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i. 



as (e) in best  

1.. as (ee) in meet 

 

ft. as (oo) in moon 



 

The “1” added to the name of a town signifies ‘“belonging to.” means native of Shiráz. 

 

Thus, Shiraz’i 



 

NOTES ON THE PRONUNCIATION  

OF IRANIAN WORDS  

The emphasis in tránian words is more or less evenly distributed, each syllable being equally stressed as in French. For example, do 

not say 

Talzriz 

or Tabarsi; stay as long on one syllable as on the next: Tabriz; Ta- bar-si. (While there are many exceptions to this 

rule, it is the most generally correct method of treating the question of stress.)  

A frequent mistake is the failure to distinguish between broad and flat “a’s.” This differentiation makes the language especially 

musical and should be observed: in the word 

 

Afnán, for example, pronounce the first “a” as in mat, and the second syllable to rhyme with on. Americans are apt to 



pronounce short “a” plus “r” hke the verb form are; this is a mistake; “ar” should be pronounced as in the name of 

Harry—cf. Tarbiyat.  

The same differentiation should be observed in the case of long and short and long and short “u.” As the guide to the 


transliteration indicates, short “i” is like “e” in best, and long “1” like “ee” in meet; for example, Ibráhim is pronounced 

Eb-rá lb 

 

 

dh  



th 

 

e  



C  

 



.1 

 

 

 

zh 

 

.ch 


 

li 


 

.5 


 

r  


ci  

S  


sh 

 

a asin  



account  



asin  

arm 

 

u...as (o) in aw asin  



short mown 

 


 

 

pict250.jpg



 

NOTES ON PRONUNCIATION OF IRANIAN 

 

763 


 

heem; Islam is Ess-lahm. Short “u” being like 

cc0 

in short, and long being like “oo” in moon, the following would be pronounced: 



Quddüs—Qod-dooss; Bãrfurósh— Bár-fo-roosh.  

Pronounce “aw” to rhyme with oh, or mown; Naw-RsIz is No-Rooz.  

The following consonants may be pronounced like z: dh, z, z, d.  

The following consonants may be pronounced like ss: th, s, s.  

Zh 

is pronounced hke the in pleasure. Kh is pronounced like “ch” in Scotch 



loch 

or German 



nacht. 

Do not pronounce it as “k.” 

Westerners are as a rule incapable of pronouncing gh and “q”; a guttural French 

“r” 

will serve here; otherwise use hard “g” as in 

good.  

11 and h, approximately like the English aspirate “h,” should never be dropped. 



 

Tihrán is Teh-ron; madrisih is mad-res-seh; Mihráb is Meh-rob.  

In the case of double letters pronounce each separately: ‘Ab-bás.  

The character transliterated (‘) represents a pause; it is not unlike the initial sound made in pronouncing such a word as 

every. The word BahI’i is phonetically as follows:  

“a” as in account; 

“a” 

as in father; (‘), pause; “i” as ee in meet.  



The character transliterated (‘) may also be treated as a pause.  

N.B. As Iranian often indicates no vowel sounds and as its pronunciation differs in different localities throughout Iran 

and the Near East as well as among individuals in any given locality, a uniform system of transliteration such as the 

above, which is in use by Bahá’i communities all over the world, is indispensable to the student. 

 

Iv  

DEFINITIONS OF  

ORIENTAL TERMS USED IN  

BAHA’i LITERATURE 

 

‘Aba: Cloak or mantle.  



‘Abdu’l-Bahá: Servant of Rahâ.  

Adhán: Muslim call to prayer.  

Adib: literally “the learned.”  

Aghøn: literally “branches” Denotes sons and descendants of Bahâ’u’lláh.  

Afnán: literally “twigs.” Denotes the relations of the Bab.  


A.H.: “After Hijirah.” Date of Mubammad’s migration from Mecca to Medina, and basis of Muhammadan chronology.  

Akbar: “Greater.”  

‘Ama: literally “light cloud,” symbolizes the “First Invisible Substance.”  

Amin: literally “the trusted.”  

Amir: “Lord,” “prince,” “commander,” “governor.”  

Aqá: “Master.” Title given by Bahã’u’lláh to ‘Abdu’l-Bahá.  

A’am: “The greatest.”  

Báb: “Gate.” Title assumed by Mirzâ ‘All- Muhammad, after the declaration of His Mission in Shiráz in May, 1844 

A.D.  

Bãbi: Follower of the Bab.  



Badi’: literally “the wonderful.”  

Bahá: “Glory,” “splendor,” “light.” Title by which Bahá’u’llah (Mirzá Iusayn-’Ali) is designated.  

Bahá’i: Follower of Bahá’u’llah.  

Bahji: literally “delight.” Denotes that part of the Plain of ‘Akka where the Shrine and the Mansion of Bahá’u’llãh are 

situated.  

Bani-Hãshim: The family from which Muhammad descended.  

Baqiyyatu’llah: “Remnant of God”; title applied both to the Báb and to Bahá’u’lláh.  

Bayán: “Utterance,” “explanation.” Title given by the Bab to His Revelation, particularly to His Books. 

 

Big: Honorary title, lower title than Khãn.  



Bishárat: literally “Glad-tidings.” Title of one of the Tablets of Baha’u’lláh.  

Caravansarai: An inn for caravans.  

Dârüghih: “High constable.”  

Dawlih: “State,” “government.”  

“Endowed with constancy”; a title given to Prophets who revealed a book and instituted religious laws.  

Farmán: “Order,” “command,” “royal decree.”  

Farrash: “Footman,” “lictor,” “attendant.”  

Farrásh-Báshi: The head-farrash.  

Farsakh: Unit of measurement. Its length differs in different parts of the country according to the nature of the ground, 

the local interpretation of the term being the distance which a laden mule will walk in the hour, which varies from three 

to four miles. Arabicised from the Iranian “par- sang,” and is supposed to be derived from pieces of stone (sang) placed 

on the roadside.  

“Fourth Heaven”: One of the stages of the invisible Realm.  

“Guarded Tablet”: Denotes the Knowledge of God and of His Manifestation.  

Uáji: A Mubammadan who has performed the pilgrimage to Mecca.  

klaPratu’l-Quds: Baha’i Headquarters.  

Hijirah: literally “migration.” The basis of  

Mubammadan chronology. The date of  

Mubammad’s migration from Mecca to  

Medina.  

Hówdah: A htter carried by a camel, mule, horse or elephant for traveling purposes.  

Ii: “Clan.” 

 

764 


 

DEFINITIONS OF ORIENTAL TERMS 

 

765 

 

Imãm: Title of the twelve Shi’ih successors of Mubammad. Also applied to Muslim religious leaders.  



Imám-Jum’ih: The leading imám in a town or city; chief of the mullás.  

Imám-Zádih: Descendants of an imãm or his shrine.  

fqan: literally “Certitude.” The title of Bahã’u’lláh’s epistle to the uncle of the Mb.  

Ishráqát: literally “effulgences.” Title of one of the Tablets of Bahá’u’lláh.  

Isráf 11: The Angel whose function is to sound the trumpet on the Day of Judgment.  

Jãhiliyyih: The dark age of ignorance among the Arabs before the appearance of Muhammad.  

Jamãl-i-Mubárak: literally “the Blessed Beauty,” applied by certain Bahá’is to Bahã’u’lláh.  

Jamãl-i-Qidam: literally “the ancient Beauty.” Applied by certain Bahá’is to Bahá’u’lláh.  

Jubbih: An outer coat.  

Ka’bih: Ancient shrine at Mecca. Now recognized as the most holy shrine of Islam.  

Kabir: literally “great.”  


Kar-Khudá: Chief of a ward or parish in a town; head-man of a village.  

Kalantar: “Mayor.”  

Kalim: “One who discourses.”  

Kalimãt: literally “words.” Title of one of the Tablets of Bahá’u’lláh.  

Karbilá’i: A Mubammadan who has performed the pilgrimage to Karbilá.  

Kawthar: A river in Paradise, whence all the other rivers derive their source.  

Khán: “Prince,” “lord,” “nobleman,” “chieftain.”  

Kitáb-i-Aqdas: literally “The Most Holy Book.” Title of Bahá’u’llãh’s Book of Laws.  

Kuláh: The Iranian lambskin hat worn by government employees and civilians.  

Madrisih: Religious college.  

Man-Yuzhiruhu’lláh: “He Whom God will make manifest.” The title given by the Mb to the promised One. 

 

Mashhadi: A Mubammadan who has performed the pilgrimage to Maslihad.  



Mashriqu’l-Adhkár: literally “the dawning place of the praise of God.” Title dèsignating Bahá’i House of Worship.  

Masjid: Mosque, temple, place of worship.  

Maydán: A subdivision of a farsakh. A square or open place.  

Mihdi: Title of the Manifestation expected by Islam.  

Mi5rab: The principal place in a mosque where the imám prays with his face turned towards Mecca.  

Mi’ráj: “Ascent,” used with reference to Muhammad’s ascension to heaven.  

Mirzá: A contraction of Amir-Zádih, meaning son of Amir. When affixed to a name it signifies prince; when prefixed simply Mr.  

Mishkin-Qalam: literally “the musk-scented pen.”  

Mu’adhdhin: The one who sounds the Adhán, the Mulsammadan call to prayer.  

Mujtahid: Mubammadan doctor-of-law. Most of the mujtahids of iran have received their diplomas from the most eminent jurists of 

Karbilá and Najaf.  

Mullá: Mubammadan priest.  

Mustagháth: “He Who is invoked.” The numerical value of which has been assigned by the Mb as the limit of the time fixed for the 

advent of the promised Manifestation.  

Nabil: “Learned,” “noble.”  

Naw-Rtz: “New Day.” Name applied to the Bahá’i New Year’s Day; according to the Iranian Calendar the day on which the sun 

enters Aries.  

Nuq;ih: “Point.”  

Pahlaván: “Athlete,” “champion”; term applied to brave and muscular men.  

Qádi: Judge; civil, criminal, and ecclesiastical.  

Qã’im: “He Who shall arise.” Title designating the promised One of Islam.  

Qalyán: A pipe for smoking through water.  

Qiblih: The direction to which people turn in prayer: especially Mecca, the Qiblih of all Mubammadans.  

Qurbmn: “Sacrifice.” 

 

766 


 

THE BAHA’! WORLD 

 

Ridván: The name of the custodian of Paradise. Bahá’u’lláh uses it to denote Paradise itself.  



Sadratu’l-Muntahá: the name of a tree planted by the Arabs in ancient times at the end of a road, to serve as a guide. As a symbol it 

denotes the Manifestation of God in His Day.  

Sáhibu’z-Zaman: “Lord of the Age”; one of the titles of the promised Qá’im.  

Salsabil: A fountain in Paradise.  

Samandar: literally “the phoenix.”  

Sarkár-i-Aqá: literally the “Hnbl Master,” apphed by certain Bahá’is to ‘Abdu’lBahá.  

“Seal of the Prophets”: One of the titles of Muhammad.  

“Seventh Sphere”: The highest stage of the invisible Realm. Denotes also the Manifestation of Bahá’u’llãh.  

Shahid: “Martyr.” Plural of martyr is Shuhadá.  

Shaykhu’l-Tslãm: Head of religious court, appointed to every large city by the Shah.  

Sirát: literally “bridge” or “path,” denotes the religion of God. 

 

Siyyid: Descendant of the Prophet Mu5am- mad.  



Sñrih: Name of the chapters of the Qur’án.  

Tajalliyãt: literally “splendors.” Title of one of the Tablets of Bahá’u’lláh.  

Tarazát: literally “ornaments.” Title of one of the Tablets of Bahá’u’lláh.  

Tümán: A sum of money equivalent to a dollar.  

‘Urvatu’l-Vuthqá: literally “the strongest handle,” symbolic of the Faith of God.  

Vali-’Ahd: “Heir to the throne.”  

Varaqiy-i-’Ulyã: literally “the most exalted Leaf,” applied to Bahiyyi}i Khánum, sister of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá.  

Varqá: literally “the dove.”  

Viláyat: guardianship.  


“White Path”: Symbolizes the Religion of God.  

Zãdih: “Son.”  

Zaynu’l-Muqarrabin: literally “the Ornament of the favored.” 

 

PART FOUR 



 

 

 


pict251.jpg

 

ARTICLES AND REVIEWS  

1.  

CONSTRUCTIVE RELIGION  

GEORGE TOWNSHEND 



 

THAT 


mankind should attain its majority, that history should be crowned by a Golden Age when a great spiritual 

Teacher would arise and found a universal religion that would flower in a universal civilization, is the common 

predication of the World Faiths from the beginning.  

The supreme prophets of mankind have appeared in lands separated by thousands of miles: in India and China and 

Palestine and Persia and Arabia and elsewhere. They have appeared in periods separated by thousands of years: 

Muhammad in 7th century A.D. described himself as the Seal of a prophetic line which is stated in the Bible to reach 

back to the beginning of the world. They gave revelations which differed widely in degree and in range. But all alike 

encouraged in mankind a forward looking attitude of hope and a belief in an informing destiny towards which all the 

movements of history were being directed by God.  

The witness of each to this consummation was independent and original. No one who studied the ancient record or 

tradition would conclude that Jesus gathered the idea from Buddha or Confucius, or Confucius from Zarathustra or 

from any other Prophet. Each evidently spoke out of his own immediate and certain knowledge, as if to him (being a 

Seer) Eternity had already unfolded in the present what time would unfold to others in the future. He gave his forecast 

from his own particular point of view and with his own particular emphasis. But it was always a prediction of one and 

the same historical event; and this consensus of foreknowledge forms one of the indications that all the Founders of the 

World Faiths shared 

 

a common purpose and were working towards a single end. However different their revelations, the religion they taught was 



fundamentally one, the law which they unfolded was one, the objective towards which they worked was one.  

The impression which this prophecy has made on the imagination of humanity has been deep and lasting. It has never wholly faded 

from men’s minds, and during recent decades it has been brought strongly back to the recollection of followers or students of many 

faiths, all the world over.  

A publication of the Confucian Association of New York in 1928 entitled “Confucianism for World Peace” includes the statement that 

“with a view to enlightening future generations Confucius wrote a most important book entitled ‘The Spring and Autumn’ which is 

now the foremost book of all Chinese Classics, dealing with international problems, codifying international laws and promoting 

permanent international peace.  

“Universal peace was the goal of Confucius. He divided the period of history mentioned in his book 

‘The Spring and Autumn’ 

into 


three stages, namely, the Stage of Disorder, the Advancement of Peace, and the Perfect Peace.  

“In the first stage, the Stage of Disorder, primitive civilization was being evolved out of chaos and the social mind was still very rude. 

. . 


In the second stage, the Advancement of Peace, there was a distinction between all civilized countries and those of the barbarians

the limit of civilization became broader and the friendship of nations closer. Those smaller nations could make their 

 

769 

 

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CONSTRUCTIVE RELIGION 



 

771 


 

voices heard. In the third stage, the Perfect Peace, there was no distinction at all. The barbarians became civilized and had the same 

standing as any other people in the family of nations. The whole world became one unit. Righteousness prevailed.”  

A High Priest of the Parsis, N. B. DhalIa, in a work called by the hopeful title “Our Perfecting World,” shows how modern progress 

has vindicated the philosophy of history set forth by Zarathustra long ages since. “We hope to show,” he writes, “that our universe is 

unfolding towards an aim and that the life of man imperfect in all its phases has throughout the period of human history been slowly 

but steadily progressing towards perfection through the inexorable laws of cooperation with good and conflict with evil, which is the 


message of hope Zarathustra brings to mankind.”  

Buddha gave to his Movement not more than a thousand years of creative effort; or even half that time; but we are told “that a Buddha 

named Metteyya should in the fullness of time arise is recorded in the Canon as a prophecy made by Gotama himself.” Commenting 

on this a leading authority writes:  

“When we watch the way in which Gotama Buddha and his followers met the errors and problems of their own day, recasting it may 

be a yet more ancient body of doctrine to cope with present needs, can we doubt that if a Metteyya Buddha arose here and now he 

would recast their Dhamma and instead of making converts to a Norm adapted to bygone conditions would evolve with travail of soul 

a gospel and a philosophy built out of the knowledge and needs of today?”  

The predictions contained in the Old Testament, in the Gospels, and in the Book of Revelation, with the still more specific particulars 

given by Muhammad in the Qur’an or attributed to him by tradition, have been kept prominently before the public in Christendom and 

in Islam for many years.  

It is certainly more easy for the modern citizen of the world to comprehend the principles and the reality of these prophecies than it 

was for men in former centuries. Long ago the faithful to whom this teaching was addressed accepted it wholeheartedly as 

 

true because it was revealed by the spokesman of God. It spread before them a noble ideal of God’s power and of man’s brotherliness, 



and they were spiritual enough to receive it with joy and to transmit it as a legacy of hope that would bring happiness to posterity. But 

they were in no position to visualize its full and literal accomplishment. They had no knowledge of the vastness of the earth and the 

number and variety of its inhabitants. They could not foresee how much mankind would have to learn before such a consummation 

became practicable. With such primitive means of locomotion and communication as were at their disposal they could scarcely 

imagine that a world-parliament or any form of world- administration would ever be made a working actuality.  

We now occupy a position very different indeed. We are the heirs of the ages. We have reached the apex of history. World conditions 

are ripe for the integration of a universal economy, and all the apparatus for the purpose is to our hand. The whole earth has been 

explored and its peoples brought into close touch with one another. International organizations of all sorts, including a League of 

Nations, have been created; and statesmen are busy on the task of promoting a further coordination of world-affairs.  

But though the material developments so long foretold have taken shape before our eyes at last, the hopeful heavenward attitude of 

soul which the Prophets sought to establish has not accompanied it. The simple faith with which the prophecy was received and 

transmitted is not in evidence now when the prophecy has been fulfilled. The world situation which has been continuously taking 

shape for many years has not at any point been approached as primarily a spiritual phenomenon. It has not been and is not today being 

studied from the spiritual point of view as the handiwork of a beneficent God, the normal climax of an historical process outlined for 

our instruction by spiritual men long ages ago. Men have not sought first to discover and to do God’s will nor have they asked before 

all else for guidance from His wisdom.  

Men’s unspiritual attitude in so grave a  

‘Mrs. Risys Davis, Buddhism. 

 

772 


 

THE BAHA’I WORLD 

 

crisis and their inability to identify the long heralded Event is indeed a strange phenomenon. It becomes more strange when it is 



remembered that Christ many times with earnest solicitation warned men against their being taken unawares by the advent of the Day 

of God and bade them, one and all, “Watch.” But however strange it be the fact remains that the nations have taken the crisis in hand 

as a many-sided but merely secular problem. They trusted to their own ability to rationalize life in a manner suitable to modern 

requirements. They were confident they could plan such structural changes as would meet all demands. Organized religion on its part 

took no initiative in developing group consciousness into world- consciousness. The united moral and spiritual support of mankind 

was not secured nor asked for in support of the young League of Nations. No effort was made to found a League of Religions; nor did 

any one of the world-faiths succeed in concentrating the spiritual energies of all its members on the promotion everywhere of harmony 

and goodwill. The task of unifying mankind and of building a world order was taken in hand by secularists, statesmen, scientists, 

economists. None acted as remembering that the New Age was to be a New Dispensation; that it was to have its particular Prophet, 

and that its outstanding distinction was not to be merely its material extent but principally its spiritual character.  

The world-imbroglio imperfectly understood and superficially analyzed refused to yield to the treatment given to it. Men could not 

discover what was their mistake. They were frustrated in every endeavor but they could not tell why. Persisting in their unspiritual 

frame of mind they could find no remedy for the ills of the time. At last they concluded that no remedy existed and resorted to 

measures of desperation.  

Yet the nature of the error that had been made and that was the one sufficient cause of all failures is written plain in the lessons of 

history. The precedents of former epochs show that to attempt to build a better world on a non-spiritual foundation is to challenge the 

counsels of experience. To discard the aid of religion in constructing a new civilization is to reject one of the mightiest in- 

 

struments of human progress. Down the ages, religion has proved itself a major influence in the integration and remodeling of the 



social order. The greatest civilizations have been based on the rock of religious faith. Each was inaugurated by the power of a spiritual 

teacher and is known to history by his name. Those who gave to humanity its religion are likewise the authors of its social progress 

and the inspirers of its culture. Many influences have strengthened men’s tendency to form themselves into larger and larger groups 

(to let the family or clan pass into the city, state or principality, and this again into the nation, and this into a commonwealth of 

nations), but no influence has been stronger than the sympathetic bond of a common faith. The records of the past indicate that it is 

easier for peoples to bridge differences of ancestry or culture or language than differences of belief. Social discontent may be held in 

check and the disruption of society prevented so long as men share the same faith; and no feature in the present European crisis is 

more sinister than the fact that for the first time in fifteen hundred years this common bond has been lost. Again and again in history 

religion has awakened in strange and alien peoples a sense of brotherhood and has brought diverse nations together into one and the 


same fold. It has shown itself to conduce to the healing of discords, the soothing of sedition and the preservation of discipline. It has 

been cherished by wise rulers; and the most cynical as well as the most enlightented have acknowledged its salutary influence.  

To lay aside the use of this vital constructive power and to undertake to handle such a crisis as the present without the aid of rehgion is 

to fly in the face of the experience and the wisdom of the past and to be guilty of an act which has the appearance of complete 

infatuation. For even if men postpone the creation of a comprehensive world order, the immediate and primary enterprise of uniting all 

nations for the effective prohibition of war will tax every human resource and faculty to the uttermost. Without the vigorous use of all 

moral and spiritual energies (as well as the merely intellectual 

 

energies) the task can in the nature of things 



 

CONSTRUCTIVE RELIGION 

 

773 

 

never be carried through. The stirring to new life of mankind’s higher susceptibilities and the re-awakening of compassion and 



goodwill in the human heart, constitute the essential need of the hour: and this can only be accomplished by such an immense 

religious impulse as was brought into the world in the early days of Islam or of Christianity.  

Whence will such a religion arise and in what direction shall men look for it? Will it grow of itself in the soil of men’s hearts— will it 

be invented—be pieced together out of the teaching of those ancient faiths that men have distorted to their own fancy and no longer 

obey?  

Would those great truths which have held the West in awe for 1900 years ever have availed but for the power of the Christ? Would the 



Four Noble Truths have had many students or the Eightfold Paths many followers but for the charm and the inspiration of the Buddha? 

Would the history of China from 700 B.C. have taken the shape it did and set long ago so illustrious an example to mankind but for 

the radiant force of Confucius himself? No spiritual mind would suppose that God who in times of darkness has hitherto sent to 

mankind His Light-bearers will desert humanity now. Nor that He will abandon His unvarying method of self-revelation. Nor that 

those mighty minds of old, those spokesmen of His Purpose, were mistaken when they foretold the development of such a World-Age 

as this and the Advent of a Master Spirit to teach and guide and lead the way.  

Historically a new revelation is not given nor a new religion established save through the mediation of a Great Soul who claims for 

himself the authority of a spokesman of Truth and becomes the overlord and directing genius of a Dispensation. If we are to trust the 

clear witness of the Past, the deepest needs of men today cannot be met nor this frustration ended save by the arising of such a Master 

Prophet to become the world center of a common devotion and the architect of a new world order. Not theories, nor precepts, nor 

plans will bring deliverance to man; but the inspiration of a Leader endued with such beauty of character that he will win the love of 

all human hearts and with 

 

such spiritual power that he can overcome the unruly wills of men and unite all in a common obedience.  



The supremacy of one who founded a Prophetic Era is a unique phenomenon worthy at all times of profound contemplation. But it 

never demands such earnest attention as in an hour like the present when the reappearance of a High Prophet affords the nations their 

only hope of deliverance and security.  

In its origin and its nature, in its geographical extent and its temporal duration, in the course of its proress and the manner of its 

exercise it is different from any other dominion shown forth in history. It is won by means wholly different from those resorted to by 

an earthly sovereign or conqueror; it is based upon a different foundation, is built throughout of different materials, and it attains a 

completeness and perfection which cannot even be distantly approached by the utmost rigor of legal restraint or of physical force. It is 

possessed of a unique vitality. Treachery cannot destroy it. It grows through opposition and it is re-animated through persecution. The 

energies which it manifests in governing the children of men and the responsive effort which it draws forth from them are alike 

unparalleled in human relations. In distant ages when travel and communication were difficult and hazardous the great world- faiths 

whether from India or Arabia, from Persia or from Palestine spread their influence far across desert and mountain and brought alien 

and widely separated nations and races into the fellowship of a single obedience. The domains of Christ and Muhammad reached out 

over a wider area than the victories of Alexander the Great or the imperial sway of Ancient Rome. Buddha holds to this day one-third 

of the human race in allegiance to him. Nor is it in extent only but in duration also that the sovereignty of the heavenly Teacher 

transcends that of the earthly conqueror; for the haughtiest mortal dynasty sinks eclipsed by the quiet power of a Ruler whose 

dominion counts its age by centuries and millenniums.  

So complete is this ascendency that it extends over both social and aesthetic life, touching to new activity, poetry and paint- 

 

774 



 

THE BAHA’i WORLD 

 

ing, sculpture and architecture, and remolding institutions, customs and laws. It penetrates the very heart and soul of 



man, transforming his mental outlook and his ideals, and exerts over him so strange a lordship that he pays the lowliest 

homage to its dictates and accepts as absolute its imperatives. Nor in this obedience does he find himself the least 

abased but rather exalted and empowered. For it is religion which inspires his love for beauty, goodness and truth and 

which is the main support of that principle of justice on which society depends for ordered existence.  

We see around us in every continent evidence of the enduring might of the Prophets of the distant past; and the remains 

of their creative work continues to this day, wonderful even in its age and decay. Throughout the West is spread that 



proud and opulent civilization which calls itself after the name of the lowly Teacher of Galilee. In Christ’s honor we 

build our shrines and from His simple words we derive our highest ideals of conduct; we live under the protection of 

institutions and a social system founded and maintained by the impulse of His revelation; and we are nurtured in a 

culture which owes whatever is best in it to the inspiration of His genius.  

By our side stands another civilization, sunk in decrepitude, which 1,300 years ago arose in an ohscure region among 

backward and savage tribes and spread rapidly across Africa and Asia, stretching from Spain to Tobolsk and Turkestan, 

uniting diverse peoples under the influence of a single belief and a single law, and establishing a brilliant intellectual 

culture to which the Christian West owes a debt that it is only now beginning in some degree to understand.  

Our Scriptures bear witness to the creative might of the Prophet whom the Lord Christ succeeded and tell of the glory 

of Moses who took an enslaved and dispirited people, delivered them from their bonds, started them on a career of 

conquest and welded them into a nation which created its own civilization, made a distinctive contribution to human 

progress and developed a sense of nationhood so vigorous that the misfortunes of two thousand years have not been 

able to impair it. And to this day the Hebrew 

 

people scattered throughout the globe count the law of Moses more sacred than any other and revere His name above 



every other name save God’s alone.  

We turn to India and see there how a great Revelation, or series of Revelations, coming down from a remote and 

mysterious Past, has built up a social system which after all these centuries remains in essentials unmodified as one of 

the most enduring fabrics that humanity has ever devised. The religion of India has produced unnumbered saints, sages, 

warriors and poets. The depth and beauty of its spiritual thought, the richness and the splendor of its achievement in art 

(in painting, in sculpture, in architecture and in literature) are still the admiration of the scholar and the inspiration of 

the mystic.  

The Mauryan Empire of the Buddhist king Asoka is claimed by historians to be the only instance on record in which a 

great nation sought to combine in one related system the development of political institutions and the realization of the 

spiritual life.  

In the time of Confucius ten of the leading nations of China held a conference for disarmament. More than two 

centuries before Christ they had so far realized their Prophet’s principles that the component states of their country 

resigned their independent sovereignty and formed themselves into a single governmental system. And so enduring was 

this pacific ideal that after more than 2,000 years when the Empire was superseded by a Republic the Emperor of China 

was the only national monarch who in his full dress carried no sword.  

Yet the beneficence of religion as shown in history is but a fragment of what it might have been had men ever in any 

land wholeheartedly obeyed the revealed will of God and by faithfully keeping the Covenant which the Prophet 

brought had they earned the prosperity and happiness which was promised by it. But they did not. No Advent has ever 

been acclaimed by a responsive and grateful generation. The sovereignty of all the Prophets throughout all 

Dispensations has been challenged, evaded or openly repudiated, and the religions they taught have been 

misunderstood, misrepresented, sophisticated and perverted out of recog 

 

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775 

 

nition. Every such act of disobedience has under the law of compensation entailed the forfeiture of some prospective 



benefit—of some deliverance from error or misery, of some social amelioration or advance in knowledge. The sum of 

all these forfeitures is now incalculable and unimaginable by man. But between the lines of human history is written by 

the finger of the Recording Angel the long sad catalogue of the blessings brought down from heaven by the Prophets to 

man but foregone through his remissness.  

At long last, the human race through the compassion of God and the merit of the Great Souls and true saints who have 

been the real leaders of mankind has reached the time of its maturity and been brought to the dawn of the promised Day 

of God. But how different might have been the history of mankind, how continuous and rapid their progress, how 

happy their lot had they followed with a single heart the teaching of their Prophets and used the constructive potencies 

of religion to the full.  

Somber indeed is the story of cruelty and oppression and war and misery through which man has made his slow and 

weary way to the height of his present attainment; and its sadness grows deeper when one perceives that the major part 

of all this toil and suffering was brought down on man by nothing else than his rejection of God’s Prophets and his 

rebellion against God’s Teachings.  

Never was there in the dark abyss of 

 

times gone by an epoch when the inspiration of a divine Messenger was more manifestly needed. Never at the advent of any 



Prophet—of Mubammad or Christ or Moses or any other—was the human race confronted with difficulties so manifold or dangers so 

terrible. Never was the futility of man’s efforts to attain security more disastrously demonstrated or more despairingly admitted.  

The blessed and opportune tidings which the Bahá’is offer to a world perplexed is that the predictions of all scriptures have now been 


fulfilled: the ultimate mission of all the great religions has been completed: the time has come under God for the establishment of a 

universal civilization inaugurated and sustained by a universal religion; and the Leader, the Messenger, the Prophet whom God has 

appointed to take command of men in this colossal task has appeared in the person of Bahá’u’lláh.  

“The Revelation which from time immemorial hath been acclaimed as the Purpose and Promise of all the Prophets of God and the 

most cherished Desire of His Messengers hath now by virtue of the pervasive will of the Almighty and at His irresistible bidding, been 

revealed unto men. 

. . . 

Great indeed is this Day! The allusions made to it in all the sacred scriptures as the Day of God attest its 



greatness. The soul of every Prophet of God, of every Divine Messenger, hath thirsted for this wondrous Day. All the divers kindreds 

of the earth have likewise yearned to attain it.”—BAHA’U’LLAH. 

 

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