The american colonies emerge


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  • CHAPTER 2 ~ SECTION 1
  • SPAIN'S EMPIRE IN THE AMERICAS
  • PAGES 36-41
  • Spanish explorers were lured to the New World by the prospect of a vast land filled with gold and silver.
  • SPANISH CLAIM A NEW EMPIRE
  • These explorers became known as conquistadors (conquerors) that targeted Central & South America.
  • ~ Historical Meeting ~
  • Hernando Cortez and Montezuma
  • Montezuma shared the Aztecs gold supply with Cortez, but the Aztec people eventually rebelled and drove the Spanish out and killed Montezuma (seen as a traitor).
  • The Aztecs were able to repel the Spanish, but they could not stop the disease.
  • SPANISH CLAIM A NEW EMPIRE
  • The Spanish launched a counter attack, but the Aztec force was greatly reduced by small pox and measles.
  • The Aztec surrendered and the Spanish burned Tenochtitlan (becomes modern day Mexico City) to the ground and then Cortez laid out plans for the Spanish colony of New Spain.
  • SPANISH CLAIM A NEW EMPIRE
  • Marriage between peninsulares and native women was common. These marriages created a large mestizo population.
  • Encomienda - Natives farmed, ranched, or mined for the Spanish landlords, who had received the rights to their labor.
  • The Spanish still continued to oppress natives by instituting a policy called enomienda.
  • The Spanish monarchy tried to encouraged fair treatment of the natives, so they abolished encomienda.
  • To meet their labor needs, the Spanish turned to African slaves.
  • Explored Florida and the surrounding areas for gold and possibly a Fountain of Youth, but were constantly battling local natives, disease and starvation.
  • CONQUISTADORS PUSH NORTH
  • In 1562, discouraged by the lack of economic success, Spain abandoned further exploration.
  • Ponce de Leon - Florida
  • FLORIDA
  • Led the first expedition into what is now Arizona, New Mexico, Texas, Oklahoma, and Kansas to look for another wealthy empire to conquer.
  • CONQUISTADORS PUSH NORTH
  • Francisco Vasquez de Coronado - Southwest
  • After wandering
  • for two years,
  • he did not find a large wealthy empire or any precious metals.
  • THE AMERICAN COLONIES EMERGE
  • CHAPTER 2 ~ SECTION 2
  • ENGLISH AT JAMESTOWN
  • PAGES 42-48
  • One of England’s first attempt at a colony in the “new world” was at Roanoke Island.
  • EARLY ENGLISH STRUGGLES
  • John White sailed back to England for supplies the colony. Upon this return to Roanoke, he found the settlement empty and the colonists had vanished.
  • All that was found was the word “CROATOAN” (a Native American tribe) was carved into a tree.
  • "THE LOST COLONY"
  • In 1607, the English created a new settlement in Virginia, called Jamestown. Funded by joint stock companies, private investors who pool money together in hopes of yielding a profit.
  • John Smith was the leader of the settlement, which struggled early on.
  • John Smith was able to get the Powhatan people to provide for the upcoming winter season.
  • Soon after though, violence erupted between colonists and natives.
  • EARLY ENGLISH STRUGGLES
  • In Jamestown, colonist John Rolfe developed a new type of high-quality tobacco. Colonists were exporting more than 1.5 million pounds every year, but something was missing…
  • "BROWN GOLD"
  • FIELD LABORERS
  • Indentured Servants - A person who has contracted to work for another for a limited period, often in return for travel expenses, food and shelter.
  • CLASHES WITH NATIVE AMERICANS
  • Headright System
  • system in which settlers and the family members who came with them each received 50 acres of land
  • The leaders of Jamestown demanded tributes of corn and labor from the Powhatan.
  • CLASHES WITH NATIVE AMERICANS
  • Soldiers “encouraged” the Powhatan to give in to their demands by setting their villages on fire and stealing their children (one of which was Pocahontas) from them.
  • Continued conflicts between the colonists and natives, led James I to make Virginia a royal colony, direct control under the king.
  • James sent reinforcements to Virginia strengthen Virginia and conquered the Powhatan.
  • Virginia frontiersman were being attacked by N.A.s and they asked for help from the governor of Virginia, but received “NO” for an answer.
  • Nathaniel Bacon would not take “NO” for an answer, so he raised his own army and attacked not only the N.A.s, but also marched on Jamestown to confront colonial leadership.
  • Bacon’s complaints were:
  • Need an army to defend against the N.A.s
  • Lack of representation in the House of Burgesses
  • Being taxed and governed without their consent.
  • Bacon’s men ended up setting fire to the town and the colonial leadership fled. Luckily for the colonial leaders, Nathaniel Bacon died a month after the siege of Jamestown and colonial leaders were able to restore order.
  • ECONOMIC STRUGGLES IN VIRGINIA
  • Stick a fork in him…he is DONE!
  • THE AMERICAN COLONIES EMERGE
  • CHAPTER 2 ~ SECTION 3
  • PURITAN NEW ENGLAND
  • PAGES 49-54
  • PURITANS CREATE A "NEW" ENGLAND
  • Puritans were members of the Anglican Church in England, who wanted the church to purify or reform the Church of England .
  • Some Puritans thought the best thing to do was to break away from the Anglican Church, so they became known as Separatists, known today as Pilgrims.
  • The Separatists needed to escape persecution, so many fled to Holland, but eventually in 1620 the Pilgrims left for America and founded Plymouth Colony.
  • Dear Lord,
  • Thanks for football on Sundays!!
  • MAYFLOWER COMPACT
  • An agreement reached by the Pilgrims on the Mayflower (their ship) just before they landed at Plymouth Rock.
  • This document bound them to live in a civil society according to their own laws.
  • Historical Significance: It remained the fundamental law of the colony and became a landmark of American democratic government.
  • John Winthrop was the first governor of the Massachusetts Bay Colony.
  • PURITANS CREATE A "NEW" ENGLAND
  • The colony grew so large that it eventually incorporated Plymouth Colony into it.
  • Historical Significance: As the colony developed, a close relationship between Church and State developed.
  • The port town of Boston became their capital. Within the first year 1,000 men, women, and children (both Puritan and non-Puritan) came.
  • He was a colonist in the Massachusetts Bay Colony, but was dissatisfied with how things were going.
  • PURITANS HAVE PROBLEMS
  • Williams believed that the government officials had no business in punishing settlers for their religious beliefs.
  • He was ordered to be arrested, but he fled south to set up a new colony, which he called Providence.
  • Roger Williams
  • Historical Significance: Williams guaranteed separation of church and state and religious freedom.
  • Anne Hutchinson
  • She was banished from the colony as well because she preached that worshippers did not need the church or ministers to interpret the bible for them.
  • Disputes over land between the colonists and the N.A.s finally reached a breaking point. The Pequot nation took a stand against the colonists.
  • PEQUOT WAR
  • 90 English colonists and hundreds of their N.A. allies surrounded a Pequot fort. The English shot all but a few of the 500-600 people in the fort (men, women, and children).
  • Chief of the Metacom, whom the English referred to as King Philip organized an alliance between his tribe and several others to stand up to the colonists.
  • NATIVES RESIST COLONIAL GROWTH
  • KING PHILIP’S WAR
  • The N.A.s used hit and run tactics against outlying settlements. For two years the two sides waged mutual
  • brutality and destruction.
  • The N.A.s gradually
  • surrendered or fled to the
  • west. To commemorate
  • their victory, the Puritans exhibited Metacom’s head for 20 years.
  • THE AMERICAN COLONIES EMERGE
  • CHAPTER 2 ~ SECTION 4
  • THE MIDDLE AND SOUTHERN COLONIES
  • PAGES 55-59
  • The Dutch called their colony New Netherlands and its major port and capital became New Amsterdam.
  • DUTCH FOUND NEW NETHERLANDS
  • The Dutch had less problems with the Native Americans (Iroquois) because they were less interested in conquering them, and more interested in trading with them.
  • The English felt that the Dutch colony was a “wedge” between their New England colonies and their Southern colonies.
  • HENRY HUDSON
  • The king of England granted his brother James, the Duke of York to sail a fleet to New Amsterdam and drive out the Dutch.
  • James renamed the colony:
  • New Netherlands = New York
  • New Amsterdam = New York City
  • 2 Friends received Territory = New Jersey
  • DUTCH FOUND NEW NETHERLANDS
  • When the English arrived, the unpopular governor of the colony, Peter Stuyvesant, tried to rally the Dutch to defend the settlement.
  • The Dutch surrendered without a shot fired.
  • William Penn and the Quakers believed they could no longer practice their religion in England because of religious persecution.
  • QUAKERS SETTLE PENNSYLVANIA
  • Major beliefs:
  • + Quakers held services without ministers.
  • + Anyone could speak at services.
  • + Dressed Plainly.
  • + Embraced Pacifism – (Opposed war & Military Service)
  • Penn saw his colony as a “holy experiment” in living. He gave 50 acres of land, the right to vote, religious freedom to every male that came.
  • QUAKERS SETTLE PENNSYLVANIA
  • Penn made sure his colonists worked with the Native Americans, therefore the colony had no major problems with them.
  • Historical Significance: The principles of equality, cooperation and religious tolerance on which he founded his vision would eventually become fundamental values of the new American nation.
  • SOUTHERN COLONIES TAKE SHAPE
  • MARYLAND
  • The colony of ended up becoming famous for its religious toleration (Catholics).
  • SOUTHERN COLONIES TAKE SHAPE
  • CAROLINAS
  • King Charles II awarded a group of key supporters the land between Virginia and Spanish Florida that soon become known as North & South Carolina.
  • SOUTHERN COLONIES TAKE SHAPE
  • GEORGIA
  • James Oglethorpe created a colony as a haven for those imprisoned for debt.
  • Oglethorpe’s policies in Georgia prohibited slavery and the drinking of rum which did not encourage immigrants to come to his colony.
  • The King takes over the colony and overturns the policies.
  • WHAT WE
  • WILL LEARN
  • TODAY:
  • How did the Middle and Southern colonies develop?


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