The cuore experiment: a search for neutrinoless Double Beta Decay


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  • The CUORE experiment:
  • a search for
  • neutrinoless Double Beta Decay
  • Luca Gironi
  • on behalf of the CUORE collaboration
  • NEW TRENDS IN HIGH-ENERGY PHYSICS Alushta, Crimea September 3-10, 2011
  • Luca Gironi
  • Outline
  • Alushta – 6 September 2011
  • Neutrino mass
  • Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay
  • Experimental approach
    • the bolometric technique
  • Cuoricino
    • the detector
    • the background
    • the 130Te half life limit
  • CUORE
    • the detector
    • status
    • scientific goal
  • Conclusion
  • Neutrino oscillations and the neutrino mass
  • Neutrino oscillation experiments have convincingly established that neutrinos have mass
  • However, the absolute mass scale and the mass hierarchy are still not known
  • Luca Gironi
  • Alushta – 6 September 2011
  • Great interest for non-oscillation experiments able to study absolute neutrino mass scale and its nature:
    • β decay experiments
    • neutrinoless Double Beta Decay (0νDBD) experiments
    • cosmological observations
  • If neutrino has a nonzero rest mass, mass eigenstates (ν1, ν2, ν3) and weak interactions eigenstates (νe, νμ, ντ) do not necessarily have to coincide
  • The neutrino mass: cosmology, single and double beta decay
  • Luca Gironi
  • Alushta – 6 September 2011
  • In a standard three active neutrino scenario:
  • cosmology
  •  decay
  • 0νDBD
  • αi=Majorana phases
  • incoherent sum
  • real neutrino
  • coherent sum
  • virtual neutrino
  • Majorana phases
  • simple sum
  • pure kinematical effect
  • The three mass scale parameters can be plot as a function of the lightest neutrino mass.
  • Two bands appear in each plot, corresponding to inverted and direct hierarchy.
  • The two bands merge in the degenerate case (the only one presently probed).
  • m [eV]
  • [eV]
  • Strumia, F.Vissani
  • arXiv:hep-ph/0606054v3
  • m [eV]
  • Combine the informations
  • Luca Gironi
  • Alushta – 6 September 2011
  • Primary role of neutrinoless Double Beta Decay
  • Luca Gironi
  • Alushta – 6 September 2011
  • 2νDBD
  • 0νDBD
  • Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay (0νDBD):
    • Requires neutrino is a massive particle
    • Violates lepton number (ΔL=2), implies physics beyond Standard Model
    • Allows to investigate neutrino nature: Dirac or Majorana
  • 0νDBD and neutrino mass
  • Luca Gironi
  • Alushta – 6 September 2011
  • Possible for ~35 nuclei, only ~10 really interesting
  • Extremely rare process (T0ν1/2 > 1024 y): 0νDBD never observed (except a discussed claim in 76Ge)
  • T0ν1/2 is the 0νββ half-life
  • G0ν(Q,Z) is the 'accurately calculable' phase space factor proportional to (Q-value)5 
  • M0ν is the Nuclear Matrix Element (NME), which carries a theoretical uncertainty of a factor of ~2-3 depending on the nucleus
  • <mββ> is effective double-beta neutrino mass
  • 0νDBD: experimental approach
  • Luca Gironi
  • Alushta – 6 September 2011
  • 2νββ
  • 0νββ
  • ββ summed e− energy spectrum
  • Signature: Two simultaneous electrons with summed energy Qββ, the Q-value for ββ in the isotope under study
  • Experimentalists measure the decay rate looking at a peak in the energy spectrum
  • Detector Sensitivity (S): the process half-life corresponding to the maximum signal that could be detected
  • T : measurement live time [y]
  • M : detector mass [kg]
  • B : background [c/keV/kg/y]
  • Δ : energy resolution [keV]
  • Experimental approaches
  • To reach a high sensitivity:
  • Experiment
  • Isotope
  • Method
  • Resolution
  • (% at Qββ)
  • Efficiency
  • Background
  • (10-3 c/keV/kg/y)
  • Isotope Mass
  • (kg)
  • CUORE
  • 130Te
  • bolometric
  • 0.19
  • 0.9
  • 10-1
  • 206
  • EXO
  • 136Xe
  • liquid TPC
  • 3.3
  • 0.7
  • 1-0.5
  • 160
  • GERDA
  • 76Ge
  • ionization
  • 0.16
  • 0.8
  • 10-1
  • 15-35
  • KamLAND-Zen
  • 136Xe
  • scintillation
  • 9.5
  • 0.8
  • 0.5-0.1
  • 360-1000
  • NEXT
  • 136Xe
  • gas TPC
  • 0.7
  • 0.3
  • 0.2-0.06
  • 90-1000
  • SNO+
  • 150Nd
  • scintillation
  • 6.5
  • 0.5
  • 10-1
  • 50-500
  • SuperNEMO
  • 82Se
  • tracko-calo
  • 4.0
  • 0.3
  • 0.4-0.06
  • 7-100
  • Some of the under construction/funded experiments:
  • Other experiment: CANDLES, Majorana, COBRA, MOON, ...
  • J.J. Gómez-Cadenas et al JCAP06(2011)007
  • high efficiency
  • (source = detector)
  • large detector mass
  • (100-1000kg )
  • very low-background
  • (underground, shieldings, ...)
  • excellent energy resolution
  • high i.a. or enrichment possibility
  • Luca Gironi
  • Alushta – 6 September 2011
  • Experimental approaches: the bolometric technique
  • The bolometric technique offers several advantages:
    • Excellent energy resolution
    • Large source mass
    • High efficiency
    • Possibility to study all the 0νDBD isotope (cross checks)
  • Among the different techniques excellent results can be obtained if source=detector
  • Bolometric technique: the working principle
  • C = heat capacity
  • G = thermal conductance
  • Crystals, cooled to ~10 mK inside a dilution-refrigerator cryostat, have such small heat capacities that single particle interactions produce measurable rises in temperature.
  • Luca Gironi
  • Alushta – 6 September 2011
  • 130Te
  • High natural abundance (i.a. 130Te ~ 34%): no need for enrichment
  • Q-value at ~2528 keV is above the energy range of most naturally occurring γ rays
  • 130Te as 0νDBD candidate
  • Luca Gironi
  • Alushta – 6 September 2011
  • TeO2 crystals
  • favorable characteristics of these crystals if compared with Te:
  • higher Debye temperature
  • rather good mechanical properties and it is possible to grow large crystals
  • good intrinsic radiopurity (< 1 pg/g in 232Th and 238U)
  • Evolution of the bolometric technique
  • Cuoricino
  • CUORE
  • Cryogenic Undergound
  • Observatory for Rare Events
  • CUORE-0
  • 2003 - 2008
  • 2011 - 2014
  • 2014 - 2019
  • 11 kg 130Te
  • 11 kg 130Te
  • 206 kg 130Te
  • All are cryogenic bolometer experiments searching for 0νDBD decay in 130Te
  • Luca Gironi
  • Alushta – 6 September 2011
  • Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (LNGS), Italy
  • NE
  • Underground facility
  • Average depth ~ 3650 m.w.e.
  • Factor 106 reduction in muon flux to ~ 3×10—8 μ/(s·cm2)
  • LNGS underground facility
  • CUORE hut
  • Cuoricino/
  • CUORE-0 hut
  • Luca Gironi
  • Alushta – 6 September 2011
  • Cuoricino experiment
  • Luca Gironi
  • Alushta – 6 September 2011
  • CUORE predecessor
  • Operated March 2003 - May 2008
  • 62 TeO2 crystal bolometers:
    • 44 crystals 5x5x5 cm3, (790 g)
    • 18 crystals 3x3x6 cm3 (330 g)
      • 14 “natural” crystals
      • 2 enriched in 130Te (75%)
      • 2 enriched in 128Te (82%)
  • 40.7 kg TeO2  11.3 kg 130Te
  • Cuoricino energy spectrum
  • Degraded alpha energy tail
  • Gamma domain
  • Alpha domain
  • Luca Gironi
  • Alushta – 6 September 2011
  • Cuoricino single-hit background spectrum (black) and normalized 232Th calibration spectrum (red)
  • Anticoincidence cuts
  • 0νDBD decay should produce a single-site signal 85% of the time
  • Excluding multi-site events reduces background by ~ 15% in the region of interest
  • Surface α contamination
  • the main source of flat background in 3-4 MeV region due to degraded α particles
  • 60Co
  • 208Tl
  • Cuoricino single-hit background spectrum
  • 232Th calibration spectrum (normalized)
  • There are three main sources of background in the region of interest:
    • ~40% multi-Compton events from 2615 keV γ peak of 208Tl
    • ~ 50% degraded alphas from 238U and 232Th on copper surfaces
    • ~ 10% degraded alphas from 238U and 232Th on crystal surfaces
  • 214Bi
  • Cuoricino backgrounds
  • Luca Gironi
  • Alushta – 6 September 2011
  • Average energy resolution (FWHM):
  • Background:
  • 130Te half-life limit:
  • Effective neutrino mass limit:
  • 6.3±2.5 keV at Q-value in big crystals
  • 0.169 ± 0.006 counts/keV/kg/y
  • > 2.8 × 1024 y (90% C.L.)
  • mββ < 300-710 meV
  • Total statistics
  • 19.75 kg·yr 130Te exposure
  • 130Te 0νDBD
  • Cuoricino results
  • Luca Gironi
  • Alushta – 6 September 2011
  • uncertainty due to N.M.E.
  • CUORE-0
  • Luca Gironi
  • Alushta – 6 September 2011
  • Single CUORE-like tower
  • (52 Te02 crystals chosen from CUORE crystals)
  • test of CUORE assembly and cleaning procedures
    • deliver information about backgrounds
    • sensitive 0νDBD experiment
    • same assembly procedures as CUORE
    • same cleaning procedure as CUORE
    • very similar copper frames and Teflon holder
  • Operated in refurbished Cuoricino cryostat
    • different suspension than CUORE
    • different shielding
  • CUORE-0 tower construction will start Oct. 2011
  • Data taking starts within 2011
  • CUORE
  • Luca Gironi
  • Alushta – 6 September 2011
  • Closely packed array of 988 TeO2 crystals (5x5x5 cm3  750 g)
  • - 19 towers
    • -13 planes each
      • - 4 crystals each
  • Cleaner crystals
  • Higher granularity (reduction alpha background due to crystal surface thanks to anticoincidence)
  • Cleaner copper and less per kg TeO2
  • Cleaner assembly environment
  • Copper frames less vibration-sensitive
  • Better self-shielding
  • CUORE detector improvements
  • 741 kg TeO2 granular calorimeter
  • 206 kg of 130Te
  • Cryogen-free: better duty cycle
  • Detector suspension independent of refrigerator apparatus
  • Stringent radiopurity controls on materials and assembly
  • CUORE
  • Luca Gironi
  • Alushta – 6 September 2011
  • CUORE cryostat improvements
  • CUORE shieldings improvements
  • Minimum lead thickess ≈ 36 cm (in Cuoricino ≈22 cm)
    • 6 cm thick lead shield operated at ~10 mK surround the array
    • 30 cm of low activity lead will be used to shield from the dilution unit and from the environmental radioactivity
  • Neutron shielding: 18 cm thick polyethylene + 2 cm of H3BO3 powder
  • CUORE
  • Luca Gironi
  • Alushta – 6 September 2011
  • CUORE crystals
  • The production started at SICCAS Jiading in 2008
    • ~ 30 crystals/month
    • ~ 700 crystals already at LNGS
  • CUORE Crystal Validation Run – CCVR: a dedicated cryogenic setup to test crystals randomly chosen
  • 7 CCVR already performed:
    • the bulk activity is within the limit specified in the contract with the crystals producer
    • improved the Cuoricino bolometric performance
      • FWHM on the internal alphas from 210Po (5407 keV) = 5.2 keV on average
      • lowered the energy thresholds thanks to a new trigger algorithm
      • - a better understanding of the background
      • - possibility to study Dark Matter spin independent interaction with CUORE
  • 2008:
  • Hut construction
  • Crystal production
  • 2009–2010:
  • Crystal production
  • Engineering/design/fabrication
  • 2011:
  • Crystal production
  • Clean room commissioning
  • CUORE-0
  • 2012–2013:
  • CUORE detector assembly
  • CUORE cryogenics
  • CUORE electronics & DAQ
  • 2014: Data taking!
  • CUORE schedule
  • Luca Gironi
  • Alushta – 6 September 2011
  • Crystal handling robot
  • Tower garage
  • Bonding tests
  • Gluing tests
  • CUORE hut
  • CUORE scientific goal
  • Luca Gironi
  • Alushta – 6 September 2011
  • In 5 years of live time, with the foreseen aim of 0.01 c/keV/kg/y
  • CUORE has a 1σ sensitivity of
  • Conclusions
  • 0νDBD plays a primary role in the study of neutrino nature, in the study absolute neutrino mass scale and has a special relevance for testing the physics beyond the standard model
  • Te02 bolometers proved to be a competitive tool for the DBD search
  • Cuoricino has provided the most stringent limits on 0νDBD of 130Te and showed that an experiment like CUORE is feasible
  • CUORE-0 will be the first test of a CUORE-like tower from the assembly to data taking and a competitive experiment itself
  • CUORE data taking is foreseen for 2014
  • Luca Gironi
  • Alushta – 6 September 2011
  • Conclusions
  • Thank you for the attention!
  • Luca Gironi
  • Alushta – 6 September 2011
  • Fine
  • Backup slides
  • 130Te half-life limit (90% C.L.):
  • T0ν1/2>2.8 x 1024 y
  • Effective neutrino mass limit:
  • mββ < 300÷710 meV
  • NME bibliography:
  • J. Barea et al., Phys. Rev. C 79, 044301 (2009)
  • F. Simkovic et al., Phys. Rev. C 77, 045503 (2008)
  • O. Civitarese et al., J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 173, 012012 (2009)
  • J. Menendez et al., Nucl. Phys. A 818, 139 (2009)
  • Nuclear Matrix Elements
  • Luca Gironi
  • Alushta – 6 September 2011
  • Luca Gironi
  • Alushta – 6 September 2011
  • Sense and sensitivity of double beta decay experiments
  • J.J. Gomez-Cadenas et al.
  • Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics
  • June 2011
  • 0νDBD experiments: comparison
  • Luca Gironi
  • Alushta – 6 September 2011
  • Sense and sensitivity of double beta decay experiments
  • J.J. Gomez-Cadenas et al.
  • Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics
  • June 2011
  • CUORE: Dark Matter
  • Luca Gironi
  • Alushta – 6 September 2011
  • 238U and 232Th alpha peaks
  • due to crystal surface contaminations
  • __ single hit events
  • __ double hit events
  • CUORICINO coincidence analysis
  • Luca Gironi
  • Alushta – 6 September 2011
  • 1st - clean room
  • 0th – cryostat equipment
  • 2nd - electronics
  • CUORE: the hut
  • Luca Gironi
  • Alushta – 6 September 2011
  • Crystal handling robot
  • Epoxy mixing/dispensing robot
  • Luca Gironi
  • Alushta – 6 September 2011
  • CUORE gluing station, garage and working plane
  • Universal Working Plane
  • Tower garage
  • Bonding tests
  • 4 companies to pour, work, and form low-rad copper into 6 vessels (+ flanges)
  • First 3 vessels (300K, 40K, 4K) are in process of being electron-beam welded
  • Delivery scheduled for Sep 2011
  • More delicate inner 3 vessels will be manufactured next year
  • CUORE status: the cryostat
  • Luca Gironi
  • Alushta – 6 September 2011
  • 10 plastic scintillators were arranged around cryostat during final 3 months of Cuoricino data taking
  • Searched for correlations between muon triggers and single-site events in bolometer array
  • Measured rate was consistent with zero in the 0νββ region of interest (R.O.I.), corresponding to an upper limit of:
  • Cuoricino background in R.O.I. is much higher:
  • E. Andreotti et al. (CUORICINO Collaboration), Astropart.Phys.34:18-24 (2010) [arXiv:nucl-ex/0912.3779].
  • 1.1 μ/hr/m2
  • Rμ < 0.0021 counts/keV/kg/y (95% C.L.)
  • RCuoricino ~ 0.2 counts/keV/kg/y
  • Cuoricino cosmic background study
  • Luca Gironi
  • Alushta – 6 September 2011
  • Pulse shape and anticoincidence cuts
  • Luca Gironi
  • Alushta – 6 September 2011
  • Pulse amplitude evaluation
    • Pulse amplitude is the paramount observable, because it’s proportional to the amount of energy deposited
    • Raw pulse is processed using so-called Optimum Filter (OF)
  • Gain stabilization
    • Bolometer gain is temperature-dependent, so...
    • Detector response varies with natural temperature drift
    • Gain is “stabilized” by plotting heater pulse amplitude vs. baseline and fitting a line to the points
  • Energy calibration
    • Need to convert the stabilized pulse amplitudes to energy
    • Thorium sources were lowered next to detector ~ once/month
  • Global and pulse shape cuts
    • Used to reject nonphysical events (e.g., electronic noise) and pileup events
  • Anticoincidence cuts
    • 0νββ decay should produce a “single- site” signal 85% of the time
    • Excluding multi-site events (±50 ms) reduces background by ~ 15% in the region of interest while retaining more than 99% of signal
  • Energy spectrum fit
  • Cuoricino analysis sequence
  • Luca Gironi
  • Alushta – 6 September 2011
  • Phase space factor: 48Ca, 150Nd, 96Zr
  • Nuclear matrix element  not yet reliable predictions
  • Backgrounds > 2,6 MeV 48Ca, 150Nd, 96Zr, 100Mo, 82Se, 116Cd
  • > 3.2 MeV (radon) 48Ca, 150Nd, 96Zr
  • Enrichment: 130Te (Natural isotopic abundance 34%)
  • 136Xe (gaz, easy to enrich)
  • Best techniques :
  • Bolometers, Ge diodes: energy resolution 130Te (82Se, 116Cd), 76Ge
  • Tracko-calo : background rejection 82Se, (48Ca, 150Nd)
  • TPC Xe: background rejection if tagging of Ba 136Xe
  • Large liquid scintillator: mass of isotopes 136Xe, 150Nd
  • What is the most favorable isotope and the best technique ?
  • Luca Gironi
  • Alushta – 6 September 2011
  • <0.35-1.05 eV (90% CL)
  • T 1/2 >1.9 1025 yr (90% CL)
  • Eur. Phys. J., A 12 (2001) 147
  • 0.06 cts/keV/kg/yr
  • Heidelberg-Moscow (2001)
  • ~11 kg of enriched 76Ge (86%)
  • 8.9 kg.yr without PSA
  • 4.6 kg.y with PSA
  • Phys. Rev. D65 (2002) 092007
  • IGEX (2002)
  • ~ 8.4 kg of enriched 76Ge (86%)
  • T 1/2 >1.57 1025 yr (90% CL)
  • <0.33-1.31 eV (90% CL)
  • Luca Gironi
  • Alushta – 6 September 2011
  • Vertex
  • bb events
  • E1+E2= 2088 keV
  • t= 0.22 ns
  • (vertex) = 2.1 mm
  • E1
  • E2
  • e-
  • e-
  • Tracko-calo detector
  • Drift chamber (6000 cells)
  • Plastic scintillator + PMT (2000)
  • 10 kg of isotopes
  • DE/E (FWHM) : 8 % @ 3 MeV
  • Located in Modane Underground Lab (France)
  • Bckg: 0.025 cts/keV/kg/yr
  • 82Se (0,93 kg)
  • Multi-source detector
  • NEMO3
  • Luca Gironi
  • Alushta – 6 September 2011
  • 20 modules for 100 kg
  • Top view
  • Source (40 mg/cm2) 12m2
  • Tracking (~2-3000 Geiger cells).
  • Calorimeter (500 channels)
  • 5 m
  • 1 m
  • Total:~ 40 000 – 60 000 geiger cells channels
  • ~ 10 000 PMT
  • SuperNEMO
  • Luca Gironi
  • Alushta – 6 September 2011
  • SuperNEMO phase I : 2011 – 2014
  • Contruction demontrator module with 7 kg of 82Se
  • Commissing @LSM 2013
  • Sensitivity in 1 year: T1/2 < 5 1024 y < 0.2 – 0.6 eV
  • SuperNEMO phase II : 2014 – 2019
  • 100 kg of 82Se (or 150Nd,or 48Ca)
  • T1/2 > 1026 y < 0.05 – 0.14 eV
  • DE/E < 4% (FWHM) @ Qbb demonstrated
  • (< 8% @ 1 MeV)
  • FWHM = 7,1 %
  • (7,6% before energy
  • loss correction)
  • SuperNEMO @ LSM extension
  • Commissioning of wiring robot
  • SuperNEMO
  • Luca Gironi
  • Alushta – 6 September 2011
  • Removal of matter
  • Use of liquid nitrogen or argon for active shielding
  • Segmented detectors in futur
  • Improvement of Pulse Shape Analysis
  • PHASE I: 17.9 kg of enriched 76Ge (from HM and IGEX)
  • In 1 year of data if B=10-2 cts/keV/kg/yr (check of Klapdor’s claim)
  • Start 2011 at Gran Sasso T1/2 > 3 1025 yr < 0.25 eV>
  • PHASE II: 40 kg of enriched 76Ge (20 kg segmented) 2012
  • if B=10-3 cts/keV/kg/an T1/2 > 2 1026 yr in 3 years of data <0.1 eV>
  • GERDA
  • Luca Gironi
  • Alushta – 6 September 2011
  • Nov/Dec.’09: Liquid argon fill
  • Jan ’10: Commissioning of cryogenic system
  • Apr/Mai ’10: emergency drainage tests of water tank
  • Apr/Mai ’10: Installation c-lock
  • May ’10: 1st deployment of FE&detector mock-up
  • June ‘10: Commissioning with natGe detector string
  • Soon: …….
  • GERDA
  • Luca Gironi
  • Alushta – 6 September 2011
  • Very pure material
  • (Electroformed copper)
  • Segmentation
  • PSD improvement
  • R&D phase 30-60 kg of 86% enriched 76Ge crystals
  • Some of the crystals segmented
  • T1/2 > 1. 1026 yr < 0.14 eV (could confirm or refute Klapdor’s claim)
      • Bckg goal ~ 1 count/ROI/t-yr (after analysis cuts)
      • 30 kg of enriched Ge, running 3 yr. Data taking scheduled for 2011
  • Ge diodes
  • Majorana
  • Luca Gironi
  • Alushta – 6 September 2011
  • 200 kg of 136Xe, no Ba ion tagging
  • Installation in WIPP underground lab
  • Possibility to measure bb(2n)
  • EXO-200 full of natural Xe - Tuning on all systems - Engineering runs - Physics mode as soon as possible
  • Liquid Xe TPC
  • Ionization + scintillation
  • DE/E (FWHM)= 3.3 % @Qbb
  • Possibility of Baryum ion tagging by
  • Laser florescence (136Xe  136Ba++ + 2 e
  • EXO-200
  • Luca Gironi
  • Alushta – 6 September 2011
  • EXO-200
  • Luca Gironi
  • Alushta – 6 September 2011
  • http://arxiv.org/abs/1108.4193v1
  • Scintillator loaded with Nd
  • 500 kg of 150Nd
  • 1 year
  • = 150 meV
  • Test of light attenuation
  • Study of Nd purification (factor 1000
  • per pass in Th and Ra)
  • 56 kg of 150Nd (0,1 % of natural Nd) 4 yr of data ~0.08 eV
  • 500 kg of 150Nd 4yr ~ 0.03 eV
  • SNO++
  • Luca Gironi
  • Alushta – 6 September 2011
  • KamLAND-Zen
  • Luca Gironi
  • Alushta – 6 September 2011
  • CaF2(Pure)
  • Liquid Scintillator
  • (Veto Counter)
  • Buffer Oil
  • Large PMT
  • Pure CaF2 crystals
  • Wave length shifter in LS
  • PSD to reject g and a
  • CANDLES III
  • 103 cm3 × 96 crystals  305 kg
  • Data taking in 2011 @ Kamioka
  • Expected BG: 0.14 event/yr (30 µBq/kg)
  • ~0.5 eV
  • CANDLES IV : 3 tons of CaF2 (3 mBq/kg) 6 yr ~0.1 eV
  • CANDLES
  • Luca Gironi
  • Alushta – 6 September 2011
  • 4x4x4 detector array = 0.42 kg CdZnTe
  • Installed at LNGS
  • Test of coincidence rejection
  • Measure of 113Cd
  • Array of 1cm3 CdZnTe detectors
  • Cd-113 beta decay with half-life of about 1016 yrs
  • COBRA
  • Luca Gironi
  • Alushta – 6 September 2011


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