The advantage of geographical position of yunnan province
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SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT REPORT
OF YUNNAN PROVINCE
Generally, the basic features of its geography and population in Yunnan
Province could be summarized as the following words of ‘frontier, mountainous and
The area of Yunnan Province covers 394,000sq.km with 94% of the
mountainous. From the perspective of its geo-position in China, the east of Yunnan is
connecting with the provinces of Guizhou and Guangxi, the north part is connecting
with Sichuan Province, and the northwest part is connecting with Tibet Autonomous
Prefecture (Region). And from the perspective of its eco-polit-geographic location in
Asia, the west part of Yunnan Province is connecting with Myanmar, and the south
part is connecting with Lao and Vietnam.
The boundary lines between Yunnan Province and these countries are 4060 km,
which consists of the 1/5 of the whole frontier line on the land of China. At present,
there are more than 20 cross-border highways which connecting Yunnan and its
neighboring countries, Myanmar, Lao and Vietnam
Picture 1: The On-building Express-highway from Kunming to Bangkok
From the perspective of its natural geographic location, Yunnan still has its
advantage. Because of being located to the north part of the Peninsula of Southeast
Asia, the subtropical area, as well as connecting with Tibet Plateau, the highest
elevation area of the world, Yunnan is influenced by the monsoons from the
Southeast Asia, and also affected by the high-frigid climate from Tibet Plateau. So,
the natural geography position made Yunnan diversified physical geographies,
species and climates. It has very rich natural resources, and on average, the per capita
occupancy volume of resources of Yunnanese is 2 times of that in other parts of
China. The climate types in Yunnan are vertically distributed, including various
kinds which arranging from that of Hainan Island where is the hottest area in China
to the one of Heilongjiang where is the most cold area in China. The amount of
species of animals and plants in Yunnan cover 1/2 of that of China. Because of its
multi-geomorphology, multi-climate, multi-species of animal and plant, and
multi-nationality cultures, Yunnan nearly has the largest tourist resources in China.
There are various kinds of tourist resources except the oceanic ones.
The total water resource reserve is 10 40.0 million kilowatts with more than 90
million kilowatts possible be exploited. Its reserve of mineral ranks the third in
Southwest China, and the lead and zinc reserves rank the first in China.
There are 16 prefectures (districts) or municipalities, and 129 counties from the
perspective of the administrative divisions of Yunnan Province. Among them, there
are 8 prefectures and 29 counties belong to the ethnic minority autonomy
administratively, and 25 counties located in the bordering areas between China and
Lao, Vietnam and Myanmar. There are 5 administrative levels in Yunnan Province,
just like all the other areas in China. They are the provincial level, municipal
/prefectural level, county/district level, township level and village level. There are
25 minority nationalities of whose each population exceeding 5000. The total
population of minority nationalities reaches 14 million, occupying 34% of Yunnan
Provincial population. And the resident areas of minority nationalities reach 70% of
Among the minority nationalities, Bai, Dai, Hani, Lisu, Wa, Lahu, Nahsi,
Jingpo, Blang, Achang, Nu, Deang, Jino, Pumi, and Dulong are the 15 ones whose
populations only resided in Yunnan Province. In addition, there are 16 nationalities
whose populations inhabited in the across-border areas. They all have their own
distinctive evolution histories, unique customs and life styles. All of these have
formed the plentiful, diversified and fantastical cultures of Yunnan Province.
At the same time, Yunnan is an overlapping point for mixing Chinese culture
and the cultures of Southeast and South Asia, including Indian culture. Yunnan is
also one of the provinces whose populations speaking multi-languages and writing
multi-characters. Among the minority nationalities in Yunnan, except Hui (Islam),
Manchu, and Shui who have already mainly spoke Han (Chinese) language and
written Han (Chinese) characters, the other 22 ones are still mainly using their own
languages and characters as well as Han’s in part also.
Since ancient times, Yunnan has been the important overland passage between
China and the Southeast as well as South Asia. That means it was a pivotal position
of the Southwest Skill Road from Asia to Europe. Except for its landed borders with
Lao, Vietnam and Myanmar of ASEAN, Yunnan is linked to Thailand and
Kampuchea by Meigong (Mekongk) River in Southeast Peninsula and Lancang
River in China. At the same time, Yunnan is near to South Asian countries, such as
India and Bangladesh.
So, in fact, it is located in the junction point of three large world markets: Chinese, ASEAN’s
and the Sub-continent of South Asia. It is also located between the two biggest Oceans, the
Pacific Ocean and the Indian Ocean. Due to its particular geographical position, Yunnan has
been vital region for China’s participating in the Sub-regional Cooperation along
Lancang-Meigong River, and vital for China to open its door towards the Southeast Asia and to
establish China-ASEAN Free Trade Region.
Picture 3: The Pan-Asia Railway and the 3 Circles
From the late of 1990s, Yunnan is becoming one of the 9 provinces of China
that are actively building Pan-Pearl River Delta Cooperation together.
Because Yunnan takes an active attitude to multi-lateral coordination, it has
built its new and distinctive pattern for multi-level and external-oriented cooperation
strategy. It is to develop itself simultaneously as a part of the Pan-Pearl River Delta
Co-developmental Area domestically and as a part of the China-ASEAN Free Trade
Picture 4: The Pan-Pearl River Delta Co-development Area
The external-oriented regional cooperation of Yunnan is mainly divided into 2
parts as the following: internally, it participates in the regional cooperation of
Pan-Pearl River Delta; externally, it mainly participates in the Sub-regional
Cooperation of Lancang –Meigong Basins. These two regional co-operations both
form the important part of China-ASEAN Free Trade Area.
Because of been located in the extreme or say the fountainhead of the Pan-Pearl
River Delta and the northeast extreme of Lancang-Meigong River Sub-regional
Development Area, Yunnan is in an important position of ‘linking the East Asia and
connecting the South one’ with its important passageways for building
China-ASEAN Free Trade Area and multi-level cooperation internally and
externally. It has very special and strategic functions and excellent geo- advantages
in the developments of China and Southeast Asia both.
Picture 5: China and the Countries of ASEAN
Picture 6： The Space of Yunnan External-oriented Development and Relevant Co-operation Cycles
A = Economic Development Cycle of Yunnan, Guizhou and Guangxi Provinces
B = The Eco－torism Region of ‘Large-Xianggelila’ which cycles Yunnan, Sichuan and Tibet
C = The Sub-region Cooperation of ‘the Golden Tetragon’ which cycles Yunnan of China, Myanmar,
Laos and Thailand
D＝ The Regional Cooperation of ‘Pan－Pearl River Delta’
E＝ The Southwest China Economic Coordination which covers 7-lateral of 6
F = Sub-regional Cooperation along the Lancang River and Meigong River
G = Bangladesh-China-India Regional Cooperation
H = China－SASEAN Free Trade Region
In general eco-social strategy, Yunnan always focuses on the ‘Three Targets’,
namely “building it into a distinctive province in China which with a powerful green
economy, rich ethnic-cultures, and a great of international land passageways”. In
addition, it is striding forwards following the 4 specific strategic measures, namely
“to pay first attention to its sustainable development; to blooming its society and
economy by educational and scientific developments; to speed its urbanization; and
to enhance its omni-oriented open-door policy”.
For its economy, the 5 pillar industries, tobacco and cigarette; bio-resources
exploitation; tour industry; electric power generation; and mining industry, have
been fostered in order to push Yunnan economic and social developments forwards
and up to a new stage.
Since the Central Governmental policy on “Exploiting the West China Greatly”
has been implemented in the middle of 1990s, the Yunnan has achieved its social
and economic developments, especially during the last 5 years. Its achievements are
as the followings:
Economic aggregation continuously increases, and integrated economic strength
The total value of production in the province is keeping very fast growth. The
GDP increased from 207.471 billion Yuan in 2001 to 347.234 billion Yuan in
2005 (see Table 1). The overall economy shows a tendency of increasing,
although occasionally it is unsteady. The rate of GDP increase was 6.5% in 2001,
and reached to 9.0% in 2005. The per capita GDP increased from 4866 Yuan in
2001 to 7833 Yuan in 2005.
Overall industrial structure has been further adjusted and optimized. The
proportion of value-added of the first (agriculture), second (manufacture) and
third (service) industries to GDP separately was 20.4: 43.4: 36.2 in 2001, and
changed into 18.4: 41.3: 40.3 in 2005. The adjustment tendency was that the
proportion of value-added of first industry to GDP reduced to some extent year
by year, the same as that of the second industry, but that of the third industry
Industrial production is constantly developing, so its pillar position in the
development of Yunnan economy is being obviously strengthened. The industrial
value-added of was 120,007 million Yuan in 2005, with increasing over 7.7%
than 2004. Among them, the value-added from large-scale industrial sectors is
101,807 million Yuan, increasing by 8.4%. In these large-scale industries, the
value added from light industry was 53,491 million Yuan, increasing by 5.8%,
and the value-added from heavy industry was 48,316 million Yuan, increasing by
11.7% when compared with that of the last year. The outputs of the products in
different industrial sectors have increased to different extents (Table 2).
compared with the
ones of 2004
Main industrial products
compared with the
ones of 2004
Grain 1514.93 0.4
tea 6.04 59.4
Fresh cut flowers
electric energy production
Ten non-ferrous metals
2) The agricultural production develops steadily, so its fundamental position in the
development of Yunnan economy is consolidated and strengthened. The gross
output value of farming, forestry, husbandry and fishing was steadily increasing in
the province. It was 105,000 million Yuan in 2005, increased by 6.3% when
compared with that of the last year. The main outputs of various kinds of
agricultural products have increased to different extents (Table 2).
3) The communications and transportation is effectively improved, so it plays an
advanced role of promoting Yunnan economy and its society. Up to 2005, the
volume of goods transport reached 65,649 million ton/kilometer through the
various kinds of transportation, which was increasing more 4.5% than that of the
last year. The volume of passenger transportation was 33,160 million person/km,
increased by 4.4% compared with that of the last year.
3. Investment of fixed assets expanded, the financial and monetary system ran
It was the faster development period of Yunnan economy from 2001 to 2005.
Also were its social fixed assets investment and general investment increasing
1) The scale of social fixed assets investment is expanding constantly in the
province. The total social fixed assets investment reached 174,300 million Yuan in
2005, increased by 31% when compared with that of last year. From 2001 to 2005,
the total aggregated social fixed assets investment was 565,828 million Yuan,
increased by 16.5% annually (Table 3).
total amount of investment per year
total amount of
investment per year
from institutes operating and governments’ public expenditure. The gross fiscal
revenue of the province was 76,600 million Yuan in 2005. From 2001 to 2005,
the aggregated fiscal revenue reached 284,092 million Yuan, increased by 12.1%
annually. The general and local budgetary revenue of Yunnan was 30,800 million
Yuan in 2005 (Table 4).
Yunnan's total fiscal revenue
Bugetary revenue of local finance
Bugetary revenue of local
Yunnan's total fiscal revenue
3) The saving deposit and the loan of the financial institutions in the province both
increased fast. The saving deposit balance was 509,100 million Yuan in the end of
2005, increased by 14.2% compared with the previous year. From 2001 to 2005, it
increased 15.6% annually. The balance of the loan of all the financial institutions
was 395,500 million Yuan in 2005, increased by 18.6% compared with the
previous year. From 2001 to 2005, it increased 14.8% at an annual average.
rural residents improved
1) The market was prosperous and stable, and the total volume of the retail sales of
the social consumer goods increased year by year. It was 103,440 million Yuan in
2005, increased by 13% when compared with the previous year. From 2001 to
2005, the total aggregated volume of the retail sales of social consume goods was
408,412 million Yuan, so the average percent of the increase for this five years
was 12.1%. The total index of the social commodities’ retail price in the province
was 100.1 in 2005, increased at an annual average of 0.2% from 2001 to 2005.
The index of resident's consumer price was 101.4 in 2005, increased at an annual
average of 1.5% from 2001 to 2005.
）Living standard of urban and rural residents improved and life quality upgraded.
All the per capita annual disposable income, per capita net income of rural
residents, the year-end balance of urban and rural residents’ savings account, and
the annual average cash wage of the employed in urban areas increased steadily
(Table 5), with the increase rates respectively of 4.3%, 6%, 17.5% and 9.6%.
But the problem is still the big difference between the residents in urban areas and rural areas,
for example, in 2004 the per capital disposable income for urban residents was 8871 Yuan, but
that for rural residents only reached 1890 Yuan.
Table5: Indicators of Living Standard of Urban & Rural Residents
in Yunnan 2001- 2005 (unit: Yuan)
per-capital annual income of town residents
per-capital annual income of rural residents
amount of saving deposits of urban and rural residents
average wage per year of urban employees (YN)
The pace of opening to the world was accelerated and foreign trade increased
very fast. From 2001 to 2005, Yunnan Province was actively pushing its trade
cooperation with the surrounding countries. At the same time, it consolidated and
developed its shares in the markets of the Southeast Asia and East Asia, and
continuously improved its positions in the markets of America, Europe, as well
as of the South Asia and Africa. It improved and strengthened bilateral or
multilateral trade cooperation. The gross volume of its import and export, and the
total volume of export and import separately in Yunnan Province were all lasting
growth (Table 6).
Yunnan's total export & import volume
Yunnan's total export volume
Yunnan's total import volume
5. The legal corporations and NGOs developed rapidly
1) From the perspective of the number of the corporations, there were 97219 legal
corporations and 161228 units of industry activities
，according to the general survey
at the end of 2003 by the Provincial Statistics Bureau . From the perspective of their
distribution geographically in the province, at the end of 2003 the top five municipal
/prefectural areas where with more corporations in proper order were Kunming,
Honghe, Qujing, Yuxi, and Dali, with 59.36% of the whole corporations in the
province. The top five districts with more industry activities units were Kunming,
Qujing, Honghe, Dali and Chuxiong, with the 55.70% of all the units in the province
Table 7: Location of Legal Corporations and Industrial Activities Units in 2003
2) Looking from the enterprise ownership structure, at the end of 2003 the state and
collective-owned enterprises still occupied the leading position. At the same time, the
private-ownership enterprises developed very fast, and the foreign-ownership
enterprises increased to some extent. So, the enterprises’ ownership structure
displayed a trend of diversification (Table 8).
：Number, Output Value and Relevant Percentage
of Enterprises by Ownership Catalogues in 2003
629 0.40 7457305
2127 1.34 1050425
Joint shares enterprise
499 0.31 239875
Limited liability company
400 0.25 3113840
Limited joint stock company
116 0.07 1717589
8434 5.29 3013914
3319 2.08 470574
209 0.13 964654
143581 90.09 3627977
Rural industrial enterprise
132380 83.06 6961818
Light industrial enterprise
107690 67.57 10147043
Heavy industrial enterprise
51680 32.43 11616940
Total enterprises in Yunnan
159370 100.00 21763983
3) From the perspective of the scale structure of the enterprises, at the end of 2003,
the total amount of units and the gross output value of legal enterprises have all made
further progress in the province, which made the enterprise scale structure further
rationalized in Yunnan province. But, while viewing the scale structure of the
enterprises from different located areas, the large and middle-sized enterprises still
concentrated on Kunming and its periphery (Table 9). There were 19 large-scale
enterprises in Kunming, Qujing and Yuxi, which were 73.08% of large-scale
enterprises in the whole province.
of Yunnan Industrial Enterprises in 2003
According to the statistics of Yunanan Civil Affairs Bureau, the NGOs of
Yunnan province developed very rapidly. NGOs, such as non-profit social
organizations, foundations, non-governmental and non-commercial units reached
nearly 1000 in 2004. According to the statistics of Yunnan Association for
International and Civil Organizational Cooperation, in present, there are at least
21 international NGOs registered in Yunnan with 45 membership associations.
Only in 2005, these 21 NGOs and the NGOs from Hong Kong and Macao
gathered 86 million Yuan foreign funds for developing education, heath and care,
women improvement, environmental protection and social relief in Yunnan.
There is saying, “as long as the NGO exists in China, it absolutely exists in
Yunnan whatever it is.”
6. The development of population, employment and social protection
1) There is a great achievement on the control of population growth in Yunnan. In
2005, the birthrate was 14.72
‰, death rate was 6.75‰, the natural rate of
population growth was 7.97
‰, which drops by 1.03‰ when compared with that
of 2004. The total population in the province was 44.504 million by the end of
2005, increasing 352 thousand when compared with that of 2004. Among the total
population, there are 13.129 million urban residents and 31.375 million rural
residents. The relevant proportion is: 29.50% (urbanite) and 70.49% (rural).
problem has achieved effect. Of the laid-off workers from the state-owned
enterprises in Yunnan Province, 107.1 thousand have been re-employed by the
end of 2005. The new-increased employees are 194.1 thousand, but still there are
129.7 thousand who are registered as the unemployment in fact, and the
unemployment rate is 4.2% in urban area.
As the situation in the other areas in China, the employment of the graduates
from higher education is one of the biggest problems. Because the too fast pace
of the evolution from the “elite higher education” to the “mass higher education”
in Yunnan, much many graduates who entered higher education at the beginning
of the 21th century wish better employment. It is and will be the biggest problem
in recent and recent future.
And, in Yunnan there are still another employment problems, such as the the
employment of the spare population from rural areas or say from agriculture, the
employment of the older population. They are not presented on the official
statistics, but still problems.
Social welfare is being developed constantly, and the social security is
strengthened also. There are 20,300 welfare berths for philanthropic
hospitalization in the province, adopting 10,700 person/time in the year of 2005.
There are 723,000 people who gained the allowance for the minimum
living-standard guarantee. There are 2.5869 million people who participated in
basic aged-pension insurance, among them the number of the employed is 1.7679
million, and the retired is 819,000
But the biggest problem is that in tradition the social protection only covers
the urban residents to some extent, not including rural residents. For the people
who haven’t been registered in the towns or cities, their benefits from items of
the public social protection offered by governments almost zero. Even there are
some kinds of collective cooperation or mutual aids in rural areas, they are not
enough to cover so large population there. So, the population living in rural areas
still face the risks of lacking medicine and health-care, unemployment allowance,
older pension and so on.
1) Both the total amount of educational institutions and the enrolments at different
levels from primary schools to higher education, have increased by a large scale
(see Table 11). Schooling attendance rate of the school-age children is up to 96.3%,
and the relevant rate of the graduated from primary schools is up to 92.2% also.
There are 143,500 illiterates become into the literates in the year of 2005. Even
though these progress above, on average, the population in the province still only
receives education which lasting 6.61-year. That means they haven’t finished the
9-year compulsion education in China. It is due to the big gap of educational
institution and installment or say facility between the rural areas and urban areas.
University and college
Senior middle school
443 19 13.6
Junior middle school
1814 63.31 -0.1
18747 73.34 0.1 441.23
Adult's higher education
2) Cultural Industry and health-care are developed further. The coverage rate of
broadcast and television are up to 91.0% and 92.5% separately in 2005. There are
10110 medicine and health care institutions. Among them, there are 648 hospitals
with 74,700 berths totally. The staff of medicine and health-care is 65,200, among
them the number of the doctor is 26,200 and the nurse is 26,300. But the problem
still is that they too concentrated on cities and counties.
Anyway, some problems still exist in the economic and social developments of
Yunnan Province. For example, the agricultural infrastructure is still weaker, and it is not
developed enough to resist natural calamity or famine. The 'bottlenecks' of the energy,
traffic have not been overcome at all. The cost of the running of agricultural production
still keeps higher. The pressures of employment and social protection are much more
enlarged. The contradictions between social development and economic development, as
well as between the overall sustainable development and the resources and environment
problems is still obvious. At the same time, the problems of old-age society, too high
proportion of the family expenditure on the education for the children and teenage, the
gap of social and economic development between developed areas and underdevelopment
ones are springing up.
SUMMARY OF ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION
IN YUNNAN PROVINCE
According to the data that Yunnan Provincial Environmental Protection Bureau
(YPEPB) website offered, the environmental protection direct investment in 2005 is
4,916 million Yuan, increasing by 33.7% when compared with that of 2004, and it
accounts for 1.4% of GDP of Yunnan Province. Among them, the investment on
improving the environmental protection infrastructure in urban areas is 3,149 million
Yuan, on industrial pollution prevention and management is 1,767 million Yuan. From
2002 to 2005, the accumulative and directive investment on the environmental protection
in Yunnan Province has been reached 17,100 million Yuan. On average it equals 1.27%
of the GDP of Yunnan Province in these 5 years (Table 11).
Table 11: Investment on environmental governance in Yunnan
(2001-2005, unit: A hundred million Yuan)
in urban area
171.00 117.31 53.69 --
The development of the environmental protection of Yunnan Province made greater
progresses in the following several aspects:
For this 5 years, there are 5,713 items of environmental impact reports, forms/tables,
registration records and so on all that are about the environmental impacts of the
construction projects in Yunnan have been approved by the environmental authorities in
different levels of Yunnan Province. They involved in the construction projects with total
investment of 1,222.06 million Yuan. The relevant estimated total investment on
environmental management is up to 7,940 million Yuan and the rate of the
implementations of the environmental assessment on these construction projects reach
96.4%. The environmental management authorities have organized 1,136 items of
environmental checks or say evaluations when the construction projects have been
delivered, which completely concerned the total project investment of 18,410 million
Yuan, Out of these project investment, the total investment on actual environmental
protection was 1,090 million Yuan, their qualified rate is 99.3%.
While the Yunnan economy is developing very fast, the disposal and emission of
new-generated pollutants have been effectively controlled to some extent. At the same
time, the YPEPB organized the applications for the Special Fund for the Environmental
Management Projects issued by the National Government. There are 2 projects on the
comprehensive environmental pollution management in Yunnan main basins or say
9-lake areas, 2 demonstration and dissemination projects on pollution-prevention of the
newly metallurgical technique and art, and 4 projects about environmental monitoring
capacity-building have been granted with 26,500,000 Yuan totally from SFEMP of
At the same time, from 2000 to 2005, YPEPB (the Yunnan Provincial Environment
Protection Bureau) has successfully applied for 20 international collaborative projects
with the grant of nearly 121 million Yuan, favorable-loan of over 20 million Yuan, and
hard currency loan of 2,400 million Yuan. Its cooperative partners include Asian
Development Bank (ADB), World Bank (WB), and the relevant institutes from Britain,
Holland, Sweden, as well as the NGOs such as World Nature Fund..
Yunnan Province takes the lead position in launching the pilot projects in ecological
environmental monitoring in China. There have 4 national-level pilots which respectively
located in Wenham, Dali, Yimen and Binchuan, been built for monitoring nature
reservation zone, mineral exploitation and process zone, rural ecological environment
management zone and so on. Through the researches and practical works in these
monitoring-sites, some new conceptions and methodologies that effectively restricted
pollution, ecological environment damage, and the illegal anti-environmental actions,
have been formed. From 2001 to 2005, 5 Environmental Information Centers, such as the
Provincial Environmental Information Centre, and those of Kunming Municipality, Yuxi
Municipality, Dali Municipality, Honghe Prefecture, Zhaotong County, have been
established. The official LAN (local area net), satellite news report system, optical cable
transmitting system and the video-conference system of YPEPB have been built also.
They make official routines between YPEPB and the other sectors of Yunnan
Government, between YPEPB and the EPBs in the other provinces of China, and
especially the official routines between YPEPB and the National Environmental
Protection Ministry e-mailed by internets. So does the official document transmitting
between YPEPB and NEPM. The websites of YPEPB, as well as those of 14 prefectures /
municipalities in Yunnan Province also have been built.
From 2001 to 2005, 4 local regulations on environmental protection, such as " The
been published. Another 2 pieces of local governmental law, "The Regulation of
Environmental Protection Management for Construction Projects in Yunnan Province",
and "The Prohibitive Regulation of Production, Sale, and Usage of the Non-melted
Plastic Bag in Kunming” also have been published.
Through the Special Actions of Environmental Protection from 2003 to 2005, there
have 1,263 illegal emission enterprises been punished, and 1,386 enterprises that
processed zinc and coal by the indigenous anti-environmental protection methods have
Only in 2005, the administrative authorities, which are responsible for
environmental protection at different levels, have implemented 2,178 items of
administrative penalty, with punishing fund of 4,163,700 Yuan. At the same time, they
have held 39 hearing meetings for environmental administrative penalty, dealt with 3
cases of relevant administrative reconsideration and 1 case of administrative litigation.
By these actions, they have effectively investigated, prosecuted and contained the
problems of environmental pollution.
3. The environmental education, the scientific and technological standardization of
environmental protection and management, the cleaner production and
environmental economy have been advocated
In Yunnan Province, there is a special Forum on “Environment Protection and
Sustainable Development", and different propaganda activities have been held on every
World Environment Day. Meanwhile, the actions for establishing " Green Series " in
various ranks of the province have been developed, more than 1,300 “Green Schools” at
different levels, 30 "Green Communities " also have been built.
There 4 scientific research fruits achieved by the environmental protection institutes
been awarded the Progressive Prizes of Sciences and Technologies (provincial/
ministerial level) during the 5 years. There are another 4 results obtained the patent-right
certifications. There 7,907.65 ten thousand Yuan as R/D fund been invested for the
scientific research. Among these scientific research activities, the provincial
environmental management institutes have undertook 144 items with research
expenditure 1,882.6 ten thousand Yuan, and their 2 scientific and technical results
awarded the PPST at provincial/ministerial level only in 2005.
In 2005, after investigation and evaluation, Yunnan Government decided to establish
3 trial sites for developing recycle economy. They are industrial zone in Kaiyuan,
agricultural zone in Eryuan and tourist zone in Puzehei district of Qiubei.
Meanwhile, through online monitoring, out of the 44 enterprises that were evaluated
as the first batch of seriously polluted companies in Yunnan, 16 have finished their
cleaner production reformations under the forced mandatory, and passed the relevant
authorities’ verifications by the end of 2005. In October of 2005, another 50 seriously
polluted enterprises have been listed and published as the second batch of the companies
which will be forced reforming on schedule, and the relevant mandatory requests to force
them changing into cleaner production regularly following the environmental protection
law have been issued. In March of 2005, YPEPB approved 8 Environmental Protection
Bureaus located in the cities such as Kunming, to establish 9 pilot organizations for
verifying cleaner production in Yunnan.
In sum, the building of the center of the on-line monitoring system for
environmental protection in Yunnan, and the initial test of its relevant soft-ware system
have been finished. 76 enterprises with the emission license issued by Yunnan
Government already installed or are installing 41 sets of instruments for operating
monitoring and controlling, and 140 sets of online monitoring devices.
In 2005, Yunnan Aluminum Industry Limited Company passed through the on-spot
examination by The National Environmental Protection Bureau and become the first one
who winning the title of "THE NATIONAL EXCELLENT ENVIRONMENTAL
ENTERPRISE” out of all the Chinese electrolytic aluminum companies. It also becomes
first one who winning this title in Yunnan Province as well as in west China.
4. The Developments of the environmental industry, the special action of
environment and the environmental safety inspection have been launched
By 2005, in the whole province, there are 513 enterprises with employees of 61,674
have been engaged in the environmental industry. They made 8,497 million Yuan of
annual output value from sale, and earned gross income of 7,795 million Yuan, as well as
created an annual profit of 542 million Yuan.
In the Special Actions of Environmental Protection, there are 20,979 personnel as
inspectors involved in, 8,700 enterprises have been checked and investigated, among
them 800 enterprises have been prosecuted legally, and 391 of the cases have been settled.
Meanwhile, according to requests from Central Government, the environmental safety
inspection launched within the range of the whole province, with 4,748 inspectors
involved and 1,251 enterprises checked, among them 201 accident potential enterprises
have been verified, and 126 of these enterprises have been mandated to be regulated and
reformed on schedule because of being polluted and polluting.
From the perspective of the construction and relevant planning of the environmental
protection organizations and their personnel, the total staff of specific environmental
management institutes in Yunnan is up to 3,642 persons in 2005. There is independent
environmental protection agency existed in 97 counties, cities and districts in the
province. Among these agencies,
The Environmental Protection Agency of Dali Prefecture;
The Environmental Protection Agency of Xishuangbanna Prefecture;
The Environmental Protection Agency of Shilin County
and Yunnan Provincial Environmental Information Centre
are awarded to “THE ADVANCED INSTITUTE” by the National Environmental
At the same time, the Yunnan Provincial Environmental Protection Bureau has
worked out "Yunnan Environmental Management Programme from 2006 to 2010 "; "
continuously written. Some of the local environmental management programs, such as
those in Baoshan, Dali, Zhaotong, Chuxiong have been written and compiled also.
In the aspect of the emission fee collection, 194.153,2 million Yuan have been
collected in 2005 , among them 80.358,1 million Yuan have been handed in Provincial
，94.447,8 million Yuan in the Treasuries of Prefectures and Counties in Yunnan.
Compared with 2004, the levy of the emission fee increases greatly with 40.64 million
Yuan, the increasing rate is up to 26%. In which, there is 59.822,4 million Yuan directly
levied by the authorities in the province level, increasing by 13.29 million Yuan, and the
increasing rate is up to 29%; The emission fee which handed in the provincial treasury is
80.358,1 million Yuan, increasing by 18.81 million Yuan, and increasing rate is 31%.
Anyway, there are still some problems should be paid attention to and dealt with,
such as how to get more and more Yunnan population to participate in the development of
the environmental protection in Yunnan Province, especially those from the
heavy-polluted industrial enterprises, how to measure the environmental management
system and relevant activities in the private-ownership enterprises, especially those in the
mining and raw mineral product process because in Yunnan many SEM in this rank exist
and their producing custom and indigenous methods are backward in environmental
management, maybe some ones without any environmental management system.
On one hand, the needs for enhancing the propagandas of environmental protection,
environmental management system, even the environmental management accounting
system in order to make the public strengthen their environmental consciousness, to
support the development of environmental protection actively and to practice the
environmental management and to have specific environmental management skills really
On the other hand, all enterprises and institutions of Yunnan Province should be
awareness of the environmental management system and relevant specific environmental
management accounting system through step by step environmental education training,
and pay special attention to the comprehensive technological transformation from the
developed or say western countries, especially pay attention to those models from EU, so
as to promote the environmental management capacities of enterprises, to reduce the
discharge of pollution.
 云南省政府.云南省国民经济和社会发展“九五”计划和 2010 年远景目标[R].1996
的影响与发展措施[M].经济问题探索.2006 年第 1 期.
 蔡定昆,骆华松, 理然,王家文,胡燕花,云南面向泛珠三角的比较优势及其区域合作对策,经济问题探
索,2006 年第 2 期.
 云南省 2005 年经济社会发展概况, 泛珠三角合作信息网：www.pprd.org.cn
 云南省统计局.云南省 2005 年国民经济和社会发展统计公报.2006.
 云南省统计局编.云南统计年鉴：2004, 北京：中国统计出版社，2004.
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