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Elvaston Place, S.W.7, B.B.C. Announcer.
Witness to the above four signatures:— T. W. DRURY, 720, Salisbury House, London Wall, E.C.2, Solicitor.
ARTHUR NORTON, 41, Cranhourne Rd., Bradford, Company Director.
F. P. WILKINsoN, 20, Southey Place, Bradford, Glass Merchant.
Witness to above two signatures:—DoiiOTHT SMITH, 34, Gwynne Avenue, Bradford Moor, Bradford, Clerk.
Dated the 2nd day of August, 1939.
THE COMPANIES ACT, 1929.
AN UNLIMITED COMPANY WITHOUT A SHARE CAPITAL.
ARTICLES OF ASSOCIATION OF
THE NATIONAL SPIRITUAL ASSEMBLY OF THE BAHA’IS OF THE BRITISH ISLES
1. In these presents unless there be something in the subject or context inconsistent therewith—
“The National Spiritual Assembly” means
the above-mentioned Company.
“The Members” means the Members for the time being of the National Spiritual Assembly.
“In writing” means written or printed or partly written or printed.
“The Act” means the Companies Act, 1929.
Where any provision of the Act is referred to, the reference is to that provision as modified by any Statute for the time being in force.
Unless the context otherwise requires, expressions defined in the Act or any Statutory modification thereof in force at the date at
which these Regulations
THE BAHA’I WORLD
become binding on the National Spiritual Assembly shall have the meanings so defined.
“Registered office” means the registered office for the time being of the National Spiritual Assembly.
2. The Bahã’is of the British Isles shall consist of all persons resident in the British Isles who have attained the age of 15 and who
have established to the satisfaction of the National Spiritual Assembly, that he or sbe possess the qualifications of Bahã’i faith and
practice, required under the following standard: Full recognition of the station of the Forerunner (the Bib), the Author (Bahi’u’llih),
and ‘Abdu’l-Bahi, the True Exemplar of the Bahi’i Faith; unreserved acceptance of, and submission to, whatsoever has been revealed
by Their pen; loyal and steadfast adherence to every clause of ‘Abdu’l-Bahi’s sacred will; and close association with the spirit as well
as the form of present day Bahi’i administration throughout the world. Bahi’is must attain the age of 21 before being admitted to
voting membership. In districts where a local Spiritual Assembly has been established these powers shall be exercised by such local
Spiritual Assembly subject to the approval in the case of each member of the National Spiritual Assembly.
3. The Members shall consist of nine persons chosen from among the Bahi’is of the British Isles who have attained the age of 21 and
who shall be elected by such Bahi’is in manner hereinafter provided, and who shall remain Members and continue in office for the
period of one year, or until their successors shall be elected and on failure to be re-elected to the National Spiritual Assembly shall
cease to be Members.
4. The officers of the National Spiritual Assembly shall consist of a Chairman, Vice- Chairman, Secretary and Treasurer, and such
other officers as may be found necessary for the proper conduct of its affairs. The officers shall be elected by a majority vote of the
Members taken by secret ballot.
Members shall be called by the Member elected to membership by the highest number of votes or, in case two or more
Members have received the same said highest number of votes, then by the Member selected by lot from among those
Members; and this Member shall preside until the permanent Chairman shall be chosen. All subsequent meetings shall
be called by the Secretary at the request of the Chairman or, in his absence or incapacity, of the Vice-Chairman, or of
any other Member, provided however that the National Convention shall be held at a time and place to be fixed by a
majority vote of the Members as hereinafter provided.
6. A General Meeting shall however be held once at least in every calendar year at such time, not being more than
fifteen months after the holding of the last preceding General Meeting, and at such time and place as may be prescribed
by the Members in General Meeting. Such General Meetings shall be called “Ordinary Meetings” and all other
meetings shall be called “Extraordinary Meetings.” On the requisition of any Member the Secretary shall forthwith
proceed to convene an Extraordinary Meeting. The requisition must state the objects of the meeting and must be signed
by the requisitionist and deposited at the office.
7. Subject to the provisions of Section
117 (2) of the Act relating to Special Resolutions, seven days’ notice at least (exclusive of the day uxs which the notice
is served or deemed to be served, but inclusive of the day for which notice is given) specifying the place, the day, and
the hour of meeting, and in case of special business, the general nature of that business shall be given to all the
Members. The accidental omission to give notice of a meeting to or the non-receipt of a notice of a meeting by, any
Member shall not invalidate the proceedings at any meeting.
8. Five Members present at a meeting shall constitute a quorum and a majority vote of those present and constituting a
quorum shall be sufficient for the conduct of business, except as otherwise provided in these Articles, and with due
regard to the principle of unity and cordial fellowship involved in the institution of a Spiritual Assembly. No business
shall be transacted at
THE WORLD ORDER OF BAHA’U’LLAH
any General Meeting unless the quorum requisite shall be present at the commencement of the business. The transactions and
decisions of the National Spiritual Assembly shall be recorded at each meeting and copies of the minutes shall be supplied if requested
to the Members after each meeting. The minutes shall be preserved in the official records.
9. If the Chairman or Vice-Chairman shall not be present within ten minutes after the time appointed for holding a meeting or is
unwilling to act, the Members present shall choose one of their number to be Chairman for that meeting.
10. A printed copy of every Special and Extraordinary Resolution and other resolutions mentioned in Section 118 of the Act shall be
sent to the Registrar of Companies as provided by that section.
11. A resolution in writing signed by all the Members shall be as valid and effectual as if it had been passed at a meeting of the
Members duly called and constituted.
12. The seal shall not be affixed to any instrument except by authority of a resolution of the National Spiritual Assembly and one
Member in addition to the Secretary shall sign every instrument to which the seal shall be so affixed.
13. True accounts shall be kept of the sums of money received and expended and the matters in respect of which such receipts and
expenditure takes place and of the assets and liabilities of the National Spiritual Assembly and such accounts shall at all reasonable
times be open for inspection by the Members.
LOCAL SPSJUTUAL ASSEMBLIES
14. Whenever in any district the number of Bahá’is resident therein who have attained the age of 21 and who are recognized by the
National Spiritual Assembly exceeds nine, these may on April 21st of any year convene and elect by plurality vote a local
administrative body of nine members, to be known as the Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá’is of that district. Every such Spiritual
Assembly shall be elected annually thereafter upon each successive 21st day of April, and the members thereof shall hold
office for the term of one year or until their successors are elected and qualified.
When however the number of such Bahâ’is as aforesaid in any district is exactly nine, these may on April 21st of any year or in
successive years, constitute themselves the local Spiritual Assembly by joint declaration. Upon the recording of such declaration by
the Secretary of the National Spiritual Assembly the said body of nine shall become established with the rights, privileges and duties
of a local Spiritual Assembly as set forth in these Articles.
16. Each newly elected local Spiritual Assembly shall at once proceed in the manner indicated in Article 4 to the election of its
officers, who shall consist of a Chairman, Vice-Chairman, Secretary and Treasurer and such other officers as the local Assembly finds
necessary for the conduct of its business and the fulfillment of its spiritual duties. Immediately thereafter the Secretary chosen shall
transmit to the Secretary of the National Spiritual Assembly the names of the members of the newly elected local Assembly and a list
of its officers.
17. The general powers and duties of a local Spiritual Assembly shall be as set forth in the writings of Bahá’u’lláh, ‘Abdu’lBahá and
the Guardian for the time being of the Faith.
18. Among its more specific duties a local Spiritual Assembly shall have full jurisdiction of all Bahã’i activities and affairs within its
district, subject, however, to the exclusivc and paramount authority of the National Spiritual Assembly.
19. Vacancies in the membership of a local Spiritual Assembly shall be filled by election at a special meeting of the local Community
duly called for that purpose. In the event of the number of vacancies exceeding four making a quorum of the local Assembly
impossible the election shall be held under the supervision of the National Spiritual Assembly.
20. The business of the local Assembly shall be conducted in like manner as provided for the deliberations of the National Spiritual
Assembly in Articles 8 and
21. The local Assembly shall pass upon and approve the qualifications of each member of the local Bahá’i community before
THE BAHA’I WORLD
such member shall be admitted to voting membership of that community but where an individual is dissatisfied with the
ruling of the local Spiritual Assembly upon his Bahã’i qualifications, such individual may appeal from the ruling to the
National Spiritual Assembly which shall thereupon take jurisdiction of and finally decide the case.
22. On or before the 1st day of February of each year the Secretary of each local Assembly shall send to the Secretary
of the National Spiritual Assembly a duly certified list of the voting members of the local Bahã’i community for the
information and approval of the National Spiritual Assembly.
23. All matters arising within a local Bahá’i community which are of purely local interest and do not affect the national
interests of the Faith shall be under the primary jurisdiction of the Spiritual Assembly of that district; but the decision
whether a particular matter involves the interest and welfare of the national Bahã’i body shall rest with the National
24. Any member of a local Bahá’i community may appeal from a decision of his Spiritual Assembly to the National
Spiritual Assembly, which shall determine whether it shall take jurisdiction of the matter or leave it to the local
Spiritual Assembly for reconsideration. In the event of the National Spiritual Assembly assuming jurisdiction of the
matter, its finding shall be final.
2 5. Where any dissension exists within a local Bahá’i community of such a character that it cannot be remedied by the
efforts of the local Spiritual Assembly, this condition shall be referred to the National Spiritual Assembly for
consideration whose action in the matter shall be final.
26. All questions arising between two or more local Spiritual Assemblies or between members of different Bahá’i
communities, shall be submitted in the first instance to the National Spiritual Assembly, which shall have original and
final jurisdiction in all such matters.
27. The sphere of jurisdiction of a local Spiritual Assembly, with respect to residential qualifications of membership
and voting rights of a believer in any Bahá’i
Community shall be as delineated by the National Spiritual Assembly but Bahá’is who have attained the age of 21 and who reside in
neighbouring districts and can regularly attend the Meeting of the neighbouring Bahã’i Community may be enrolled on the
membership list of that local Spiritual Assembly and enjoy full voting rights pending the establishment of a local Spiritual Assembly
in their own district.
28. All differences of opinion concerning the sphere of jurisdiction of any local Spiritual Assembly or concerning the affiliation of any
Bahá’i or group of Bah&’is in the British Isles shall be referred to the National Spiritual Assembly, whose decision in the matter shall
29. The Annual Meeting of the National Spiritual Assembly at which its Members for the following year shall be elected shall be
known as the National Convention of the Bahã’is of the British Isles and shall be held at a time and place to be fixed by the National
Spiritual Assembly which shall give sixty days’ notice of the Meeting to each local Bahá’i community through its Spiritual Assembly
and to Bahã’is not members of local communities. The National Spiritual Assembly shall at the same time inform each Spiritual
Assembly of the number of delegates to the Convention
has assigned to the local BahI’i community in accordance with the principle
of proportionate representation in such manner that the entire number of delegates composing the National Convention shall be
nineteen. Upon receipt of this notice each local Spiritual Assembly shall, within a convenient period and after giving due and
sufficient notice thereof, call a Meeting of the Voting members on its rolls for the purpose of electing their delegate or delegates to the
National Convention; and, not later than thirty days before the date of the Convention the Secretary of each local Spiritual Assembly
shall certify to the Secretary of the National Spiritual Assembly the names and addresses of the delegates so elected.
30. All delegates to the Convention shall be elected by plurality vote. Members who for illness or other unavoidable reasons are
THE WORLD ORDER OF BAHA’U’LLAH
unable to be present at the election in person shall have the right to transmit their ballots by registered post or telegram
under conditions approved by the local Spiritual Assembly.
31. All delegates to be seated at the Convention must be enrolled as voting members of the Bahá’i community
represented by them.
32. The rights and privileges of a delegate may not be assigned nor may they be exercised by proxy.
33. The recognition and seating of delegates to the National Convention shall be vested in the National Spiritual
34. Delegates unable to be present in person at the Convention shall have the right to vote for members of the National
Spiritual Assembly by registered post or telegram under such conditions as may be indicated by the National Spiritual
the delegates who shall then proceed to the permanent organization of the Meeting, electing a Presiding Officer, a
Secretary and such other officers as are necessary for the proper conduct of the business of the Convention.
36. The principal business of the National Convention shall be:
(a) Election for one year of the nine Members of the National Spiritual Assembly;
(b) Consideration of a statement of the receipts and payments received and made during the preceding year together
with a statement of the assets and liabilities made up to a date not more than six weeks before the Convention and
signed by the Treasurer. together with a report as to the state and condition of the National Spiritual Assembly and its
various committees signed by the Secretary;
(c) Deliberation of the affairs of the Bahá’i Faith in general, it being understood however, in
accordance with the principles of Bahá’i administration outlined by ‘Abdu’l—Bahã and Bahã’u’lláh and defined by the
Guardian that all deliberation and action of the delegates at the National Convention, other than the election of the
Members of the National Spiritual Assembly, shall constitute merely advice and recommendation for consideration by
the National Spiritual Assembly, final decision on all matters concerning the affairs of the Bahá’i Faith in the British
Isles being vested solely in that body; and
(d) Appointment of an auditor or auditors to hold office until the next National Convention and their appointment,
remuneration, rights and duties shall be regulated by Sections 132 to 134 of the Act.
37. Once in every year as immediately prior to the National Convention as is reasonably practicable the accounts shall
be examined and their correctness ascertained by the auditor or auditors appointed as hereinbefore mentioned.
38. The general order of business to be taken up at the National Convention shall be prepared by the National Spiritual
Assembly, but any and all matters pertaining to the Faith introduced by any of the delegates may upon motion and vote
be taken up as part of the deliberations of the Convention.
39. The election of the Members of the National Spiritual Assembly shall be by plurality vote of the delegates
recognized by the National Spiritual Assembly, i.e., the Members elected shall be the nine persons receiving the
greatest number of votes on the first ballot cast by delegates present at the Convention and delegates whose ballots
have been transmitted to the Secretary of the National Spiritual Assembly by registered post or telegram. In case by
reason of a tie vote or votes the full membership is not determined on the first ballot, then one or more additional
ballots shall be taken
THE BAHA’I WORLD
concerning those tying until all nine Membets are elected.
40. All official business transacted at the National Convention shall be recorded and preserved in the records of the National Spiritual
41. A Member may at any time by notice in writing to the National Spiritual Assembly relinquish his membership and thereupon his
name shall be removed from the register of Members.
42. Vacancies in the membership of the National Spiritual Assembly shall be filled by a plurality vote as aforesaid of the delegates
composing the Convention which elected the Members the ballot to be taken by correspondence or in any other manner decided upon
by the National Spiritual Assembly.
43. Where the National Spiritual Assembly has been given in these Articles exclusive and final jurisdiction, and paramount executive
authority, in all matters pertaining to the activity and affairs of the Bahã”i Faith in the British Isles, any decision made or action taken
upon such matters shall be subject to ultimate review and approval by the Guardian for the time being of the Faith or the Universal
House of Justice.
44. Whatever functions and powers are
specifically attributed to Local Spiritual Assemblies in these Articles shall be considered
vested in the National Spiritual Assembly, which body is authorised to delegate such discretionary functions, and powers as it seems
necessary and advisable to the local Spiritual Assemblies within its jurisdiction.
In order to preserve the spiritual character and purpose of Bahá’i elections, the practice of nominations or any other electoral
method detrimental to a silent and prayerful election shall not prevail, so that such elector may vote for none but those whom prayer
and reflection have inspired him or her to uphold.
46. Among the most outstanding and sacred duties incumbent upon those who have been called upon to initiate, direct and co-ordinate
the affairs of the Faith as
members of local Spiritual Assemblies or the National Spiritual Assembly are:— To win by every means in their power
the confidence and affection of those whom it is their privilege to serve; to investigate and acquaint themselves with the
considered views, the prevailing sentiments and the personal convictions of those whose welfare it is their solemn
obligation to promote, to purge their deliberations and the general conduct of their affairs of self-contained aloofness,
the suspicion of secrecy, the stifling atmosphere of dictatorial assertiveness and of every word and deed that may
savour of partiality, self-centredness and prejudice; and while retaining the sacred right of final decision in their hands,
to invite discussion, ventilate grievances, welcome advice, and foster the sense of interdependence and co-partnership,
of understanding and mutual confidence between themselves and all other Bahi’is.
47. These Articles may be amended by a majority of not less than three-fourths of the Members at any of its ordinary or
extraordinary meetings, provided that at least twenty-one days prior to the date fixed for the said meeting a copy of the
proposed amendment or amendments is or are sent by registered post to each Member by the Secretary.
48. A notice may be served by the National Spiritual Assembly upon any Member, either personally or by sending it
through the post in a prepaid letter envelope or wrapper addressed to such Member at his registered place of address.
49. Every Member whose registered place of address is not in the United Kingdom may from time to time notify in
writing to the National Spiritual Assembly an address in the United Kingdom which shall be deemed his registered
place of address within the meaning of the last preceding clause.
50. As regards those Members who have no registered place of address in the United Kingdom a notice posted up in the
registered office shall be deemed to be well served on them at the expiration of 24 hours after it is so posted up.
51. The subscribers to the Memorandum
THE WORLD ORDER OF BAHA’U’LLAH
of Association of the National Spiritual Assembly and such other persons as shall be elected Members in place of any one or more of
them in accordance with Articles
and 42 shall be Members until the next election of Members at the Annual Meeting and
For the purpose of registration the number of Members shall be taken to be nine.
The common seal shall be deposited at the registered office.
NAMES, ADDRESSES AND DESCRIPTIONS
GRACE CHALLIS, “Rizwan,” Broadstone, Dorset, Nursing Sister.
Witness :—WINIFRED WADE, “Rizwan,” Broadstone, Dorset, Nurse.
14, Frognal Mansions, N.W.3, Widow.
14, Chelsea Gardens, S.W. 1, Teacher.
39, Dover Street, Manches ter
8, Clothing Designer, Retired.
B. SUGAR, 39, Dover Street,
Manchester, 8, Warehouseman.
CONSTANCE LANGDON-DAVIE5, 6, Huxham’s Cross, Dartington, Totnes, Independent.
MARGUERITE WELLEY, 1 24a, St. John’s Wood High Street, N.W. 8, Private Secretary.
H. M. BALYUZI, 14, Frognal Mansions, Frognal, N.W. 3, Research Student.
DAVID HOFMAN, 34n, Elvaston Place, S.W.7,
Witness to the above four signatures:—
T. W. DRURY, 720, Salisbury House, London Wall, E.C.2, Solicitor.
NORTON, 41, Cranbourne Rd., Bradford, Company Director.
F. P. WILKINSON, 20, Southey Place, Bradford, Glass Merchant.
Witness to above two signatures :—D0R-
34, Gwynne Avenue, Bradford Moor, Bradford, Clerk.
Dated the 2nd day of August, 1939.
THE BAHA’ WORLD
THE COMPANIES ACT, 1929.
THE NATIONAL SPIRITUAL
ASSEMBLY OF THE BAHA’
OF THE BRITISH ISLES.
J. HAMPSON Fo, 720, Salisbury House,
London Wall, E.C.2.
THE WORLD ORDER OF BAHA’U’LLAH
Certificate of Incorporation of the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahã’is of
Australia and New Zealand.
BY-LAWS OF THE SPIRITUAL ASSEMBLY OF THE BAHA’tS OF THE CITY
OF NEW YORK1
The Bahã’is of the City of New York adopt this Corporation in order to supply proper legal status to the conduct of the affairs of a
religious community which has had continuous existence for more than thirty years, being one of the first two local Bahá’i
communities established in North America. During this period the community has been recognized, encouraged and instructed in
letters and communications addressed to it by ‘Abdu’l-Baha, who in one communication designated New York “The City of the
Covenant.” It was in this city that ‘Abdu’l-Bahá devoted the larger portion of His American visit in
Assembly has been
recognized since the Ascension of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá in letters addressed to it by the Guardian of the Bahá’i Faith. The New York Bahá’i
community has been continuously and uninterruptedly represented by delegates in the Annual Meetings held by the recognized
national Bahã’i body of North America since the formation of that body in 1909. The Spiritual Assembly is at present enrolled in the
list of Local Spiritual Assemblies recognized by the National Spiritual Assembly.
the Spiritual Assembly, recognized that this action has been taken in full unanimity and agreement. They
acknowledge for themselves and on behalf of their successors the sacred meaning and universal purpose of the Bahá’i Faith, the
teachings and principles of which fulfill the Divine promise of all former revealed religions.
In administering the affairs of the Bahá’i Religion under this Corporation for the benefit of the Bahá’is of the City of New York in
accordance with the religious teachings and administrative principles of this Faith, the Spiritual Assembly shall act in conformity with
the functions of a Local Spiritual Assembly as defined in the By-Laws adopted by the National Spiritual Assembly and published by
that body for the informa tio
and guidance of Bahá’is throughout the United States and Canada.
The Spiritual Assembly, in the fulfillment of its obligations and responsibilities under this Corporation, shall have exclusive
jurisdiction and authority over all the local activities and affairs of the Bahá’i community of the City of New York, including
paramount authority in the administration of this Corporation. It shall be responsible for maintaining the integrity and accuracy of all
Bahá’i teaching, whether written or oral, undertaken throughout the local community. It shall make available the published literature
of the Faith. It shall represent the community in its relation to the National Spiritual Assembly, in its relation to the Guardian of the
Bahá’i Faith, to other local Bahá’l communities, and to the general public in the City of New York. It shall be charged with the
recognition of all applicants requesting membership in the local Bahá’i community. It shall pass upon the right of any and all members
of the community whose membership is in question to retain their status as voting members of the community. It shall call the
meetings of the community, including the Bahá’i Anniversaries and Feasts, the meetings of consultation, the Annual Meeting and the
meeting for the election of delegates to the Annual Meeting of the National Spiritual Assembly. It shall appoint and supervise all
committees of the Bahá’i community. It shall collect and disburse all funds intended for the maintenance of this Corporation. It shall
have full and complete custody of the headquarters or meeting place of the Bahá’i community. It shall report to the National Spiritual
Assembly annually, or when requested, the membership roll of the Bahá’i community, for the information and approval of the national
Bahá’i body. The Spiritual Assembly, however, shall recognize
The pattern for all local Bahá’i constitudons.
THE WORLD ORDER OF BAHA’U’LLAH
the authority and right of the National Spiritual Assembly to declare at any time what activities and affairs of the Bahá’i community of
the City of New York are national in scope and hence subject to the jurisdiction of the national Bahá’i body. It shall likewise
recognize the right of any member of the community to appeal to the National Spiritual Assembly for review and decision of any
matter in which the previous decision of the local Spiritual Assembly is felt by the member to be contrary to the explicit teachings of
the Bahã’i Faith or opposed to its best interests. It shall, on the other hand, have the authority and right to appeal from the decision of
the National Assembly to the Guardian of the Bahá’i Faith for review and final decision of any matter related to the Faith in the City
of New York.
The Spiritual Assembly, in administering this Corporation, shall ever bear in mind the ideals upheld in the Sacred Writings of the
Bahá’i Faith respecting the relationships of a Spiritual Assembly to its Bahá’i community, respecting the relations of Bahá’is to one
another in the community, and the relationships of Bahá’is to all non-Bahá’is, without prejudice of race, creed, class or nationality.
The Assembly shall therefore above all recognize its sacred duty to maintain full and complete unity throughout the Bahá’i
community, to relieve and comfort the sick and distressed, to assist the poor and destitute, to protect the orphans, the crippled and the
aged, to educate the children of Bahá’is according to the highest religious and intellectual standards, to compose differences and
disagreements among members of the community, to promulgate the principles of Divine Civilization revealed by Bahá’u’lláh, and to
promote in every way possible the Bahá’i aim of the oneness of mankind. It shall faithfully and devotedly uphold the general Bahá’i
activities and affairs initiated and sustained by the National Spiritual Assembly. It shall cooperate wholeheartedly with other local
Spiritual Assemblies throughout North America in all matters declared by the National Spiritual Assembly to be of general
Bahá’i importance and concern. It shall rigorously abstain from any action or influence, direct or indirect, that savors of
intervention on the part of a Bahá’i body in matters of public politics and civil jurisdiction. It shall encourage
intercourse between the Bahi’i community of the City of New York and other recognized BahI’i communities, issuing
letters of introduction to Bahá’is traveling from New York and passing upon letters of introduction issued by other
Bahá’i Assemblies. It shall regard its authority as a means of rendering service to Bahã’is and non-Bahã’is and not as a
source of arbitrary power. While retaining the sacred right of final decision in all matters pertaining to the Bahá’i
community, the Spiritual Assembly shall ever seek the advice and consultation of all members of the community, keep
the community informed of all its affairs, and invite full and free discussion on the part of the community of all matters
affecting the Faith.
The Bahá’is of the City of New York, for whose benefit this Corporation has been established, shall consist of all
persons resident in the City of New York who are recognized by the Spiritual Assembly as having fulfilled the
requirements of voting membership in this local Bahá’i community. To become a voting member of this Bahá’i
community a person shall:
a. Be a resident of the City of New York as defined by the area of jurisdiction of the Spiritual Assembly, as provided
hereinafter in this instrument.
Have attained the age of 21 years.
c. Have established to the satisfaction of the Spiritual Assembly, subject to the approval of the National Spiritual
Assembly, that he (or she) possesses the qualifications of Bahá’i Faith and practice required under the following
standard: Full recognition of the Station of the Forerunner (the Báb), the Author (Bahi’u’lláh), and ‘Abdu’lBahá, the
Exemplar of the Bahá’i religion; unreserved acceptance of, and submission to, whatsoever has been revealed by Them;
loyal and steadfast adherence to every clause of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá’s sacred ‘Will and Testament; and close association with
the spirit as
THE BAHA’I WORLD
well as the form of Bahá’i administration throughout the world.
The Spiritual Assembly shall consist of nine Trustees chosen from among the Bahá’is of the City of New York, who shall be elected
by these Bahá’is in a manner hereinafter provided and who shall continue in office for the period of one year, or until their successors
shall be elected.
The officers of the Spiritual Assembly shall consist of a Chairman, Vice-Chairman, Secretary and Treasurer, and such other officers as
may be found necessary for the proper conduct of its affairs. The officers shall be elected by a majority vote of the entire membership
of the Assembly taken by secret ballot.
The first meeting of a newly-elected Assembly shall be called by the member elected to membership by the highest number of votes,
or, in case two or more members have received the same said highest number of votes, then by the member selected by lot from
among those members; and this member shall preside until the permanent Chairman shall be chosen. All subsequent meetings shall be
called by the Secretary of the Assembly at the request of the Chairman, or, in his absence or incapacity, of the Vice- Chairman, or of
any three members of the Assembly; provided however that the Annual Meeting of the Assembly shall be held on April 2 1st, in
accordance with the administrative principles recognized by all Bahá’i Assemblies.
Five members of the Assembly present at a meeting shall constitute a quorum, and a majority vote of those present and
constituting a quorum shall be sufficient for the conduct of business, except as otherwise provided in these By-Laws, and with due
regard to the principles of unity and cordial fellowship involved in the institution of a Spiritual Assembly. The transactions and
decisions of the Assembly shall be recorded at each meeting by the Secretary, who shall have the minutes adopted
and approved by the Assembly, and preserve them in the official records of the Assembly.
Vacancies in the membership of the Spiritual Assembly shall be filled by election at a special meeting of the local Bahã’i
community duly called for that purpose by the Assembly. In the event that the number of vacancies exceeds four, making a quorum of
the Spiritual Assembly impossible, the election shall be under the supervision of the National Spiritual Assembly.
The sphere of jurisdiction of the Spiritual Assembly, with respect to residential qualification of membership, and voting rights of a
believer in the Bahá’i community, shall be the locality included within the civil hmits of the City of New York, but Bahá’is, who
reside in adjacent, outlying or suburban districts and can regularly attend the meetings of the local Bahá’i community, may be enrolled
on the membership list of the Spiritual Assembly and enjoy full voting rights pending the establishment of a local Spiritual Assembly
in their home community.
In the event that any decision of the Assembly is unacceptable to any member or members of the community, the
Assembly shall after endeavoring to compose the differences of opinion invite the said member or members to make appeal to the
national Bahá’i body and notify that body of the condition of the matter and the readiness of the Assembly to become party to the
In the same manner, if any difference arises between the Assembly and another local Assembly, or Assemblies, in North
America, the Assembly shall report the matter to the national Bahá’i body and inform that body of its readiness to make joint appeal
together with the other Assembly or Assemblies.
If, however, the result of such appeal is unsatisfactory to the Spiritual Assembly or the Assembly at any time has reason to
believe that actions of the National Spiritual Assembly are affecting adversely the welfare and unity of the Bahá’i community of the
City of New York, it shall, after seeking to compose its difference of
opinion with the national body in direct consultation, have the right to make appeal to the Guardian of the Faith.
4. The Assembly shall likewise have the right to make complaint to the National Spiritual Assembly in the event that matters
of local Bahã’i concern and influence are referred to the national body by a member or members of the local community without
previous opportunity for action by the local Assembly.
The Annual Meeting of the Corporation at which its Trustees shall be elected shall be held on April 21 at an hour and place to be fixed
by the Assembly, which shall give not less than fifteen days’ notice of the meeting to all members of the local Bahá’i community.
The Assembly shall accept those votes transmitted to the Assembly before the election by members who by reason of
sickness or other unavoidable reason are unable to be present at the election in person.
The election of members to the Spiritual Assembly shall be by plurality vote.
All voting members of the local Bahá’i community are eligible for election as members of the Spiritual Assembly.
The Assembly shall prepare an agenda for the Annual Meeting in which shall be included reports of the activities of the
Assembly since its election, a financial statement showing all income and expenditure of its fund, reports of its committees and
presentation of any other matters pertaining to the affairs of the Bahã’i community. The Assembly, both preceding and following the
annual election, shall invite discussion and welcome suggestions from the community, in order that its plans may reflect the
community mind and heart.
1. The result of the election shall be reported by the Spiritual Assembly to the National Assembly.
In addition to the Annual Meeting, the Assembly shall arrange for regular meetings of the Bahã’i community throughout the year at
intervals of nineteen days, in ac cordanc
with the calendar incorporated in the teachings of the Bahá’i Faith.
The Spiritual Assembly, on notice from the National Spiritual Assembly, shall report the number of voting members in the local
community, that the national Bahâ’i body may be duly informed of the number of delegates to be assigned to the Bahâ’i community of
the City of New York in accordance with the principle of proportionate representation controlling the annual election of members to
the National Spiritual Assembly.
When informed of the number of delegates assigned to the local community, the Spiritual Assembly shall call a special
meeting of the community for the purpose of electing said number of delegates to represent the community at the Annual Meeting of
the National Spiritual Assembly.
2. The election of delegates to the Annual Meeting of the National Spiritual Assembly shall be by plurality vote.
All voting members of the local Bahá’i community are eligible for election as delegates to the Annual Meeting of the
The result of the election shall be reported by the Spiritual Assembly to the National Spiritual Assembly, and the Spiritual
Assembly shall meet all the conditions laid down by the national Bahá’i body for the recognition of local Spiritual Assemblies and the
participation of local Bahâ’i communities in the annual election of the national Bahâ’i body.
The seal of this Corporation shall be circular in form, bearing the following description: The Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá’is of the
City of New York, Corporate Seal.
These By-Laws may be amended by majority vote of the Spiritual Assembly at any of its regular or special meetings, provided that at
least fourteen days prior to the date fixed for the said meeting a copy of the proposed amendment or amendments is mailed to each
member of the Assembly by the Secretary.
rent Seal of the State is euccto affixed.
UNITED STPrES QF AMERICA
STAlE OF NEW YOkK
and Custodian of the Great Seal tflsereoj,
of the County said State, and Clerk of the 5reme Court therein being a
of Record, an the day of the date of the annexed
and duh authøritd to grant the same; that tht same is in due form and exe d by the proper officer; that the seal affixed to said
certificate ic the seal of said County Court; that the ngnature thereto of said deck is m his proper handwriting, and it
and that full faith and credit may and ought to be given to his official arts.
my hand at the
hundred nd ti
Certificate of Incorporation of the Spiritual Assembly of the Bahã’is of New York.
THE WORLD ORDER OF BAHA’U’LLAH
)? 7220 H
STATE OF NEW YORK
COUNTY OF NEW.YORK
I, ALBERT MARINELLI, Clerk of the County of New York and also Clerk of the Supreme Court in and for said county,
DO HEREBY CERTIFY, that I have compared the within photographic copy
and I do further certify, that such photographic copy it a correct transcript of such record and of the whole of said original.
In WITNESS WHEREOF, I have hereunto set my hand a5d
the seal oØ,id court yfd county at 9re City of New York, this
day of Et....1’
The fee charged for tjils Copy was
426 THE BAHA’I WORLD
CERTIFICATE OF INCORPORATION
THE SPIRITUAL ASSEMBLY OF THE BABA’ IS
OF THE CITY OF MEL YORK
Pursuant to Section 193 of the Religious
Corporation Law of the State of New York
We, the undersigned, an being of full age, and citizens of the United States, and residents of the State of New York,
desiring to form a corporation pursuant to Section 193 of the Religious Corporation Law of the State of New York, do
hereby make, sign, and acknowledge this certificate as follows:
FIRST: The purpose end objects for which the corporation is formed are to administer the affairs of the Beta’ i Religion
for the benefit of the Bats’ is of the City of New York in accordance with the religious teachings and administrative
principles of this Faith.
SECOND: The name of the corporation is to be “The Spiritual Assembly of the Baha’is of the City of
THIRD: The territory in which its activities
are principally to be conducte( is New
York City and vicinity.
FOURTH: The prmncipal place of worship is to be located in the City of New York,
County of New York, State of New York.
FIFTH: The number of trustees is to be nine.
SIXTH: The nemes and places of residence of the persons to be trustees
until the first annual meeting are as follows:
PLACE OF RESIDENCE
101 West 55th Street, New York City
Horace Hoiley 125 East 10th Street, New York City
Bertha Herklotz 1810 Cortelyou Road, Brooklyn, N.Y.
Hooper Harris 162 West 13th Street, New York City
101 West 55th Street, New York City
.Lotlie A. Mathews 430 East 57th Street, New York City
Marie B. Moore 41 Convent Avenue, New York City
Marion Little 465 Park Avenue, New “ork Citj
Edward B. Kinney 204
West 55th Street, New York City
SEVENTH: The time for holding its annual meeting is to be on the twenty—first day of April in each year.
THE WORLD ORDER OF BAHA’U’LLAH 427
The first meeting
il9 West 57th Street, New York City.
IN WITNESS WEEREOF, We have
and acknowledged this
this thirty—first day of March,1932.
Before me on this thirty—first day of March,l932, personally appeared Horace Holley,
Bertha Herklotz, who being by me
sworn did acknowledge that they had executed the written
COMMISSIONER OF DEEDS.
NEW YORK CITY
N0 York Co. CIek’. No, SO
New Yo,k Co. Rgir’. No 20S4
Presi ng Off ir
THE SPUITUAI. ASSEMBLY OF THE BAWlS
A.LNAOO è1OA M3N
Count Clerk, N. ‘f. Co
NEW SOUTH WALES.
that the said Company s lzmed by
under my hand, at Sydtthy, this
day of one thousand nine hundred
Certificate of Incorporation of the Spiritual Assembly of the Bahâ’is of the City of Sydney, Australia.
is mcorporotëd wider
that the dqrc of jucorparation of the said Company is
the day of
nine hundred and thirty
THE BAHA’I WORLD
The Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá’is of Vancouver, B. C.
THE WORLD ORDER OF BAHA’U’LLAH 431
Jrtffiratr uf JururpøratWn
17TIII CORPORATION 0? TR13 SPIRITUAL ASLY 0? T A!A’IS OF TIlE
cir or VANCouVER”
ha this dde, betn incorporated a a Sociely under the Societies Act
Th loiialy in whn.h the operatwns of the Society will be chiefly earned on
Vaic ourer ProLince of British Columbia
GlVENuridormy band ancSeaI pf Office at P.ctorki. &oviceof
British Columbia thi —25t day
of one thousand nine hund1ed
REQ COQPAN5 )i
Certificate of Incorporation of the Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá’is of the City of Vancouver.
432 THE BAHA’! WORLD
(2 Tb. S
a, te todersiwnea, hereby decinro that we
4aire in inn a ecitty uflber toe ‘octettee hats, o’u tint:
The hsee of tbø Society shl1 be the
Carp otdttn of the tirttiei Jsembjy of the inhS’isof
The object of the insiety sai be to arniie
tsr the effaty of L
feith for tin benefit of ttieB
of the Cit1 at
Vance tnt in aoc-rdaoce with
rolt tone teaehtnre to tdttojetratiye ttceipini
The aperatioi of the ooietyare to be chiefly
earrtd onto the
b TTLt this day
th City of Vancouver, in the brevina, of british Colnabje
oeo”hy reTttiy thot o duponote en$lnaJ
- $- kcc 0
n cootnoun juts boon flied with bla
f’ol stu ott W ,SOCIeLIACt,. 1’10ct4
THE WORLD ORDER OF BAHA’U’LLAH 433
hE hEZ hE NTL cQ.___-___—_ ,—-o—*——————,— The trod erred, o mojoeriy of winco err ceo, of the Uteri Stole., dcsieir’g IC form a eporeflon. ttot for prolt. undee tire
feed C poroiron Art of Ohio, tie heed,y menu
,EL The remote of .dd rHino sholl
The piece ho liii. Sr
tire hopel riSe of the ronperetino it Ito ha Iterated co-
,— ,.. *
Th, Tie popo.r
mid peection in fotmod near
TitO f fmrtrmrtinC hr
roilgiomor pmormoor 011th ilto 1n iortlef
business onO objtets
oh 0,’ m’rtmtm Ott tic Oenrtttim,gs mtr hon ,jgim
It) tomb_ti $tO0 ltd
otf04o Off mljcuo I moiL’tgmo tied nO it, ti-ne ph alpine Cf
Etoitlu, itooiudlrrg site omain—
‘m mi tt
mop oemrnl,io trod orhlo.
,R1’L The fall lun perotozem
nerve eomd eprt.tirmrt. caine. cold tire firsi anneal maeits or allan m..lleg nailed
or elmtet tecoimo,
luu,hml,tm ittmuuorr ,mmi4O
tpoorth ortO., bietuli, OhIO
tt. triple’ 3OdO dliii
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on,, hoIst, Gluts
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1001CR If. oCIOURPOtitE £‘01’ID ii. OJ.RX
ThLO 2PECmo3O VI2OIIIILmo TOTEGE
101017 101113! 4USOIN
THE STATE 01’ uHlO,
Prmeatr,rlly appoowod bylom m time nrlmmvnipocd, o Nmtroey I’,rhlis, in nod fore *aid roonnrii tinia,,, TOiL, day çd
Iit1,ff’co’ rgsnt Gplo’udo 2pluogtoot, lhao’y Ltmtrt n,
veoslly ne ooIaJermf
aiennhsn of zirto fonrsahr rtmt,o’mts of krtt’Oapmoatnofl to ho lot free riot mmd deed, lam the tries sod potponea therein toenniamoed,
‘01 liNES’S op hoed ott,l mt m of ceol ore the doy nod pear err olnoenaid,
ch ii itt’, Cf O,lttlOt’tGtt
I of lh State of Gino.
tomnify rIot time lovr’ytmiof
eaerrmplfflrtl copy, rsr’rfctlly compared by mo with he tirtOnol rrmromd flow’ in tsp othrmitf
tee 5treerten’ rd Stole, end fonnorl to Ire terre flJ
correct cr1 the Articles of locorporot,on of
11Nu oPOnEOUtI, tiollOOfLy OF ill’S idui010’T,S
hlrml io nh’S oSice no the.
day oI,_ NOm5teO
I9J asa ,erprded in V,dtrtce, ASS
of the Rersa,in of locoapowiioa.,
WITOESS my lined anal offlefel anal at
Certificate of Incorporation of the Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá’is of Cincinnati, Ohio.
434 THE BAHA’I WORLD
the Bahá’is of Cincinnati, Ohio.
Members of the Spiritual Assembly of the Bahã’Is of San Francisco, California.
iepattmiuf of %tatt
IN WITNESS WHEREOF,
1 have hereunto set m-y hand anl have caused the Great Seal of the State of California
be affixed hereto
Certificate of Incorporation of the Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá’is of San Francisco, California.
THE BAHA’i WORLD
BY THESE PRESENTS:
That the nmbers of The Spiritual Assembly of the Bah1ia San Franc iaco, California,
unincorporated association, have day
voluntarily associated ourselves tog.thir, for the purpos. of forming a corporation under the laws
State of California.
AND WE DO HEREBY CERTIFY
First: That the nam• of this
CTHE SPIR ITTJAL ASSEMBLY OF THE BAHAS OF SAN 1RA C ISCO.
The name of the existing unincorporated association which i. being incorporated is _NTh. Spiritual Assembly of the Bahaic of San
Second: That this corporation does not contemplate
gain or profit to the members thereof, and that the purpose. for
thL corporation is formed are the followings
Sharing the ideals
and assisting the efforts of our
Bahais to ectablish, uphold and promote th. spiritual,
educational and humanitarian teachings of human
of all the Prophets and
the Wor].ds revealed religion.
universal application to the conditions of this ag. in the
and utterances of Bahüll&h
the purposes and object. of this corooration to be i.e administer the affairs
the Faith of
Bahhd11h for the ben.2Cit of the Bah. of the City and County of
San Prancisco according to
principle, of Bahal affiliation and
established by Bahiiil.h, defined aM
explained by ..bthJ.—Bah, and amplified
and applied by Shoghi
duly constituted successor and
successors under the
tue Will and Testament of 1Abdel-Bah.
ART IES F INcQR’(1 T ION
THE WORLD ORDER OF BAHA’U’LLAH 437
These purposes are to be
r•aiized by means of
devotional meetings; by public meetings and conferences of an
humanitarian and spiritual character;
by the publication of books, megasinea
by the construction of temples of uni— v.r.al worship and of other institutions
service; by supervising,
unifytng, promoting grid
generally administering the activities
of the City and
san ?rancisco in the
of their religious
offices, duties and ideals; and by any other means appropriate to these ends,
or any of
Other purposes and objects of this corration are;
right to ntsr
into, make, perform
out contracts of every sort
and kind for the
furtherance of the objects of this corporation with any person,
association, corporation, private, public or
municipal or body politic, or
or colony thereof, or
all transactions under the
and objects of this corporation, to
and eli things which a co—partnership or
natural person could do or exorcise, &nd
which now or hereafter may be authorized
and be named as beneficiary under any
establiabs I by law or
otherwioe or under
or other toatanntary
inatrumant in connection with
iieh a trust or
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