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34E, 

Elvaston Place, S.W.7, B.B.C. Announcer.  

Witness to the above four signatures:— T. W. DRURY, 720, Salisbury House, London Wall, E.C.2, Solicitor.  

ARTHUR NORTON, 41, Cranhourne Rd., Bradford, Company Director.  

F. P. WILKINsoN, 20, Southey Place, Bradford, Glass Merchant.  

Witness to above two signatures:—DoiiOTHT SMITH, 34, Gwynne Avenue, Bradford Moor, Bradford, Clerk.  

Dated the 2nd day of August, 1939. 

 

THE COMPANIES ACT, 1929.  



AN UNLIMITED COMPANY WITHOUT A SHARE CAPITAL.  

ARTICLES OF ASSOCIATION OF  

THE NATIONAL SPIRITUAL ASSEMBLY OF THE BAHA’IS OF THE BRITISH ISLES 

 

1. In these presents unless there be something in the subject or context inconsistent therewith—  



“The National Spiritual Assembly” means  

the above-mentioned Company.  

“The Members” means the Members for the time being of the National Spiritual Assembly.  

“In writing” means written or printed or partly written or printed. 

 

“The Act” means the Companies Act, 1929.  



Where any provision of the Act is referred to, the reference is to that provision as modified by any Statute for the time being in force.  

Unless the context otherwise requires, expressions defined in the Act or any Statutory modification thereof in force at the date at 

which these Regulations 

 

412 



 

THE BAHA’I WORLD 

 

become binding on the National Spiritual Assembly shall have the meanings so defined.  



“Registered office” means the registered office for the time being of the National Spiritual Assembly.  

MEMBERS  

2. The Bahã’is of the British Isles shall consist of all persons resident in the British Isles who have attained the age of 15 and who 

have established to the satisfaction of the National Spiritual Assembly, that he or sbe possess the qualifications of Bahã’i faith and 

practice, required under the following standard: Full recognition of the station of the Forerunner (the Bib), the Author (Bahi’u’llih), 

and ‘Abdu’l-Bahi, the True Exemplar of the Bahi’i Faith; unreserved acceptance of, and submission to, whatsoever has been revealed 

by Their pen; loyal and steadfast adherence to every clause of ‘Abdu’l-Bahi’s sacred will; and close association with the spirit as well 

as the form of present day Bahi’i administration throughout the world. Bahi’is must attain the age of 21 before being admitted to 

voting membership. In districts where a local Spiritual Assembly has been established these powers shall be exercised by such local 

Spiritual Assembly subject to the approval in the case of each member of the National Spiritual Assembly.  

3. The Members shall consist of nine persons chosen from among the Bahi’is of the British Isles who have attained the age of 21 and 

who shall be elected by such Bahi’is in manner hereinafter provided, and who shall remain Members and continue in office for the 

period of one year, or until their successors shall be elected and on failure to be re-elected to the National Spiritual Assembly shall 

cease to be Members.  

4. The officers of the National Spiritual Assembly shall consist of a Chairman, Vice- Chairman, Secretary and Treasurer, and such 

other officers as may be found necessary for the proper conduct of its affairs. The officers shall be elected by a majority vote of the 

Members taken by secret ballot.  



MEETINGS 

 

Members shall be called by the Member elected to membership by the highest number of votes or, in case two or more 



Members have received the same said highest number of votes, then by the Member selected by lot from among those 

Members; and this Member shall preside until the permanent Chairman shall be chosen. All subsequent meetings shall 

be called by the Secretary at the request of the Chairman or, in his absence or incapacity, of the Vice-Chairman, or of 

any other Member, provided however that the National Convention shall be held at a time and place to be fixed by a 

majority vote of the Members as hereinafter provided.  

6. A General Meeting shall however be held once at least in every calendar year at such time, not being more than 

fifteen months after the holding of the last preceding General Meeting, and at such time and place as may be prescribed 

by the Members in General Meeting. Such General Meetings shall be called “Ordinary Meetings” and all other 



meetings shall be called “Extraordinary Meetings.” On the requisition of any Member the Secretary shall forthwith 

proceed to convene an Extraordinary Meeting. The requisition must state the objects of the meeting and must be signed 

by the requisitionist and deposited at the office.  

7. Subject to the provisions of Section  

117 (2) of the Act relating to Special Resolutions, seven days’ notice at least (exclusive of the day uxs which the notice 

is served or deemed to be served, but inclusive of the day for which notice is given) specifying the place, the day, and 

the hour of meeting, and in case of special business, the general nature of that business shall be given to all the 

Members. The accidental omission to give notice of a meeting to or the non-receipt of a notice of a meeting by, any 

Member shall not invalidate the proceedings at any meeting.  

8. Five Members present at a meeting shall constitute a quorum and a majority vote of those present and constituting a 

quorum shall be sufficient for the conduct of business, except as otherwise provided in these Articles, and with due 

regard to the principle of unity and cordial fellowship involved in the institution of a Spiritual Assembly. No business 

shall be transacted at 

 

5. The first meeting of newly-elected 

 

THE WORLD ORDER OF BAHA’U’LLAH 



 

413 


 

any General Meeting unless the quorum requisite shall be present at the commencement of the business. The transactions and 

decisions of the National Spiritual Assembly shall be recorded at each meeting and copies of the minutes shall be supplied if requested 

to the Members after each meeting. The minutes shall be preserved in the official records.  

9. If the Chairman or Vice-Chairman shall not be present within ten minutes after the time appointed for holding a meeting or is 

unwilling to act, the Members present shall choose one of their number to be Chairman for that meeting.  

10. A printed copy of every Special and Extraordinary Resolution and other resolutions mentioned in Section 118 of the Act shall be 

sent to the Registrar of Companies as provided by that section.  

11. A resolution in writing signed by all the Members shall be as valid and effectual as if it had been passed at a meeting of the 

Members duly called and constituted.  

12. The seal shall not be affixed to any instrument except by authority of a resolution of the National Spiritual Assembly and one 

Member in addition to the Secretary shall sign every instrument to which the seal shall be so affixed.  

13. True accounts shall be kept of the sums of money received and expended and the matters in respect of which such receipts and 

expenditure takes place and of the assets and liabilities of the National Spiritual Assembly and such accounts shall at all reasonable 

times be open for inspection by the Members.  

LOCAL SPSJUTUAL ASSEMBLIES  

14. Whenever in any district the number of Bahá’is resident therein who have attained the age of 21 and who are recognized by the 

National Spiritual Assembly exceeds nine, these may on April 21st of any year convene and elect by plurality vote a local 

administrative body of nine members, to be known as the Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá’is of that district. Every such Spiritual 

Assembly shall be elected annually thereafter upon each successive 21st day of April, and the members thereof shall hold 

 

office for the term of one year or until their successors are elected and qualified.  



15. 

When however the number of such Bahâ’is as aforesaid in any district is exactly nine, these may on April 21st of any year or in 

successive years, constitute themselves the local Spiritual Assembly by joint declaration. Upon the recording of such declaration by 

the Secretary of the National Spiritual Assembly the said body of nine shall become established with the rights, privileges and duties 

of a local Spiritual Assembly as set forth in these Articles.  

16. Each newly elected local Spiritual Assembly shall at once proceed in the manner indicated in Article 4 to the election of its 

officers, who shall consist of a Chairman, Vice-Chairman, Secretary and Treasurer and such other officers as the local Assembly finds 

necessary for the conduct of its business and the fulfillment of its spiritual duties. Immediately thereafter the Secretary chosen shall 

transmit to the Secretary of the National Spiritual Assembly the names of the members of the newly elected local Assembly and a list 

of its officers.  

17. The general powers and duties of a local Spiritual Assembly shall be as set forth in the writings of Bahá’u’lláh, ‘Abdu’lBahá and 

the Guardian for the time being of the Faith.  

18. Among its more specific duties a local Spiritual Assembly shall have full jurisdiction of all Bahã’i activities and affairs within its 

district, subject, however, to the exclusivc and paramount authority of the National Spiritual Assembly.  

19. Vacancies in the membership of a local Spiritual Assembly shall be filled by election at a special meeting of the local Community 

duly called for that purpose. In the event of the number of vacancies exceeding four making a quorum of the local Assembly 

impossible the election shall be held under the supervision of the National Spiritual Assembly.  

20. The business of the local Assembly shall be conducted in like manner as provided for the deliberations of the National Spiritual 

Assembly in Articles 8 and 

9.  

21. The local Assembly shall pass upon and approve the qualifications of each member of the local Bahá’i community before 

 

414 


 

THE BAHA’I WORLD 

 


such member shall be admitted to voting membership of that community but where an individual is dissatisfied with the 

ruling of the local Spiritual Assembly upon his Bahã’i qualifications, such individual may appeal from the ruling to the 

National Spiritual Assembly which shall thereupon take jurisdiction of and finally decide the case.  

22. On or before the 1st day of February of each year the Secretary of each local Assembly shall send to the Secretary 

of the National Spiritual Assembly a duly certified list of the voting members of the local Bahã’i community for the 

information and approval of the National Spiritual Assembly.  

23. All matters arising within a local Bahá’i community which are of purely local interest and do not affect the national 

interests of the Faith shall be under the primary jurisdiction of the Spiritual Assembly of that district; but the decision 

whether a particular matter involves the interest and welfare of the national Bahã’i body shall rest with the National 

Spiritual Assembly.  

24. Any member of a local Bahá’i community may appeal from a decision of his Spiritual Assembly to the National 

Spiritual Assembly, which shall determine whether it shall take jurisdiction of the matter or leave it to the local 

Spiritual Assembly for reconsideration. In the event of the National Spiritual Assembly assuming jurisdiction of the 

matter, its finding shall be final.  

5. Where any dissension exists within a local Bahá’i community of such a character that it cannot be remedied by the 

efforts of the local Spiritual Assembly, this condition shall be referred to the National Spiritual Assembly for 

consideration whose action in the matter shall be final.  

26. All questions arising between two or more local Spiritual Assemblies or between members of different Bahá’i 

communities, shall be submitted in the first instance to the National Spiritual Assembly, which shall have original and 

final jurisdiction in all such matters.  

27. The sphere of jurisdiction of a local Spiritual Assembly, with respect to residential qualifications of membership 

and voting rights of a believer in any Bahá’i 

 

Community shall be as delineated by the National Spiritual Assembly but Bahá’is who have attained the age of 21 and who reside in 



neighbouring districts and can regularly attend the Meeting of the neighbouring Bahã’i Community may be enrolled on the 

membership list of that local Spiritual Assembly and enjoy full voting rights pending the establishment of a local Spiritual Assembly 

in their own district.  

28. All differences of opinion concerning the sphere of jurisdiction of any local Spiritual Assembly or concerning the affiliation of any 

Bahá’i or group of Bah&’is in the British Isles shall be referred to the National Spiritual Assembly, whose decision in the matter shall 

be final.  



NATIONAL CONVENTION  

29. The Annual Meeting of the National Spiritual Assembly at which its Members for the following year shall be elected shall be 

known as the National Convention of the Bahã’is of the British Isles and shall be held at a time and place to be fixed by the National 

Spiritual Assembly which shall give sixty days’ notice of the Meeting to each local Bahá’i community through its Spiritual Assembly 

and to Bahã’is not members of local communities. The National Spiritual Assembly shall at the same time inform each Spiritual 

Assembly of the number of delegates to the Convention 



it 

has assigned to the local BahI’i community in accordance with the principle 

of proportionate representation in such manner that the entire number of delegates composing the National Convention shall be 

nineteen. Upon receipt of this notice each local Spiritual Assembly shall, within a convenient period and after giving due and 

sufficient notice thereof, call a Meeting of the Voting members on its rolls for the purpose of electing their delegate or delegates to the 

National Convention; and, not later than thirty days before the date of the Convention the Secretary of each local Spiritual Assembly 

shall certify to the Secretary of the National Spiritual Assembly the names and addresses of the delegates so elected.  

30. All delegates to the Convention shall be elected by plurality vote. Members who for illness or other unavoidable reasons are 

 

THE WORLD ORDER OF BAHA’U’LLAH 



 

415 

 

unable to be present at the election in person shall have the right to transmit their ballots by registered post or telegram 



under conditions approved by the local Spiritual Assembly.  

31. All delegates to be seated at the Convention must be enrolled as voting members of the Bahá’i community 

represented by them.  

32. The rights and privileges of a delegate may not be assigned nor may they be exercised by proxy.  

33. The recognition and seating of delegates to the National Convention shall be vested in the National Spiritual 

Assembly.  

34. Delegates unable to be present in person at the Convention shall have the right to vote for members of the National 

Spiritual Assembly by registered post or telegram under such conditions as may be indicated by the National Spiritual 

Assembly.  

35. The Chairman of the National Spiritual Assembly shall be present at the National Convention and shall call to order 

the delegates who shall then proceed to the permanent organization of the Meeting, electing a Presiding Officer, a 

Secretary and such other officers as are necessary for the proper conduct of the business of the Convention.  

36. The principal business of the National Convention shall be:  

(a) Election for one year of the nine Members of the National Spiritual Assembly;  

(b) Consideration of a statement of the receipts and payments received and made during the preceding year together 



with a statement of the assets and liabilities made up to a date not more than six weeks before the Convention and 

signed by the Treasurer. together with a report as to the state and condition of the National Spiritual Assembly and its 

various committees signed by the Secretary;  

(c) Deliberation of the affairs of the Bahá’i Faith in general, it being understood however, in 

 

accordance with the principles of Bahá’i administration outlined by ‘Abdu’l—Bahã and Bahã’u’lláh and defined by the 



Guardian that all deliberation and action of the delegates at the National Convention, other than the election of the 

Members of the National Spiritual Assembly, shall constitute merely advice and recommendation for consideration by 

the National Spiritual Assembly, final decision on all matters concerning the affairs of the Bahá’i Faith in the British 

Isles being vested solely in that body; and  

(d) Appointment of an auditor or auditors to hold office until the next National Convention and their appointment, 

remuneration, rights and duties shall be regulated by Sections 132 to 134 of the Act.  

37. Once in every year as immediately prior to the National Convention as is reasonably practicable the accounts shall 

be examined and their correctness ascertained by the auditor or auditors appointed as hereinbefore mentioned.  

38. The general order of business to be taken up at the National Convention shall be prepared by the National Spiritual 

Assembly, but any and all matters pertaining to the Faith introduced by any of the delegates may upon motion and vote 

be taken up as part of the deliberations of the Convention.  

39. The election of the Members of the National Spiritual Assembly shall be by plurality vote of the delegates 

recognized by the National Spiritual Assembly, i.e., the Members elected shall be the nine persons receiving the 

greatest number of votes on the first ballot cast by delegates present at the Convention and delegates whose ballots 

have been transmitted to the Secretary of the National Spiritual Assembly by registered post or telegram. In case by 

reason of a tie vote or votes the full membership is not determined on the first ballot, then one or more additional 

ballots shall be taken 

 

416 



 

THE BAHA’I WORLD 

 

concerning those tying until all nine Membets are elected.  



40. All official business transacted at the National Convention shall be recorded and preserved in the records of the National Spiritual 

Assembly.  

41. A Member may at any time by notice in writing to the National Spiritual Assembly relinquish his membership and thereupon his 

name shall be removed from the register of Members.  

42. Vacancies in the membership of the National Spiritual Assembly shall be filled by a plurality vote as aforesaid of the delegates 

composing the Convention which elected the Members the ballot to be taken by correspondence or in any other manner decided upon 

by the National Spiritual Assembly.  

APPORTIONMuNT OF POWERS  

43. Where the National Spiritual Assembly has been given in these Articles exclusive and final jurisdiction, and paramount executive 

authority, in all matters pertaining to the activity and affairs of the Bahã”i Faith in the British Isles, any decision made or action taken 

upon such matters shall be subject to ultimate review and approval by the Guardian for the time being of the Faith or the Universal 

House of Justice.  

44. Whatever functions and powers are 



not 

specifically attributed to Local Spiritual Assemblies in these Articles shall be considered 

vested in the National Spiritual Assembly, which body is authorised to delegate such discretionary functions, and powers as it seems 

necessary and advisable to the local Spiritual Assemblies within its jurisdiction.  



45. 

In order to preserve the spiritual character and purpose of Bahá’i elections, the practice of nominations or any other electoral 

method detrimental to a silent and prayerful election shall not prevail, so that such elector may vote for none but those whom prayer 

and reflection have inspired him or her to uphold.  

46. Among the most outstanding and sacred duties incumbent upon those who have been called upon to initiate, direct and co-ordinate 

the affairs of the Faith as 

 

members of local Spiritual Assemblies or the National Spiritual Assembly are:— To win by every means in their power  



the confidence and affection of those whom it is their privilege to serve; to investigate and acquaint themselves with the 

considered views, the prevailing sentiments and the personal convictions of those whose welfare it is their solemn 

obligation to promote, to purge their deliberations and the general conduct of their affairs of self-contained aloofness, 

the suspicion of secrecy, the stifling atmosphere of dictatorial assertiveness and of every word and deed that may 

savour of partiality, self-centredness and prejudice; and while retaining the sacred right of final decision in their hands, 

to invite discussion, ventilate grievances, welcome advice, and foster the sense of interdependence and co-partnership, 

of understanding and mutual confidence between themselves and all other Bahi’is.  

47. These Articles may be amended by a majority of not less than three-fourths of the Members at any of its ordinary or 

extraordinary meetings, provided that at least twenty-one days prior to the date fixed for the said meeting a copy of the 

proposed amendment or amendments is or are sent by registered post to each Member by the Secretary.  

NoTicEs  

48. A notice may be served by the National Spiritual Assembly upon any Member, either personally or by sending it 



through the post in a prepaid letter envelope or wrapper addressed to such Member at his registered place of address.  

49. Every Member whose registered place of address is not in the United Kingdom may from time to time notify in 

writing to the National Spiritual Assembly an address in the United Kingdom which shall be deemed his registered 

place of address within the meaning of the last preceding clause.  



50. As regards those Members who have no registered place of address in the United Kingdom a notice posted up in the 

registered office shall be deemed to be well served on them at the expiration of 24 hours after it is so posted up.  

51. The subscribers to the Memorandum 

 

THE WORLD ORDER OF BAHA’U’LLAH 



 

417 


 

of Association of the National Spiritual Assembly and such other persons as shall be elected Members in place of any one or more of 

them in accordance with Articles 

36, 39 

and 42 shall be Members until the next election of Members at the Annual Meeting and 

Convention.  

52. 

For the purpose of registration the number of Members shall be taken to be nine.  



53. 

The common seal shall be deposited at the registered office.  

NAMES, ADDRESSES AND DESCRIPTIONS  

OF SUBSCRSBERS  

GRACE CHALLIS, “Rizwan,” Broadstone, Dorset, Nursing Sister.  

Witness :—WINIFRED WADE, “Rizwan,” Broadstone, Dorset, Nurse.  

K. V. 

BROWN, 

14, Frognal Mansions, N.W.3, Widow.  

Witness 

:—MARJORIE CLAYTON, 

14, Chelsea Gardens, S.W. 1, Teacher.  



ALFRED SUGAR, 

39, Dover Street, Manches ter 

 

8, Clothing Designer, Retired.  



Witness 

:—JOHN 

B. SUGAR, 39, Dover Street,  

Manchester, 8, Warehouseman.  

CONSTANCE LANGDON-DAVIE5, 6, Huxham’s Cross, Dartington, Totnes, Independent.  

MARGUERITE WELLEY, 1 24a, St. John’s Wood High Street, N.W. 8, Private Secretary.  

H. M. BALYUZI, 14, Frognal Mansions, Frognal, N.W. 3, Research Student.  

DAVID HOFMAN, 34n, Elvaston Place, S.W.7,  

B.B.C. Announcer.  

Witness to the above four signatures:—  

T. W. DRURY, 720, Salisbury House, London Wall, E.C.2, Solicitor.  



ARTHUR 

NORTON, 41, Cranbourne Rd., Bradford, Company Director.  

F. P. WILKINSON, 20, Southey Place, Bradford, Glass Merchant.  

Witness to above two signatures :—D0R- 



OTHY SMITH, 

34, Gwynne Avenue, Bradford Moor, Bradford, Clerk.  

Dated the 2nd day of August, 1939. 

 

418 



THE BAHA’ WORLD  

THE COMPANIES ACT, 1929.  

+  

An Unlimited Company without a Share  

Capital  

THE NATIONAL SPIRITUAL  

ASSEMBLY OF THE BAHA’ 

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OF THE BRITISH ISLES.  

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søciafinu.  

J. HAMPSON Fo, 720, Salisbury House,  

London Wall, E.C.2. 

 

THE WORLD ORDER OF BAHA’U’LLAH 



 

419 


 

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Certificate of Incorporation of the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahã’is of 

Australia and New Zealand.  

420 

 

THE BAHA’I WORLD 



 

BY-LAWS OF THE SPIRITUAL ASSEMBLY OF THE BAHA’tS OF THE CITY  

OF NEW YORK1  

ARTICLE 

I  


The Bahã’is of the City of New York adopt this Corporation in order to supply proper legal status to the conduct of the affairs of a 

religious community which has had continuous existence for more than thirty years, being one of the first two local Bahá’i 

communities established in North America. During this period the community has been recognized, encouraged and instructed in 

letters and communications addressed to it by ‘Abdu’l-Baha, who in one communication designated New York “The City of the 

Covenant.” It was in this city that ‘Abdu’l-Bahá devoted the larger portion of His American visit in 

1912. 


The 

Assembly has been 

recognized since the Ascension of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá in letters addressed to it by the Guardian of the Bahá’i Faith. The New York Bahá’i 

community has been continuously and uninterruptedly represented by delegates in the Annual Meetings held by the recognized 

national Bahã’i body of North America since the formation of that body in 1909. The Spiritual Assembly is at present enrolled in the 

list of Local Spiritual Assemblies recognized by the National Spiritual Assembly.  

The Trustees, 

i.e., 

the Spiritual Assembly, recognized that this action has been taken in full unanimity and agreement. They 

acknowledge for themselves and on behalf of their successors the sacred meaning and universal purpose of the Bahá’i Faith, the 

teachings and principles of which fulfill the Divine promise of all former revealed religions.  



ARTICLE 

II  


In administering the affairs of the Bahá’i Religion under this Corporation for the benefit of the Bahá’is of the City of New York in 

accordance with the religious teachings and administrative principles of this Faith, the Spiritual Assembly shall act in conformity with 

the functions of a Local Spiritual Assembly as defined in the By-Laws adopted by the National Spiritual Assembly and published by 

that body for the informa tio 

 

and guidance of Bahá’is throughout the United States and Canada.  



ARTICLE 

III  


The Spiritual Assembly, in the fulfillment of its obligations and responsibilities under this Corporation, shall have exclusive 

jurisdiction and authority over all the local activities and affairs of the Bahá’i community of the City of New York, including 

paramount authority in the administration of this Corporation. It shall be responsible for maintaining the integrity and accuracy of all 

Bahá’i teaching, whether written or oral, undertaken throughout the local community. It shall make available the published literature 



of the Faith. It shall represent the community in its relation to the National Spiritual Assembly, in its relation to the Guardian of the 

Bahá’i Faith, to other local Bahá’l communities, and to the general public in the City of New York. It shall be charged with the 

recognition of all applicants requesting membership in the local Bahá’i community. It shall pass upon the right of any and all members 

of the community whose membership is in question to retain their status as voting members of the community. It shall call the 

meetings of the community, including the Bahá’i Anniversaries and Feasts, the meetings of consultation, the Annual Meeting and the 

meeting for the election of delegates to the Annual Meeting of the National Spiritual Assembly. It shall appoint and supervise all 

committees of the Bahá’i community. It shall collect and disburse all funds intended for the maintenance of this Corporation. It shall 

have full and complete custody of the headquarters or meeting place of the Bahá’i community. It shall report to the National Spiritual 

Assembly annually, or when requested, the membership roll of the Bahá’i community, for the information and approval of the national 

Bahá’i body. The Spiritual Assembly, however, shall recognize 

 

The pattern for all local Bahá’i constitudons. 

 

THE WORLD ORDER OF BAHA’U’LLAH 



 

421 


 

the authority and right of the National Spiritual Assembly to declare at any time what activities and affairs of the Bahá’i community of 

the City of New York are national in scope and hence subject to the jurisdiction of the national Bahá’i body. It shall likewise 

recognize the right of any member of the community to appeal to the National Spiritual Assembly for review and decision of any 

matter in which the previous decision of the local Spiritual Assembly is felt by the member to be contrary to the explicit teachings of 

the Bahã’i Faith or opposed to its best interests. It shall, on the other hand, have the authority and right to appeal from the decision of 

the National Assembly to the Guardian of the Bahá’i Faith for review and final decision of any matter related to the Faith in the City 

of New York.  

ARTXCLE IV  

The Spiritual Assembly, in administering this Corporation, shall ever bear in mind the ideals upheld in the Sacred Writings of the 

Bahá’i Faith respecting the relationships of a Spiritual Assembly to its Bahá’i community, respecting the relations of Bahá’is to one 

another in the community, and the relationships of Bahá’is to all non-Bahá’is, without prejudice of race, creed, class or nationality. 

The Assembly shall therefore above all recognize its sacred duty to maintain full and complete unity throughout the Bahá’i 

community, to relieve and comfort the sick and distressed, to assist the poor and destitute, to protect the orphans, the crippled and the 

aged, to educate the children of Bahá’is according to the highest religious and intellectual standards, to compose differences and 

disagreements among members of the community, to promulgate the principles of Divine Civilization revealed by Bahá’u’lláh, and to 

promote in every way possible the Bahá’i aim of the oneness of mankind. It shall faithfully and devotedly uphold the general Bahá’i 

activities and affairs initiated and sustained by the National Spiritual Assembly. It shall cooperate wholeheartedly with other local 

Spiritual Assemblies throughout North America in all matters declared by the National Spiritual Assembly to be of general 

 

Bahá’i importance and concern. It shall rigorously abstain from any action or influence, direct or indirect, that savors of 



intervention on the part of a Bahá’i body in matters of public politics and civil jurisdiction. It shall encourage 

intercourse between the Bahi’i community of the City of New York and other recognized BahI’i communities, issuing 

letters of introduction to Bahá’is traveling from New York and passing upon letters of introduction issued by other 

Bahá’i Assemblies. It shall regard its authority as a means of rendering service to Bahã’is and non-Bahã’is and not as a 

source of arbitrary power. While retaining the sacred right of final decision in all matters pertaining to the Bahá’i 

community, the Spiritual Assembly shall ever seek the advice and consultation of all members of the community, keep 

the community informed of all its affairs, and invite full and free discussion on the part of the community of all matters 

affecting the Faith.  

ARTJCLE V  

The Bahá’is of the City of New York, for whose benefit this Corporation has been established, shall consist of all 

persons resident in the City of New York who are recognized by the Spiritual Assembly as having fulfilled the 

requirements of voting membership in this local Bahá’i community. To become a voting member of this Bahá’i 

community a person shall:  

a. Be a resident of the City of New York as defined by the area of jurisdiction of the Spiritual Assembly, as provided 

hereinafter in this instrument.  

b. 

Have attained the age of 21 years.  



c. Have established to the satisfaction of the Spiritual Assembly, subject to the approval of the National Spiritual 

Assembly, that he (or she) possesses the qualifications of Bahá’i Faith and practice required under the following 

standard: Full recognition of the Station of the Forerunner (the Báb), the Author (Bahi’u’lláh), and ‘Abdu’lBahá, the 

Exemplar of the Bahá’i religion; unreserved acceptance of, and submission to, whatsoever has been revealed by Them; 

loyal and steadfast adherence to every clause of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá’s sacred ‘Will and Testament; and close association with 

the spirit as 

 

422 


 

THE BAHA’I WORLD 

 


well as the form of Bahá’i administration throughout the world.  

ARTICLE 

VI  


The Spiritual Assembly shall consist of nine Trustees chosen from among the Bahá’is of the City of New York, who shall be elected 

by these Bahá’is in a manner hereinafter provided and who shall continue in office for the period of one year, or until their successors 

shall be elected.  

ARTICLE 

VII  


The officers of the Spiritual Assembly shall consist of a Chairman, Vice-Chairman, Secretary and Treasurer, and such other officers as 

may be found necessary for the proper conduct of its affairs. The officers shall be elected by a majority vote of the entire membership 

of the Assembly taken by secret ballot.  

ARTICLE 

VIII  


The first meeting of a newly-elected Assembly shall be called by the member elected to membership by the highest number of votes, 

or, in case two or more members have received the same said highest number of votes, then by the member selected by lot from 

among those members; and this member shall preside until the permanent Chairman shall be chosen. All subsequent meetings shall be 

called by the Secretary of the Assembly at the request of the Chairman, or, in his absence or incapacity, of the Vice- Chairman, or of 

any three members of the Assembly; provided however that the Annual Meeting of the Assembly shall be held on April 2 1st, in 

accordance with the administrative principles recognized by all Bahá’i Assemblies.  



Section 1. 

Five members of the Assembly present at a meeting shall constitute a quorum, and a majority vote of those present and 

constituting a quorum shall be sufficient for the conduct of business, except as otherwise provided in these By-Laws, and with due 

regard to the principles of unity and cordial fellowship involved in the institution of a Spiritual Assembly. The transactions and 

decisions of the Assembly shall be recorded at each meeting by the Secretary, who shall have the minutes adopted 

 

and approved by the Assembly, and preserve them in the official records of the Assembly.  



Section 2. 

Vacancies in the membership of the Spiritual Assembly shall be filled by election at a special meeting of the local Bahã’i 

community duly called for that purpose by the Assembly. In the event that the number of vacancies exceeds four, making a quorum of 

the Spiritual Assembly impossible, the election shall be under the supervision of the National Spiritual Assembly.  



ARTICLE 

IX  


The sphere of jurisdiction of the Spiritual Assembly, with respect to residential qualification of membership, and voting rights of a 

believer in the Bahá’i community, shall be the locality included within the civil hmits of the City of New York, but Bahá’is, who 

reside in adjacent, outlying or suburban districts and can regularly attend the meetings of the local Bahá’i community, may be enrolled 

on the membership list of the Spiritual Assembly and enjoy full voting rights pending the establishment of a local Spiritual Assembly 

in their home community.  

ARTICLE 

X  


Section 1. 

In the event that any decision of the Assembly is unacceptable to any member or members of the community, the 

Assembly shall after endeavoring to compose the differences of opinion invite the said member or members to make appeal to the 

national Bahá’i body and notify that body of the condition of the matter and the readiness of the Assembly to become party to the 

appeal.  

Section 2. 

In the same manner, if any difference arises between the Assembly and another local Assembly, or Assemblies, in North 

America, the Assembly shall report the matter to the national Bahá’i body and inform that body of its readiness to make joint appeal 

together with the other Assembly or Assemblies.  



Section 3. 

If, however, the result of such appeal is unsatisfactory to the Spiritual Assembly or the Assembly at any time has reason to 

believe that actions of the National Spiritual Assembly are affecting adversely the welfare and unity of the Bahá’i community of the 

City of New York, it shall, after seeking to compose its difference of 

 

THE WORLD ORDER OF BAHA’U’LLAH 

 

423 

 

opinion with the national body in direct consultation, have the right to make appeal to the Guardian of the Faith.  



Section 

4. The Assembly shall likewise have the right to make complaint to the National Spiritual Assembly in the event that matters 

of local Bahã’i concern and influence are referred to the national body by a member or members of the local community without 

previous opportunity for action by the local Assembly.  



ARTICLE 

XI  

The Annual Meeting of the Corporation at which its Trustees shall be elected shall be held on April 21 at an hour and place to be fixed 

by the Assembly, which shall give not less than fifteen days’ notice of the meeting to all members of the local Bahá’i community.  

Section 1. 

The Assembly shall accept those votes transmitted to the Assembly before the election by members who by reason of 

sickness or other unavoidable reason are unable to be present at the election in person.  

Section 2. 

The election of members to the Spiritual Assembly shall be by plurality vote.  



Section 3. 

All voting members of the local Bahá’i community are eligible for election as members of the Spiritual Assembly.  



Section 4. 

The Assembly shall prepare an agenda for the Annual Meeting in which shall be included reports of the activities of the 

Assembly since its election, a financial statement showing all income and expenditure of its fund, reports of its committees and 

presentation of any other matters pertaining to the affairs of the Bahã’i community. The Assembly, both preceding and following the 

annual election, shall invite discussion and welcome suggestions from the community, in order that its plans may reflect the 

community mind and heart.  



Section 

1. The result of the election shall be reported by the Spiritual Assembly to the National Assembly.  



ARTICLE 

XII  


In addition to the Annual Meeting, the Assembly shall arrange for regular meetings of the Bahã’i community throughout the year at 

intervals of nineteen days, in ac cordanc 

 

with the calendar incorporated in the teachings of the Bahá’i Faith.  



ARTICLE 

XIII  


The Spiritual Assembly, on notice from the National Spiritual Assembly, shall report the number of voting members in the local 

community, that the national Bahâ’i body may be duly informed of the number of delegates to be assigned to the Bahâ’i community of 

the City of New York in accordance with the principle of proportionate representation controlling the annual election of members to 

the National Spiritual Assembly.  



Section 1. 

When informed of the number of delegates assigned to the local community, the Spiritual Assembly shall call a special 

meeting of the community for the purpose of electing said number of delegates to represent the community at the Annual Meeting of 

the National Spiritual Assembly.  



Section 

2. The election of delegates to the Annual Meeting of the National Spiritual Assembly shall be by plurality vote.  



Section 3. 

All voting members of the local Bahá’i community are eligible for election as delegates to the Annual Meeting of the 

National Assembly.  

Section 4. 

The result of the election shall be reported by the Spiritual Assembly to the National Spiritual Assembly, and the Spiritual 

Assembly shall meet all the conditions laid down by the national Bahá’i body for the recognition of local Spiritual Assemblies and the 

participation of local Bahâ’i communities in the annual election of the national Bahâ’i body.  



ARTICLE 

XIV  


The seal of this Corporation shall be circular in form, bearing the following description: The Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá’is of the 

City of New York, Corporate Seal.  



ARTICLE 

XV  


These By-Laws may be amended by majority vote of the Spiritual Assembly at any of its regular or special meetings, provided that at 

least fourteen days prior to the date fixed for the said meeting a copy of the proposed amendment or amendments is mailed to each 

member of the Assembly by the Secretary. 

 

424 

 

THE BAHA’I WORLD 

 

Iiuwuj flhlrpf, The 



rent Seal of the State is euccto affixed.  

wcu 000 


cnozuan 

 

UNITED STPrES QF AMERICA 



STAlE OF NEW YOkK  

BY  

EDWARD 

J. 

FLYNN 


 

Secretary of 

State 


and Custodian of the Great Seal tflsereoj, 

 

t bi 1,rfb 

rWb, 

ThaIisgi  

Clerk 


of the County said State, and Clerk of the 5reme Court therein being a 

Court 


of Record, an the day of the date of the annexed  

and duh authøritd to grant the same; that tht same is in due form and exe d by the proper officer; that the seal affixed to said 

certificate ic the seal of said County Court; that the ngnature thereto of said deck is m his proper handwriting, and it  

and that full faith and credit may and ought to be given to his official arts. 

 

I  



my hand at the 

Ii4 

of 

Aban9 

,4 floceb 

 

hundred nd ti 



 

Certificate of Incorporation of the Spiritual Assembly of the Bahã’is of New York. 

 


 

 

pict96.jpg



 

THE WORLD ORDER OF BAHA’U’LLAH 

 

Certificate 



 

)? 7220 H 

 

STATE OF NEW YORK  



99.  

COUNTY OF NEW.YORK 

 

I, ALBERT MARINELLI, Clerk of the County of New York and also Clerk of the Supreme Court in and for said county,  



DO HEREBY CERTIFY, that I have compared the within photographic copy  

the original 

 

and I do further certify, that such photographic copy it a correct transcript of such record and of the whole of said original.  



In WITNESS WHEREOF, I have hereunto set my hand a5d  

the seal oØ,id court yfd county at 9re City of New York, this  

day of Et....1’ 

.. 


993G. 

 

Clerk of the Counts of New York cud Clerk of the Supreme Court. 

 


The fee charged for tjils Copy was 

Cooosy Clerk. 

 

425 


 

:z. 

 



 

 

pict97.jpg



 

426 THE BAHA’I WORLD  

CERTIFICATE OF INCORPORATION  

THE SPIRITUAL ASSEMBLY OF THE BABA’ IS  

OF THE CITY OF MEL YORK  

Pursuant to Section 193 of the Religious  

Corporation Law of the State of New York  

We, the undersigned, an being of full age, and citizens of the United States, and residents of the State of New York, 

desiring to form a corporation pursuant to Section 193 of the Religious Corporation Law of the State of New York, do 

hereby make, sign, and acknowledge this certificate as follows:  

FIRST: The purpose end objects for which the corporation is formed are to administer the affairs of the Beta’ i Religion 

for the benefit of the Bats’ is of the City of New York in accordance with the religious teachings and administrative 

principles of this Faith.  

SECOND: The name of the corporation is to be “The Spiritual Assembly of the Baha’is of the City of 

New York.”  

THIRD: The territory in which its activities 

are principally to be conducte( is New 

York City and vicinity.  

FOURTH: The prmncipal place of worship is to be located in the City of New York, 

County of New York, State of New York.  

FIFTH: The number of trustees is to be nine.  

SIXTH: The nemes and places of residence of the persons to be trustees  

until the first annual meeting are as follows:  

PLACE OF RESIDENCE  

Ophelia Crust 

101 West 55th Street, New York City  

Horace Hoiley 125 East 10th Street, New York City  

Bertha Herklotz 1810 Cortelyou Road, Brooklyn, N.Y.  

Hooper Harris 162 West 13th Street, New York City  

Julia Threlkeld 

101 West 55th Street, New York City  

.Lotlie A. Mathews 430 East 57th Street, New York City  

Marie B. Moore 41 Convent Avenue, New York City  

Marion Little 465 Park Avenue, New “ork Citj  

Edward B. Kinney 204 

West 55th Street, New York City  

SEVENTH: The time for holding its annual meeting is to be on the twenty—first day of April in each year. 

 

THE WORLD ORDER OF BAHA’U’LLAH 427  



The first meeting 

was 


held on 

March 


30,1952, 

at 


Baha’i Center, 

il9 West 57th Street, New York City.  

IN WITNESS WEEREOF, We have 

made, signed 

and acknowledged this 

certificate iii 

triplicate. 

Dated 


this thirty—first day of March,1932. 

 

Before me on this thirty—first day of March,l932, personally appeared Horace Holley, 



Ophe1i Crum, 

and 


Bertha Herklotz, who being by me 

severally 

sworn did acknowledge that they had executed the written 

certificate of  

COMMISSIONER OF DEEDS.  


NEW YORK CITY  

N0 York Co. CIek’. No, SO  

New Yo,k Co. Rgir’. No 20S4  

Comm..ion topi.o 

Feb 

2, 1934 

 

 



-&Q  

Presi ng Off ir 



7fl2L 

 



 

 

428 THE BAHA’ WORLD  



INC.  

4201  

CERTIFICALFORATION  

THE SPUITUAI. ASSEMBLY OF THE BAWlS  

OF TUE CITY OF NEW YORK  

FEE PAID 

$___________  



Date 

MAR31 1932  

County  

A.LNAOO è1OA M3N  

I31 A.LNflOD  

00 : Hd 

- - 


èJVN 61  

QOeJO33 


0391.d  

cRTIrIDpy ISSUED  

Fee p  

Count Clerk, N. ‘f. Co  

BY 

 

THE WORLD ORDER OF BAHA’U’LLAH 429  

NEW SOUTH WALES.  

t  


Te Companies 

Ai3  

SLtt 8)  

(d  

0) 


that the said Company s lzmed by 

gnte  


i)tB 

under my hand, at Sydtthy, this  

day of one thousand nine hundred  

and thzrty 

-  


L. 


E  

Certificate of Incorporation of the Spiritual Assembly of the Bahâ’is of the City of Sydney, Australia. 

 

No,283&5 

 

tu$t 


to Cj—  

(i) 


thi u 

or  



is mcorporotëd wider 

4se 


Companies 

Act, 


1936.  

(2) 


that the dqrc of jucorparation of the said Company is  

the day of 

ocn 


one thousand  

nine hundred and thirty 

 

 



 

pict98.jpg

 

430 


 

THE BAHA’I WORLD 

 

‘r- — 


 

The Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá’is of Vancouver, B. C. 

 



 



 

 

pict99.jpg



 

 

 



 

 

 

 



 

 

 



 

 

 



THE WORLD ORDER OF BAHA’U’LLAH 431  

o r:o 


ccccn 

q:copo±b:p ttp1ccw 

:  

SOCIETIES ACT  

2517 

P  


1  


Jrtffiratr uf JururpøratWn  

31 


1pribg 

trttfg 


that  

17TIII CORPORATION 0? TR13 SPIRITUAL ASLY 0? T A!A’IS OF TIlE 



cir or VANCouVER”  



ha this dde, betn incorporated a a Sociely under the Societies Act  

Th loiialy in whn.h the operatwns of the Society will be chiefly earned on 

Vaic ourer ProLince of British Columbia 



GlVENuridormy band ancSeaI pf Office at P.ctorki. &oviceof  

British Columbia thi —25t day  

of one thousand nine hund1ed  

and thty’ine.  

+ / 


44 

REQ COQPAN5 )i  

— 

 



Certificate of Incorporation of the Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá’is of the City of Vancouver. 

 

 



 

 


432 THE BAHA’! WORLD  



CLXVi 



J3T 

(2 Tb. S  



i  

a, te todersiwnea, hereby decinro that we  

4aire in inn a ecitty uflber toe ‘octettee hats, o’u tint:  



3-, 

The hsee of tbø Society shl1 be the 



Carp otdttn of the tirttiei Jsembjy of the inhS’isof 

The object of the insiety sai be to arniie  

tsr the effaty of L 

2n’t 

feith for tin benefit of ttieB 

5jg 

of the Cit1 at 



Vance tnt in aoc-rdaoce with  

rolt tone teaehtnre to tdttojetratiye ttceipini 

oftbisfoith,  

The aperatioi of the ooietyare to be chiefly  

earrtd onto the 

City 

of Vancouver, 



rv1oae 

of onitQfl  

Golacibta. 

-  


b TTLt this day 

:, 


:,i, it 

th City of Vancouver, in the brevina, of british Colnabje  



WW/d1 #WS- 

-  




4rta—4 i-adrf(  

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7.r 

St 

a. 



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fiIin&nr-feL fint-’  



oeo”hy reTttiy thot o duponote en$lnaJ 

- $- kcc 0  

n cootnoun juts boon flied with bla 



N.  

f’ol stu ott W ,SOCIeLIACt,. 1’10ct4  

iiitted thisn4y.dey 

oCt2L 

t_iS3_ 


%$ 

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tUtGtSTeAR Di 

CUMI ANROt 



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Mko 

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11 


(&eci  

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THE WORLD ORDER OF BAHA’U’LLAH 433 

-  


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Certificate of Incorporation of the Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá’is of Cincinnati, Ohio. 

 

 



 

 

 



 

434 THE BAHA’I WORLD 

 

I  


 



 

the Bahá’is of Cincinnati, Ohio. 

 

Members of the Spiritual Assembly of the Bahã’Is of San Francisco, California. 



 

 

 



 

 

 



/‘  

Statt Ø’4t’4Efornia  

-  

4,  


iepattmiuf of %tatt 

 

THE WORLD ORDER OF BAHA’U’LLAH 435 

 

PRANK CJORDAN SECRETARY Cr SYA5E 

 

I, FRANK C 

JORDAN, 

Secretary of State of the State 

of 

Qali/orola, do hereby certify that 1 have caref RifT compared the 

tranc rUst4 to which this certificate is attached, i-c i/h the record on file in ,iry office of which it urfrorts to be a copy, and that the 

same is a full, true and correct copy thereof.  

IN WITNESS WHEREOF, 



1 have hereunto set m-y hand anl have caused the Great Seal of the State of California 

to 

be affixed hereto  

5th 


aavor ‘ 

1Q3$. 

 


this. 

-- 


 

-- 


 

¶4. - 


 

Certificate of Incorporation of the Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá’is of San Francisco, California. 

 

 

 



 

436 

 

THE BAHA’i WORLD 



 

KNOW ALL 

WN 

BY THESE PRESENTS:  



That the nmbers of The Spiritual Assembly of the Bah1ia San Franc iaco, California, 

an 

unincorporated association, have day 

voluntarily associated ourselves tog.thir, for the purpos. of forming a corporation under the laws 

of 

the 


State of California.  

AND WE DO HEREBY CERTIFY  

First: That the nam• of this 

corporation 

is 


— 

CTHE SPIR ITTJAL ASSEMBLY OF THE BAHAS OF SAN 1RA C ISCO.  

The name of the existing unincorporated association which i. being incorporated is _NTh. Spiritual Assembly of the Bahaic of San 

Francisco.  

Second: That this corporation does not contemplate 

pecuniary 

gain or profit to the members thereof, and that the purpose. for 



which 

thL corporation is formed are the followings  

Sharing the ideals 

and assisting the efforts of our 



f.ilow 

Bahais to ectablish, uphold and promote th. spiritual, 

educational and humanitarian teachings of human 

brotherhood, 

radiant faith,  

•xalted character 

and 

selfless love revealed in the lives 

and 


Utterances 

of all the Prophets and 

e.aenger. of 

God, Founder, 



of 

the Wor].ds revealed religion. 

— 

and 


given renewed 

creative energy 

and 


universal application to the conditions of this ag. in the 

life 

and utterances of Bahüll&h 

— 

we declare 

the purposes and object. of this corooration to be i.e administer the affairs 



of 

the Faith of 

Bahhd11h for the ben.2Cit of the Bah. of the City and County of 

San Prancisco according to 

the 


principle, of Bahal affiliation and 

administration created 

end 

established by Bahiiil.h, defined aM 



explained by ..bthJ.—Bah, and amplified 

and applied by Shoghi 

Eff.ndj and 



his 

duly constituted successor and 

successors under the 

provisions 



of 

tue Will and Testament of 1Abdel-Bah. 

 

ART IES F INcQR’(1 T ION 



 

 



—1— 

 


 

 

 



THE WORLD ORDER OF BAHA’U’LLAH 437  

These purposes are to be 

r•aiized by means of 

devotional meetings; by public meetings and conferences of an 

educational. 

humanitarian and spiritual character; 

by the publication of books, megasinea 

and 


newspapers; 

by the construction of temples of uni— v.r.al worship and of other institutions 

and 

edifices for 



humanitarian 

service; by supervising, 

unifytng, promoting grid 

generally administering the activities 

of the 

3ahia 


of the City and 

County of 



san ?rancisco in the 

fulfilment 

of their religious 

offices, duties and ideals; and by any other means appropriate to these ends, 



or any of 

them.  


Other purposes and objects of this corration are;  

(a) 

The 

right to ntsr 

into, make, perform 

and carry 



out contracts of every sort 

and kind for the 

furtherance of the objects of this corporation with any person, 

firm. 


association, corporation, private, public or 

municipal or body politic, or 

iy 

state, territory 



or colony thereof, or 

any 


foreign 

government; 

and 

in this connection, 

and 


in 

all transactions under the 

powers 


and objects of this corporation, to 

do any 

and eli things which a co—partnership or 



natural person could do or exorcise, &nd 

which now or hereafter may be authorized 

by law.  

(b) To 

hold 


and be named as beneficiary under any 

trust 


establiabs I by law or 

otherwioe or under 

any will 



or other toatanntary 

inatrumant in connection with 

any 

gift, devise, or 

bequest in 



iieh a trust or 

trusts 


La or 

are 


established 

in 


any 



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