The ministy of higher and secondary special education of the republic of uzbekistan state university of world languages the department of english language theory and practice

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Uzbekistan state university of world languages the department of en




Ulasheva Dildora O’ktamovna

Group 406

Comparative study of terms related to transport

5220100 – Philology and teaching languages (The English language) for granting bachelor degree

Qualification paper



The head of the “English language

theory and practice department”,


_________ U.R.Yuldoshev _______ M.Avvalboyeva

“___” __________________ 2019 “___” ______________ 2019

Тashkent 2019



    1. Theory of comparative typology as an independent discipline and its main assumptions……………………………………………………………………8

    2. The interdisciplinary character of comparative typology with different linguistic subjects………………………………………………………………17


2.1. The notion of transportation and terms related to it in English..…….....29

2.2. The peculiarities of terms related to transport in Uzbek…………………………………………………………………….……..44


3.1. Comparative analysis of terms related to transportation in English-Uzbek dictionaries………………………………………………..……….…………...54

3.2. The usage of terms related to transport in English and Uzbek literature…………………….…………………………………….…………....66




In the century of technological process, nice opportunities and necessity for the institutions of relations with different countries, in all places that the role of English because the leading means that of intercultural communication is speedily increasing, the importance of eliminating and enhancing imperfections within the method of making effective strategies of teaching English ought to be greatly highlighted.

For this reason, we have to refer that decree of our first President of Republic of Uzbekistan Islam Karimov on December 10, 2012 “On Measures for Further Improvement of Foreign Languages”, notes that in Uzbekistan in the frameworks of realization of law “On education” and also the National Program of private coaching established a comprehensive system of teaching foreign languages, aimed toward upbringing of harmoniously developed, highly educated, fashionable-modern thinking young generation, the further integration of republic into the globe community was established in the country.

As the continuation of the priority task, the new decree of our new President of Uzbekistan, Mirziyoyev Shavkat Miromonovich, on April 20, 2017 “On Measures for the Further development of the Higher Education System, proposes some more points to develop education system based on the foreign languages and foreign educational system:

  • To determine the partnership relations between Uzbek establishments of upper education and Foreign institutions of higher education, to publicize new course books, teaching materials supported international standards, to conduct master classes, to involve international professors and lecturers, to enlarge our Uzbek teacher’s and professor’s teaching skills;

  • To boost teaching system at MA based on new modern higher education curricula and programs;

  • To organize new course books and to buy the latest foreign publications and translate them into Uzbek and to use them in our teaching systems;

  • To send more young teachers and students to the foreign countries to enlarge their knowledge in special trainings and later to share their knowledge here and so on.

Obviously, the study of foreign language cannot be separated from the education of harmoniously developed personality. The process of studying cannot be achieved without fully understanding discourse of the targeted languages.

Any language can be clearly understood when it is reflected in context. Therefore, all these needs meet at a single point that is discourse analysis. The primary purpose of studying discourse analysis is to describe the conversational structures taking place in an appropriate context. Coulthard states how important the discourse in language study: “The… major concern of discourse analysis,… is the relationship between the discourse and the speakers and hearers by and from whom it is produced- a concern with how speakers take relinquish the role of speaker, how social roles affect discourse options in terms of who speaks when and what they can talk about, how non-verbal signaling works and how the actual form of utterances is conditioned by the social relationships between the participants.” [ Erton, Ismail. (2000) Contribution of discourse analysis to language teaching.Istanbul]

As the participants of the conversation vary from each other, which means contexts are various according to who is speaking and who is listening, language discourse consists of several subgroups.

One of these subgroups in English and Uzbek discourse is transport discourse. Within the basis of this type, speech of people in transport system can be analyzed according to its own specific features. Consequently, language learners can fully absorb these by means of transport terminology and its discourse.

Topicality of the research is characterized by several factors, which are going to be discussed below. Firstly, comparative study of English and Uzbek transport terminology is a completely new research in Uzbek linguistics. In addition, this very investigation touches upon the comparison of automative terms in English and Uzbek terminology. Moreover, the usage of terms connected with transportation in Uzbek literature has not been studied by anyone so far, which is found essential in the analytical study of terms in Uzbek linguistics.

Scientific novelty of the research is determined by the fact that transport terminology is investigated very little. Although transport terminology has been the central theme of investigation by English and Russian scientists, this theme has been explored by few researchers in Uzbek linguistics and to examine practical aspect of terms in English and Uzbek literature is the initial attempt that has not been accomplished by anyone yet. Moreover, the practical aspect of transport terms in Uzbek transport discourse is the young theme for Uzbek researchers and students.

The aim of the research is to describe and analyze the development processes of English and Uzbek transport terminology, to study its features, ways and methods of terminological nomination in the time frame of a specific historical period.

Achieving this goal involves the following specific tasks:

  • explain the theory of the subject comparative typology and its main notions;

  • to determine the relationship of Comparative typology with other linguistic subjects;

  • to consider the peculiarities of English and Uzbek terminology of transport;

  • to analyze the terms related to transportation in English and Uzbek languages;

  • to compare the designations and interpretations of transport terms contained in the English and Uzbek special dictionaries; show the influence of English transport terminology on Uzbek transport vocabulary, which is expressed in a huge number of borrowed words and expressions from the English language;

  • to analyze the terms comparatively connected with transport in English and Uzbek discourse.

The object of the research is transport terminology with all its characteristic features.

The subject of the qualification paper is the application and the usage of transport terms in English and Uzbek discourse.

Theoretical value of the research lies in the fact that the following research aimed at describing the English transport terminology from the perspective of a unified system of interrelated terminological fields, combining the concepts of a number of areas related to transport; analysis of the process of standardization of transport terms; designation and description of factors affecting the expansion and development of transport terminology; designation of the process of forming a single language of international mixed messages and transport and logistics information exchange on transport. So, the investigation paper can serve as the theoretical basis for the further researches and investigations with related topic.

The practical value of the research lies in the fact that its conclusions can be used in special courses in English and Uzbek terminology, in the practice of teaching English transport vocabulary in transport universities, in terminological lexicography, in the work on standardization of terminology, and in the practice of using English and Uzbek transport documentation.

Materials investigated in the paper are the followings: Chuntomova Yu. English transport terminology gives information about the development of transport terminology; Buranav J. Comparative typology of English and Turkic languages describes the comparative typology as an independent subject; Lotte D.S. How to work over terminology: Bases and methods focuses on terminological system of languages; David Lowe. Dictionary of transport and logistics focus on more than 3000 transport terms.

Methods of research: the study is based on descriptive and comparative methods. A description of the development of English transport terminology as a system, the study of features, ways and methods of terminological nomination was carried out on the basis of existing theoretical concepts in modern terminology; analytical method in examining the use of terms in English and Uzbek transport discourse and as well as comparative method in the expression of transport terms in English and Uzbek literature.

Statements to be proved in the qualification paper are the following:

First and foremost, English and Uzbek transport terminology possesses some similarities, like their expression, common transport terms. In addition, formation of transport terms does not exist in Uzbek while it does in English language.

The structure of the research is classic, containing introduction; two chapters, including two paragraphs in the first and third chapters and the second chapter is composed of three paragraphs; conclusion of the investigation; bibliography.

The first chapter “Theory of comparative typology and its peculiarities” discusses the comparative typology as an independent discipline and its main assumptions, moreover, interdisciplinary character of this subject with different linguistic subjects.

The second chapter “The peculiarities of terms related to transport in English and Uzbek languages” deals with the notion of transportation, terms connected with this concept and peculiarities of transport terminology in English and Uzbek languages.

Third chapter “Comparative analysis of terms related to transportation in discourse” focuses on comparative analysis of transport terminology in both languages and the usage of such kind of terms in literature of compared languages.

Each chapter includes conclusions and generalizations containing basic outcomes of investigated fields in the form of summaries. Conclusion summarizes the main results of the research.


    1. Theory of comparative typology as an independent discipline and its main assumptions

In this chapter of research paper, it is given that the theory of the subject “Comparative typology” and its main assumptions, research methods which are used while fulfilling the main practical part of this investigation. Without being aware about the ways of comparative study, it is difficult to learn aspects of compared languages.

Comparative typology is one of the branches of General linguistics, which studies the systems of languages comparatively, also finds common laws of languages and establishes differences and similarities between them. Moreover, due to David Crystal’s book “Dictionary of Linguistics and Phonetics”, Comparative typology is explained in this way: “A branch of linguistics which studies the structural similarities between languages, regardless of their history, as part of an attempt to establish satisfactory classification or typology of languages. Typological comparison is thus distinguished from the historical comparison of languages and its groupings may not coincide with those set up by the historical method.”[David Crystal.p.78.2008.USA.]

Comparative typology, as the concept itself reveals, represents a typology-based linguistic subject based on the comparison method. Like typology proper Comparative typology conjointly aims at establishing the foremost general structural styles of languages on their dominant or common phonetically, morphologically, lexical and syntactic options solely, that are found in languages of the identical structural kind (synthetic, analytical, agglutinative, etc.)

[ M.I.Rasulova, Z.I.Shukurova.2017.p.17-18] or in languages of the various structural sorts, (synthetic and analytical, agglutinative and incorporative, etc)

[ M.I.Rasulova, Z.I.Shukurova. 2017.p.17-18.]

In alternative words, comparative classification is a field of linguistics that studies and classifies languages consistent with their structural and useful options. Its aim is to justify and explain the common properties and structural diversity of the world’s languages.

The most widespread definition of the topic matter looks to be “Comparative Typology” is a branch of General Linguistics, field of a study aiming at characteristic such similarities and distinctive options of languages that don't rely upon genetic origin or influence of languages to at least one another. Typology strives to spot and appearance at the foremost vital options that have an effect on alternative spheres of language systems, e.g.” the method of the junction of pregnant components of the word or the questionable structure of the sentence within the language". Typological studies base on materials of proportional sampling from several world languages so the findings and conclusions created on the results of such analysis may be applied to the complete majority of languages (in cases of language universals).Comparative categorization shows interest group within the questionable exotic or non studied languages, e.g. languages of ethnicities of South-East Asia, Africa, Ocean aspect or yank Indian tribes. Still, the info of well-known, enlarged and well studied languages the similar extent become the topic matter of a typological study.

Comparative categorization not solely systemizes, generalizes and classifies the facts of language similarity and allomorphism, however, additionally explains them. The bulk of prestigious linguistic theories have their own typological agenda aimed toward theoretical analysis of structurally totally different languages, their location, and genetic origin.

Nowadays several terms are used for outlining this terribly form of science, like Linguistic typology, Comparative typology, and Contrastive Linguistics, Charaxterology and so on.

As an independent subject Comparative typology has branches to investigate or compare two or more language systems, their categories more objectively and clearly. In this investigation, branches of comparative typology help us to determine results in different suitable categories. However, they reveals that comparative typology is developing as an independent disciplinary. The branches of comparative typology are:

  • Structural typology

  • Areal typology

  • Comparative typology

  • Genetic typology

[M.I.Rasulova, Z.I.Shukurova. 2017.p.25]

Structural typology. Structural typology is the major branch of Comparative Typology and aims to identify structural language types. Structural typology has 4 branches:

  • language universals;

  • typological classification;

  • ethalon language;

  • typological theory. [M.I.Rasulova, Z.I.Shukurova. 2017.p.28]

The ultimate goal of Structural typology is identifying universal features of languages. Major scholars who contributed to the development of structural typology are B. Uspenskiy, V.R Nedyalkov, Ch. Hockette, Yu.Rojdestvenskiy.

Language Universals are bound to the unification of language facts, identifying common/similar features specific to systems of all or separate language groups. The notion of Language Universals appeared in 1961 at the Congress of Linguists in New York where Joseph Greenberg, J. Jenkins, and I. Osgood proposed a “Memorandum on Language/Linguistic Universals". They defined it as follows: "A Linguistic Universal is a certain feature specific to all languages of the world or the language per se."[J.Jenkins. Joseph Greenberg. I.Osgood]

There are several general universals regarding all languages of the globe. They are: where humans exist, language exists. There aren't any "primitive" languages - all languages are equally complicated and equally capable of expressing any plan within the world. The vocabulary of any language is enlarged to incorporate new words for brand new ideas. All languages amendment through time. the link between the sounds and meanings of spoken languages and between the gestures (signs) and meanings of sign languages are for the foremost half arbitrary. All human languages utilize a finite set of distinct sounds (or gestures) that are combined to make significant parts or words, that themselves type associate infinite set of doable sentences. All grammars contain rules for the formation of words and sentences of the same kind.

Every auditory communication (spoken language) includes distinct sound segments like p, n, or a, which might be outlined by a finite set of sound properties or options. each auditory communication encompasses a class of vowels and a category of consonants. Similar grammatical classes (for example, noun, verb) are found altogether languages. There are linguistics universals, like "male" or "female," "animate" or "human," found in each language within the world. each language encompasses a means of bearing on diversion, forming queries, supplying commands, and so on. Speakers of all languages are capable of manufacturing associated comprehending an infinite set of sentences. The universals could also be classified in keeping with numerous principles. as an example, in keeping with the datum principle, there are unrestricted (absolute or full) universals opposition restricted (relative, partial) universals (some students like the term "tendency" rather than "universal"). in keeping with language hierarchy, there are phonetic, morphological, syntactical and lexical universals. Different varieties embody deductive and inductive; synchronic and historical universals; universals of speech and universals of language. as an example, universals associated with the degree of language hierarchy: Phonetic features: all languages have vowels and consonants. Morphological: in most languages, words are structured into morphemes, morphemes operate as full and auxiliary parts. Lexical: altogether languages vocabulary could be a system of linguistics fields. altogether languages, there's equivocalness, synonymy, antonymy. Syntactic: altogether languages, there's a distribution of a subject-verb- object. samples of full universals: "If a language has discreet morphemes, there are either pre-fixation or affixation or each of them". "If a language is completely suffixational, it's a language with post-fixes. If a language is completely prefixational, it's a language with prefixes". There are other ways of articulating and describing language universals: descriptive and formal (with the assistance of special symbols). Typological classification is … “opposed to tribe classification and is sure to classifying languages in keeping with their taxonomic/systemic options and process structural styles of languages” [K.Solntzev]. Morphological or Typological classification deals with the classification of languages in keeping with their structural options or varieties in language rather than the tribe origin.

An example of a typological classification is that the classification of languages supported the order of the verb, subject and object in an exceedingly sentence into many types: SVO, SOV, VSO, and so on, languages. (English, for example, belongs to the SVO language sort.)

Ethalon language is associate degree object language for Comparative categorisation and it's additionally a method or system of tools to match languages. It's typically known deductively. The notion of etalon language was introduced by Boris Uspensky.

Some scholars like the term meta language that is to a specific extent substitutable to ethalon language. It's the second major perform of the ethalon language to serve associate degree instrument of comparison. This instrument is also drawn as follows: any language (usually one's native tongue); a linguistic class, as an example, gender, voice, person, sex, etc; concept; field.

Below there are some additional samples of ethalon language:

  • specially created artificial language;

  • associate degree existing language with the well-developed system;

  • bound sign system;

  • bound linguistic method;

  • phonetic, morphological, grammar or different models;

  • intermediary language;

  • the language of translation, etc. For applied functions, etalon language is assessed into minimal and maximal.

[M.I.Rasulova, Z.I.Shukurova. 2017.p.43.]

The typological theory defines common linguistic notions employed in Comparative categorization. The typological theory is employed to outline language isomorphy (common options ) and allomorphism (differentiating signs).

Areal categorization is one in all the independent branches of linguistic typology, that compares language systems and studies the degree of enlargement and proximity of language properties which are geographically conditioned. in line with V.G. Ghak this a part of Comparative Typology "compares languages irrespectively of the degree of their connectedness and aims at shaping general components fashioned as a results of the mutual influence of languages and also the cultures staying behind them". Objects of study embrace borrowings, bi-lingual options, dialects, centum/satem languages, collecting non-standard speech maps, sub-stratum and super-stratum languages, neologisms, archaisms, hybrid languages, language contacts, etc. Like Genetic categorization, Areal categorization operates with special systems or models with the assistance of that areal isogfosses of various languages are processed. The representatives of this faculty are Roman Jacobson and Ghak V.G. Comparative typology is associate degree freelance branch of Comparative categorization. It deals with the comparison of languages irrespectively of their genetic or structural identity.

Comparative categorization operates with a restricted variety of languages and also the minimum number of those languages perhaps as very little as two.

Comparative categorization cannot reveal language universals however it will contribute to Structural typology with the results of its comparative studies of concrete languages for more elaboration of linguistic universals. In its flip, Structural categorization contributes to comparative typological studies whereas characteristic correspondences in various languages. one in all the foremost variations between Structural and Comparative categorization is that the latter operates with cross-level units of the languages whereas the previous (Structural typology) utilizes primarily the extent isolation or one level approach. In Comparative categorization, the cross-level, cross-class units of expression are at the start known in every of compared languages one by one. On the second stage of the typological operation the cross-language equivalents and cross-level correspondents are known, similarity and morpheme options are discovered. the foremost principle of Comparative categorization is binarity: so at the start two genetically and/or structurally totally different languages are compared because the representatives of their genetic /structural teams. Further, the amount of compared languages is accumulated however still with the observation of the binary principle.

Genetic classification (typology) is a branch of Comparative classification (typology), that studies the similarities, and diversities of originally connected languages. Genetic classification developed from the Comparative-historical linguistics that dominated throughout the nineteenth century in Europe. It started with the works of Jacob Grimm, Franz Bopp, Rasmus philologist, Alexander Vb. Stokov, V.M.Jirmunskiy, etc. Its origin was stipulated by the discovery of Indo-Aryan( Sanskrit) , the traditional classical language of India. The invention of Indo-Aryan disclosed the chance of a comparative study of languages. The idea of relative languages was confirmed by the existence in India of a sisterhood of acquainted European languages: e.g. Indo-Aryan «mata» suggests that «mother», within the oblique «matarum». Dvau-two, Trayah – three. As ti - he's, etc.

Genetic classification compares the systems of languages in 2 ways: diachronically and synchronically.

Classification of the most essential options of languages, the foremost necessary characteristics and regularities are the topic of comparative classification. the ultimate aims of comparative classification are:

- To spot and classify consequently the most isomorphous and morpheme options characteristics and regularities are subject of comparative typology;

- To draw from these common or divergent options severally the isomorphous regularities and also the morpheme singularities within the languages contrasted;

- To ascertain on the idea of the obtained isomorphous options the standard language structures and also the kinds of languages;

- To perform on the idea of the obtained sensible information a very scientific classification of the present languages of the world;

- To ascertain on this basis the universal options /phenomena, that pertain to every single language of the planet.

Methods of comparative typological research:

  • the comparative method aims at establishing the isomorphic(alongside of allomorphic) features and on their basis the determining of structural types of languages under contrastive investigation;

  • the deductive method is based on logical calculation which suggests all the possible variants of realization of a certain feature/phenomenon in speech of one or more contrasted languages;

  • -the inductive method which needs novarification, since the investigated feature was proved by linguists and therefore the results obtained are possible;

  • the statistic method for establishing the necessary quantitative and qualitative representation of some features or for identifying the percentage of co-occurrence of some features or linguistic units in the contrasted languages;

  • the IC (immediate constituents) method is employed to contrast only linguistic units for investigating their constituent parts in one or some contrasted languages;

  • transformational method for identifying the nature of a linguistic unit in the source language or for determining the difference in the form of expression in the contrasted languages.

To sum up, one can conclude that the development of comparative typology makes a way to investigate many aspects of not only languages but also other spheres of life. Moreover, being acquainted with similarities and differences of languages helps us to comprehend language factors clearly and to learn them without difficulties. Because comparative method of learning process is considered as one of the best ways of acquiring knowledge.

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