectively

6. All the local residents spent that AWFUL night in a school.

A) awkward B) average C) terrible D) insignificant E) authentic

7. The man was staring at him, and the boy began to TREMBLE.

A) find B) move C) shiver D) share E) escape

8. The restaurant was SUPERB, and the prices were very low, we enjoyed our holidays.

A) superficial B) excellent C) superior D) supersonic E) expensive

9. Airline business is INCREASING nowadays.

A) enlarging B) consuming C) ratifying D) consenting E) investing

10. At last things began to IMPROVE. A) injure B) get better C) become worse D) collect E) change



II. Translate and make short summary of the text.

Text MINING EDUCATION IN GREAT BRITAIN (part I)

Now, let us touch upon the problem concerning mining education in Great Britain.

As a rule, in Great Britain the students can get mining education at special colleges and at mining departments of universities. It should be noted that there is a considerable decrease in the number of students who attend the courses of mining engineering at colleges and universities.

The students prefer a more general course to the specialized courses in electronics, electrical engineering, etc.

That is why the National Coal Board introduced mining scholar­ships to persons who have graduated in natural science and technology and will study mining as postgraduates.

The future of mining at the uni­versities will depend upon the activity of postgraduate courses because they train qualified specialists in mining. For example, the Mining Department at the University of Nottingham ranks as one of the foremost teaching and research mining schools in Great Britain.

The students come to the University from all parts of the country and from abroad.

The close proximity of Nottingham to mines extracting coal and different metals makes it possible for the Uni­versity to keep in close touch with new achievements in mining.

The aim of the training at the University is to give the student an understanding of applied science based on lectures, tutorial system, laboratory work and design classes.

The laboratory work trains the stu­dents in accurate recording of observations, the drawing of logical con­clusions and presentation of scientific reports.

Besides, it gives the stu­dents an understanding of experimental methods of work and familiarizes them with the characteristics of engineering materials, equipment and machines.

III. Give the English equivalents for:

Speak on minerals and the process of their identification. Use the following words:

property, depend on, specific gravity, to range, break, cleavage hardness, to tell apart, arbitrary scale, streak, powdered mineral, to confuse, to reflect, fluorescence, hornblende, common, amphibole, agate, similar-looking pyroxene, confuse, the cleavage angles;



IV. Pronounce the following words and translate:

Necessary, condition, entry, technical college, preliminary course, academic, finally graduate, awarded by colleges, instructions in mechanical engineering, mil metallurgy, throughout, provide full-time and part-time education.



V. Presentation by the specialty


TOШКЕНТ ДАВЛАТ ТЕХНИКА УНИВЕРСИТЕТИ

Чет тилларкaфедраси



Taсдиқлайман” ___________

Чет тиллар” кaфедраси мудири



М. Б. Ганиханова.

сонли баённома



Геология ва қидирув, Кончилик иши ва Металлургия факультети 3 курс _____ гурух талабаси______________ нинг

Хорижий тил фанидан жорий назорат иши

Variant 8

I. Test: Find the antonym of the following words written in capitals:

1. He was an HONEST man. A) liar B) good C) bad D) truthful E) wonderful

2. The climate of Great Britain is MILD. A) difficult B) strong C) severe D) bad E) good

3. She was afraid to walk FARTHER as she knew her life was in danger.

A) mother B) out near C) near D) nearer E) away

4. If you know one FOREIGN language it will be easier for you to learn the second one.

A) local B) modern C) popular D) old E) native

5. Tom’s father was a CRUEL man. A) honest B) kind C) funny D) serious E) light

6. It seemed to her that he was very DECENT. A) dishonest B) be tired of C) fat D) handsome E) unhealthy

7. I opened the door and saw a DECEASED man. A) weak B) sick C) invisible D) new born E) old

8. Tom is very LAZY. He doesn’t like to do anything. A) modest B) modern C) clever D) energetic E) nervous

9. My sister is very SERIOUS. A) energetic B) polite C) kind D) intelligent E) light-minded

10. Mr. Brown decided TO PROTECT that young man.

A) to help B) to accuse C) to care D) to shout E) to criticize



II. Translate and make short summary of the text.

Text MINING EDUCATION IN GREAT BRITAIN (Part II)

At Nottingham there are two types of laboratories, general and specialized.

General laboratories deal with the fundamentals of the science and specialized ones study the more specialized problems in different branches of engineering.

During the final two years of his course the student will get comprehensive training in surveying. Practical work both in the field and in drawing classes will form an important part of this course.

Besides, the students will have practical work in survey camps during two weeks.

The equipment available for carrying out traversing, leveling, tachometric, and astronomical surveying is of the latest design. The practical and laboratory work throughout the three or of study forms a very important part of the course and student obtain the required standard in their laboratory course work pass from year to year and finally graduate.

At present in Great Britain there are about three hundred technical institutions which give instructions in mechanical engineering, mil metallurgy, etc. These institutions provide full-time and part-time education.

It should be noted that technical colleges confer diplomas. A diploma differs from a degree in that it is usually less academic, is awarded by colleges.

A university graduate will leave with the degree of Bachelor of Arts or Bachelor of Science, which is an academic qualification awarded by universities.

A necessary condition of entry to the technical college is the preliminary course of study which will prepare the candidates for the specialized courses.

For example, the University College in Cardiff has become one of the largest in Wales. It is one of the four colleges which together with Welsh National School of Medicine form the University of Wales.

The Mining Engineering Department is the only one in the University of Wales.

The Department deals with the whole range of extractive industries such as coal and metalliferrous mining, quarrying and oil technology.

III. Give the translation:

arrangement, fracture, streak, luster, fluorescence cleavage, gem, heat, mica, hornblende, onyx, zero, amount to squeeze, to fold, to give the clue, to range, to crush, tc scratch, to reflect, to dissolve, similar waste space, alkali water, garnet crystal, calcium powder, rock identification, specific gravity, at all, due to, besides, at least, alike



IV. Give the English for:

qattiqlik, mineralning o‘ziga hosligi, yaltiroqligi, slyuda, darzketishi, qimmatbaho tosh, tirnamoq, aks etmoq, eritmoq, solishtirmaog‘irlik, shu bois, hechbo‘lmaganda, ishqorlisuv, bundantashqari, shungao‘hshagan, kukun, tal’k, agat, granat



V. Presentation by the specialty


TOШКЕНТ ДАВЛАТ ТЕХНИКА УНИВЕРСИТЕТИ

Чет тилларкaфедраси



Taсдиқлайман” ___________

Чет тиллар” кaфедраси мудири



М. Б. Ганиханова.

сонли баённома



Геология ва қидирув, Кончилик иши ва Металлургия факультети 3 курс _____ гурух талабаси______________ нинг

Хорижий тил фанидан жорий назорат иши

Variant 9

I. Test:

Find the antonym of the following words:

81. Blunt A) dismal B) sharp C) sullen D) dull

82. Prohibit A) permit B) forbid C) ban D) prevent

83. Shove A) press B) drag C) move D) thrust

84. Compulsory A) optional B) essential C) obligatory D) necessary

85. Profit A) toss B) benefit C) gain D) loss

86. Liberate A) rescue B) confine C) deliver D) divorce

87. Stiff A) hard B) rigid C) limp D) firm

88. Barren A) fertile B) dry C) arid D) fruitless

89. Tough A) hard B) tender C) cruel D) violent

90. Rebel A) mutiny B) suppress C) fight D) rise up

II. Translate and make short summary of the text.

FOSSIL FUELS

The chief sources of energy available to man today are oil, natural gas, coal, water power and atomic energy. Coal, gas and oil represent energy that has been concentrated by the decay of organic materials (plants and animals) accumulated in the geologic past.

These fuels are often referred to as fossil fuels. The word 'fossil' (derived from the Latin' to dig up') originally referred to anything that was dug from the ground, particularly a min­eral. Today the term 'fossil' generally means any direct evidence of past life, for example, the footprints of ancient animals. Fossils are usually found in sedimentary rocks, although sometimes they may be found in igneous and metamorphic rocks as well.

They are most abundant in mudstone, shale and limestone, but are also found in sandstone, do­lomite and conglomerate. Most fuels are carbon-containing materials that are burned in air. In burning fuels give off heat which is used for different purposes.

Fuels may be solid, liquid and gaseous. Solid fuels may be divided into two main groups, natural and manufactured. The former category includes coal, wood, peat and other plant products. The latter category includes coke and charcoal obtained by heating coal in the absence of air.

Liquid fuels are derived almost from petroleum. In general, natural petroleum, or crude oil, as it is widely known, is the basis of practically all industrial fuels. Petroleum is a mixture of hundreds of different hydrocarbons — compounds composed of hydrogen and carbon — together with the small amount of other elements such as sulphur, oxygen and nitrogen. Petroleum is usually associated with water and natural gas. It is found in porous sedimentary rocks where the geological formation allowed the oil to collect from a wide area.

Petroleum is one of the most efficient fuels and raw materials. Of gaseous fuels the most important are those derived from natural gas, chiefly methane or petroleum. Using gaseous fuels makes it possible to obtain high thermal efficiency, ease of distribution and control. Gas is the most economical and convenient type of fuels.

Today, gas is widely utilized in the home and as a raw material for producing synthetics. Generally, all types of fossil fuels described in the text are of great economic importance as they represent the sources of energy the man uses today.



III. Pronounce the following words and translate:

Enormous [i`nͻ:məs], scarcely [skεəsli], diameter [dai’ æmitə], equator [i’kweitə],sphere [sfiə], southern [sʌðən], lead [li:d], hydrogen [haidridʒən], molecule [mͻlikju:l], nitrogen [naitridʒən], dioxide [dai’ͻksaid], vague [veig], precious [pre∫əs], acid [æsid], structure ['strʌkt∫ə], thorium ['θͻ:riəm].



IV. Give the translation:

a) Weight, lead, universe, dioxide, nitrogen, hydrogen, silicate, origin, crust, potassium, sulphur,

to spread out, to produce, to deal with, to make use of, oxygen, acid.

b) sea level, six mile layer, precious metals, rocks age, ever present, oil well.

c) in spite of, in order to, thus, as soon as, towards, inside, whether, therefore, once, even,

in different ways, on the way, by means of.



V. Presentation by the specialty


TOШКЕНТ ДАВЛАТ ТЕХНИКА УНИВЕРСИТЕТИ

Чет тилларкaфедраси



Taсдиқлайман” ___________

Чет тиллар” кaфедраси мудири



М. Б. Ганиханова.

сонли баённома



Геология ва қидирув, Кончилик иши ва Металлургия факультети 3 курс _____ гурух талабаси______________ нинг

Хорижий тил фанидан жорий назорат иши


Variant № 10
I. Test: Find the antonym of the following words:

101. Immense A) tight B) tiny C) enormous D) huge

102. Wholesale A) mortgage B) pawn C) retail D) barter

103. Overcast A) muddy B) misty C) level D) clear

104. Take on A) sack B) convey C) release D) shift

105. Thorough A) crooked B) careless C) dejected D) cheerful

106. Oppose A) combat B) resist C) support D) fight

107. Neglect A) care B) reflect C) overlook D) dare

108. Rise up A) run down B) shut down C) break down D) put down

109. Absurd A) silly B) foolish C) ridiculous D) sensible

110. Flimsy A) strong B) evil C) weak D) minute

II. Translate and make short summary of the text.

Read the following text without using a dictionary and give a sum­mary of it.

A Student's Day

The academic year in higher schools is divided into two semes­ters: the first semester lasts from September 2nd till January 20 th and the second semester lasts from February 1st till July 1st.

Examinations are held at the end of each semester according to the examination scheme (time-table) in the subjects of the compulsory courses. In optional courses the students take tests.

The students are allowed to take the next year's course only when they have passed the examinations and tests required at the end of the academic year.

In winter the students have a two weeks' vacation, and in summer — a two months' vacation.



Tuition, the use of libraries, laboratories, and sports facilities are free (of charge).

The period of studies at technical Universities ranges from four to six years, which depends on the curriculum of the particular University.

The final year is devoted to a graduation project which is submitted to the State Examination Commission.

In the course of training practical work occupies an exceptionally important place.

Students of technical Universities work at factories and plants during a certain period.
III. Give the English equivalents for:

a) Form nouns from the following words and translate them:


to exist, to attract, broad, wide, deep, able, to choose.

b) Give all the derivatives to the words: Prospecting, value, depend

c) Pronounce the following words and translate:

occasionally [ə'keiʒənəli], feldspar [feld`spa:], potash [`pͻtæ∫], glaze [gleiz], pottery [`pͻtəri],conglomerate [kən`glͻmərət], limestone [laim`stəun], gypsum [`dʒipsəm], sediment [`sedimənt], oxide [`ͻksaid], siltstone [`silstəun], shale, [∫eil], dolomite [`dͻləmait], igneous [`ignəs], extent [iks`tent]


IV. Pronounce the following words and translate:

Igneous, probably, shallow depths, finer grains, permitted, solidification, occurrence, inclined or vertical, dykes occupy, fine grained, field, tuff, rapidly, iron, gold, zinc, nickel, ferrous metals, shallow depth, heavy industry, consumption, nearly, outcropping, annual, daily, output, opencast, reserve, requirement, consumer, enterprise, reliable, equipment, particularly, favorable, dragline, diesel, achievement, weight, lead, universe, dioxide, nitrogen, hydrogen, silicate, origin, crust, potassium, sulphur, to spread out, a coal-mining district, steam – pump, steam –engine, pit.


V. Presentation by the specialty


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