The ministy of higher and secondary special education of the republic of uzbekistan state university of world languages the department of english language theory and practice
The interdisciplinary character of comparative typology with different linguistic subjects
Download 191 Kb.
- Bu sahifa navigatsiya:
- CHAPTER II THE PECULARITIES OF TERMS RELATED TO TRANSPORT IN ENGLISH AND UZBEK LANGUAGES 2.1 The notion of transport and terms related to it in English
1.2 The interdisciplinary character of comparative typology with different linguistic subjects
Linguistic typology is connected with such sciences as psychology, physiology, logic, anthropology, literature, history, mathematics, etc. However, our task is to consider the connection of linguistic typology with linguistic disciplines.
Linguistic typology is associated with such sections of linguistics as the history of the language, phonetics, lexicology, lexicography, grammar, style, theory of translation and methods of teaching foreign languages.
History of language. If the history of a language equips students with knowledge of the diverse processes taking place in the structure of the language, then the typology of changes that occurred in languages allows us to understand the similarity of English and Uzbek languages as members of different language families.
Phonetics. If phonetics studies the acoustic and physiological characteristics of sound phenomena in a language, then a comparative typology draws its own conclusions based on a comparison of the acoustic-physiological phenomena of two genetically related or unrelated languages.
Lexicology. Lexicology deals with the study of the lexical system of a language, and the typology draws its conclusions on the basis of the common features that constitute the typological features of the language at the lexical level.
Lexicography. Comparative typology has a direct connection with lexicography, as they both deal with the comparison and identification of equivalent units.
Comparative typology and lexicography explore systems of two or more languages simultaneously.
Comparable languages can be both genetically related and genetically unrelated.
Comparative typology and lexicography are based on both intra-system and intersystem comparisons.
Intra-systemic typology is a typological study and comparison of units at different levels; in lexicography - in the compilation of monolingual explanatory or educational dictionaries.
Intersystem typology is a comparison of systems of different languages; in lexicography it is a comparison of units of systems of different languages. These include bilingual and multilingual dictionaries.
Comparative typology and lexicography are not limited to units of the levels with which they operate. For example, when comparing grammatical categories, units of a nongrammatical level cannot be excluded, and when compiling a bilingual dictionary, one cannot limit oneself to the level of a word.
Grammar. The grammar of the language deals with the study of morphology and syntax. Typology reduces numerous sentences and phrases to certain types, which characterize in their totality the grammatical structure of the language and its syntactic typology.
Stylistics. Comparative typology is connected with general stylistics through comparative stylistics, the scope of research of which includes not only linguistic, but also literary problems. In a comparative typological study of systems of related and unrelated languages, a typologist is engaged in identifying both stylistically neutral and stylistically conditioned units, since comparative typology studies the entire system of compared languages as a whole.
A comparative description of languages in terms of their stylistic features can be carried out in linguistic didactic, translational, lexicographical and typological purposes. Comparative stylistics studies the stylistic features of the units of each level of a language separately. For example, a phonological typology is associated with phono-stylistics, a morphological typology with morphological stylistics, a lexical typology with lexical stylistics, etc.
Furthermore, we can not imagine comparative typology and translation theory individually. So it is important to consider the relation of typology and translation theory.
Relation of comparative typology and translation theory:
Comparative typology and linguistic translation theory are closely interrelated and interact with each other. This connection is due to the fact that translation theory and linguistic typology are concerned with the comparison and comparison of languages.
L.S. Barkhudarov believes that “The theory of translation by its very nature is nothing but a scientifically based comparison of systems of two languages. Indeed, if a comparative typology is engaged in identifying the characteristic features of two or more languages and establishing the regularities of the corresponding features between the systems of the languages being compared, the translator translates the speech work from one language to another while simultaneously identifying individual cases of linguistic isomorphism in both languages”[L.S.Barkhudarov.2016.Sank-Peterburg.p.57].
A number of foreign linguists consider translation theory as an integral part of a comparative typology, for example, J. Naida, J. Ellis, M. Hull of ideas, J. Catford, and others.
Translation plays a significant role when comparing systems of two languages, and a full description of systems of two languages from the point of view of linguistic typology would enrich translators in their practical activities. Questions of the linguistic theory of translation were studied by: A.V. Fedorov, L.S. Barkhudarov, A.D. Schweizer, I.I. Retker, V.N. Commissioners, RK. Minyar-Beloruchev.
Comparative typology and translation bring together the following features:
commonality of content units
identity of the comparison process
inter-level of relevant funds
indifference to genetic kinship.
Commonality of content units:
The process of comparing systems of two languages can be built on the basis of either the plan of expression or the plan of content.
In a comparative typology, depending on the nature or purpose of the comparison process, research can be built on both. However, the organization of a typological operation on the basis of units of content can be considered more acceptable. The translation process is similar in nature to the typological comparison process. The translator also searches for equivalent forms of expressing a particular meaning in another language, because translation is the transformation of the source text while preserving the meaning.
“Translation is the process of converting a speech work in one language into a speech work in another language while maintaining the same plan of content, i.e. values. In other words, the translation, as well as the typological comparison, reveals peculiar language means equivalent to the specific content in the language into which the text is translated.” [L.S.Barkhudarov.2016.Sank-Peterburg.p.15].
The identity of the comparison process;
The operations of comparative typology and translation fall into two stages. A typological operation consists of two stages: (a) abstraction, or typology, and (b) correspondence or transformation.
The translation process also takes place in stages. The initial stage is the stage of understanding someone else's text, the stage of preparation for translation, i.e. analytical, abstracted process. The second stage is the stage of implementation of the first stage data, the synthetic stage.
As for machine translation, it is also carried out in stages: the stages of analysis and synthesis, or the selection operation and the conversion operation.
The second stage of operations during translation is associated with synthesizing the results of the linguistic stage, with further correspondence, or transformation. The results obtained in the process of typological analysis are used in machine translation, because it is impossible to build machine translation without a systemic description of languages.
However, many data obtained as a result of typological operations may not be sufficient for machine translation, and vice versa, the results may be redundant for comparative typology (for example, various codes, formulas, algorithms, programs, etc.).
Interlevel corresponding units.
The particular heterogeneity (heterogeneity) of systems of unrelated languages requires the identification of means of expression of a particular category at all levels of the language hierarchy.
There can be no talk about the completeness of comparison or comparison of a certain text of different-system languages without fixing the means of expressing units of all levels.
The theory of translation is built on similar foundations. For translation, data identified by a typological operation is required. A special role is played by inter-level typological synonyms or transformational variants of the surface structure. For example, if a certain category is transmitted in aquatic language by means of a verbal non-nominalized form or structure, in another, the corresponding norms can be nominated.
If in the source language a certain meaning is expressed by units of the word level, then in the language of translation the corresponding confronts can be correlated with the level of the word combination.
Comparative typology and translation theory are also theoretically and practically connected.
Communication at the theoretical level is based on the fact that, presenting the scientific aspects of language learning, both a comparative typology and translation are concerned with establishing the laws of correspondence between the means of two or more independent languages.
At the practical level, a comparative typology is associated with the learning process, and the translation with the reader’s familiarization with a foreign language text.
Indifference to genetic kinship.
Although translation and comparative typology are indifferent to the genetic relatedness of the systems of the compared languages, the genetic proximity of the systems of the languages in question may create favorable conditions for translation.
Translation equivalence increases if typological affinity is accompanied by genetic kinship, since in genetically related languages, formally typological affinity is accompanied by semantic or material affinity. For example, typological affinity is accompanied by genetic affinity in closely related Germanic languages.
If typological affinity is accompanied by genetic affinity, then there is no particular difficulty in translating. It is easier for a translator to translate text or compile dictionary matches if he is dealing with systems of closely related languages.
The identification traits considered can include the fact that in comparative typology and translation they use almost identical linguistic methods and techniques.
Despite the similarity of the operations performed and the presence of other common features, the typological comparison and translation theory have a number of differences, namely:
a) the relative freedom of choice of the translator;
b) the difference in terms of content.
Freedom of choice when translating as follows:
a) replacement of units of one level with units of other levels;
b) the use of descriptive methods of translation regardless of single-level compliance; c) the choice of stylistically suitable or more expressive means from other levels and categories of words; d) the use of synonymous forms and structures; e) replacing the text with another text, provided that the deep commonality is preserved (for example, proverbs). When certain information is recoded from language to language, the translator can refer to all levels to select the appropriate units from the expression plan.
This usually happens in two cases:
1) when it is impossible to show single-level matches;
2) when the translator seeks to transmit this content using more stylistic means that are more acceptable in this case.
Equivalence can have various forms of expression. For example, the minimum matches can be as follows:
In a comparative typology, freedom of choice is used strictly limitedly or within certain levels.
Differences in terms of content.
Comparative typology studies language units in terms of abstraction, and translation in terms of implementation. Comparative typology compares the systems of languages, and the translation implements the units of these systems.
Although comparative typology is closely related to translation, the latter should not be considered a component of linguistic typology: comparative typology compares the system with the system, and the translation - the text with the text.
It is necessary to note that comparative typology is the key factor of success to learn foreign languages. That is, they are firmly connected to each other:
Relation of comparative typology and methods of teaching foreign languages.
Questions of teaching a foreign language are the object of study for many sciences, including for comparative typology.
Comparative typology deals with the typology of bilingualism and multilingualism, various issues of language contacts, which include problems of bilingualism, interference, convergence, divergence, etc.
Convergence is a change that leads to an increase in similarities and even the coincidence of different sounds of a language, and in a comparative typology it is the development of similar features in two or several languages, regardless of common origin, usually due to proximity, close cultural ties, etc.
Divergence is a positional change of sounds, and in comparative typology it is the disintegration of a language, one of the properties of language evolution, by virtue of which dialects of a language tend to isolate themselves from other dialects and become independent languages.
The use of comparative typology as an applied discipline can be carried out through the methodology of teaching foreign languages. When comparing systems of languages, typology determines the system features of each language. The technique uses the established typology of the laws of the adequacy and inadequacy of units of systems of different languages.
Like any theoretical study, the comparative typology of two languages has two goals: theoretical and applied.
The first is related to the typological analysis of the system of each of the compared languages separately, the definition of structural features, the identification of basic system units, the inventory of each tier (level) separately, with further identification of universal or differentiating typological forms both in terms of expression and content.
The second one is put forward mainly on the basis of the first one and is connected with the further application of the results obtained in the theoretical study in the process of practical training.
The methodology requires conclusions of a comparative typology when explaining certain categories. At the same time, the selected isomorphic and allomorphic means play a special role. For example, the category of the perfect in the English language stands out as an independent category, but in the Russian language - not.
Comparative typology may be associated with the methodology in the process of identifying interfering means. Interference is a mixture of the differential features of the native and target languages. The students' native language, which they have spoken since childhood, cannot but influence the system of a foreign language, which they begin to learn. At the same time, the interlanguage analogy plays a big role.
The study of interference is associated with a comparative study of systems of two or more languages, with the identification of differential features of the phonological, lexical and grammatical systems, with the question of the need to include or exclude a native language from teaching a foreign language.
From a theoretical point of view, the study of interference is associated with the establishment of typological isomorphism and allomorphism.
From a practical point of view, such learning can help in identifying errors that occur under the influence of the system (subsystem) of the native language on the system (subsystem) of the relevant levels of a foreign language, and vice versa, especially at the initial stage of teaching a foreign language, because the skills of correct use of systemic units in students not yet developed and certainly not automated.
Of great importance is the role of the native language in teaching a foreign language. The fact that learning a foreign language is based on the native language can have a positive and negative impact on the learning process. The positive impact is that knowledge and skills in the field of the mother tongue can serve as a basis for the analogy. Students can already imitate articulation movements in learning pronunciation, compare the meanings of words using the vocabulary of their native language. Structural models of the native language can help them in the formation of the same models of a foreign language. The negative impact is in the interference of the native language in the course of learning a foreign language, as in the study of a foreign language, the system of the native language serves as a kind of language substrate that cannot but influence the foreign language being studied. When learning a foreign language, when artificial bilingualism or bilingualism is created, the substrate is also artificial. Such a kind of artificial linguistic substrate manifests itself at all linguistic levels.
The specific influence of the native language can be the emergence of so-called hybrid languages, which have already been mentioned earlier. Under the strong influence of the systems of local languages, these special languages were formed: in East China and Japan - Pidgin English, on the shores of the Pacific Ocean - Beach-La-Mar English, in Africa - Who English.
Note the Creole languages that emerged in the XVI century as mediating languages between the languages of Europeans and African languages of black slaves (Beach-la-Mar of New Caledonia was formed as a result of interaction of English, French and Melanesian languages; in Haiti, local languages are based on the Norman dialect).
Based on the peculiarities of the native language, the interference of the native language can be divided into: (a) phonetics of the pronunciation, (b) intonational, (c) grammatical, (d) lexical, etc. The interference of the native language can be overcome by purposefully showing the system differences of the native and foreign languages. Learning the grammatical system by means of conscious juxtaposition, i.e. based on the grammar of the native language.
Success depends on the rate of study of the material and the types of abstraction of the systems of the compared languages. This principle requires at the same time, firstly, the availability of ready-made educational material, secondly, the knowledge of both languages, as well as the creative organization of the educational process by the teacher.
The initial stage of learning a foreign language can be organized according to the principle: from native to foreign language, i.e. at the very initial stage of acquaintance with the system of a foreign language, the system of the learned native language is used.
The necessary conditions for the prevention of interference include the compilation of textbooks and manuals. Such textbooks can be: (a) with full comparison and (b) with partial comparison of the studied and native language.
A full comparison is typical for a later stage of learning a foreign language and can pursue both practical and theoretical goals.
Partial comparison pursues practical goals and is characteristic of the very initial stage of learning foreign languages. In partial comparison, the interfering means of the native language are consciously chosen and the main ways of overcoming them are chosen.
The task of comparison is to eliminate the pressure of non-identical means of expressing the native language on a foreign language system.
The common features of non-identity include the characteristic features of the language: analyticity and non-analyticity, and a number of other system-wide phonological, grammatical and lexical features. The particular signs of non-identity include certain non-identical phenomena that are detected when expressing a particular grammatical category.
The principle of comparison can serve as one of the most effective methods of gradually eliminating the negative influence of the system of the native language.
Compared English and Uzbek languages have a number of specific features:
differentiating feature is the presence of articles in English and the absence in Uzbek;
the use of case inflections in nouns in the Uzbek language is unlimited, and in the English language is limited. For example, rare cases of the use in the English language of the possessive case with inanimate nouns;
A partially categorized entity is a person. In the Uzbek language, the morphological category of a person’s verb (or the category of a noun) is highly developed, and in English it has almost disappeared, so the habit of defining the category of a person in one’s mother tongue has a strong effect on English language;
interference of the native language occurs when using English prepositions;
the relatively free word order in the Uzbek language is the cause of the students breaking the fixed word order in the English language. [Buranav.2012.p.145]
To conclude, it is essential to note that subjects are connected to each other ,and this connection helps to improve learning process .
CHAPTER II THE PECULARITIES OF TERMS RELATED TO TRANSPORT IN ENGLISH AND UZBEK LANGUAGES
2.1 The notion of transport and terms related to it in English
In this chapter, it is aimed to give brief history of technical development which causes the necessity of more transportation terms, moreover, definition of the concept “transport” itself and its types.
The development of technology and material production, the division of labor, its specialization and cooperation, and ultimately, the entire world economy, culture and language, as a means of human communication, storage and transmission of information were greatly influenced by three industrial revolutions, which covered more than two hundred years of history.
The first — the industrial revolution (PR) (from the last third of the 18th century to the last third of the 19th century) affected a limited number of countries: England (from the last third of the 18th century to the first quarter of the 19th century), France (after the revolution of 1789- 1794), Germany (from the 40s of the 19th century), the USA (after the civil war of 1861-1865), Russia (only after the abolition of serfdom in 1861), and Japan only by the end of the 19th century. For this reason, the industrial revolution was accompanied by the simultaneous expansion of the English technical language into other languages. [Chuntomova.Yu. English Transport terminology.2007.p.75]
During the PR, non-production activities became more complicated - the sphere of providing various kinds of services, including transport. These are various intermediary services, legal, insurance with an English-language form of presentation and transmission of information, using specific information infrastructures (reference books, bulletins of the English insurance company Lloyda, dispatch by “captain's mail”, telegraph, etc.). New “transport professions” appeared: insurance and freight broker, forwarder. Perfect proficiency in both English, French and German) was regarded as the main attribute of professional fitness.
The second revolution was the machine-technical (MTR), which covered the period from the last third of the XIX century to the first half of the XX century. Initially, it touched upon the countries listed above, and then, in a short time, the rest of Western Europe and other regions of the world. [Chuntomova.Yu. International transport terminology.2007.p.143]
In the field of mechanical engineering, mechanical engineering was distinguished by transport, and in it the sub-sectors: shipbuilding, automotive, aircraft building, locomotive and car building. In each of these industries, professional technical vocabulary and terminology was formed on the language basis of the country that was the leader (for example, French in aircraft construction) or strictly national (in the United States in locomotive and car building).
A different picture was observed in the sectoral transport service of international trade. In general, in the world by sea transport delivered 80% by weight of cargo. In many countries, its share was even higher (for example, in Japan - about 100%). The main carriers in international trade were shipowners of the “colonial powers” - England, France, Holland, Germany and Italy, and in the field of a special and regional fleet - shipowners of the “Maritime States”: Greece, Norway, Japan, and others. mainly English terminology related to marine engineering and shipbuilding.
Beginning in the last quarter of the 19th century, international unions, associations and institutions began to be formed to regulate issues of economic and legal, market activity, navigation safety and others. English was chosen as the only language of communication and information transfer on the sea transport, French was chosen on the railway. The preference was given to English, including because the court proceedings were based on English private claim law, on the traditional lawyers ’adherence to the canons of English lexical judicial archaic.
In English, the first universal pro-forma of contracts for maritime transport - charters and linear bills of lading, charters for ship owning conferences (cartels) with uniform tariffs (prices) for the carriage of goods by sea were formulated. In French, international rail freight and passenger conventions were drawn up.
Transport terminology was divided into technical, operational, operational and commercial, which includes elements of legal vocabulary.
The third scientific and technical revolution (NTR), which began at the half century of the twentieth century, led to a radical revolution in all directions and types of human activity. Scientific and technical progress involves in its orbit a huge mass of working people, the number of labor professions is increasing and, as a result, there is a significant differentiation of professional vocabulary. Since the scientific and technological revolution is not limited to national frameworks, it is an integration one, which, to a certain extent, stimulates the process of creating a common professional language of international communication in transport on an English-language basis.
The relevance of the study of terminological issues is determined in our time by the characteristic "terminological explosion", i.e. the mass emergence of new terms, terminological fields, the formation and emergence of new terminological systems, so the study of English transport terminology, which represents a clearly outlined terminological subsystem, seems to be necessary and interesting, since on the basis of this terminological subsystem, we can trace the language processes that are characteristic of the terminology in general . [Akhmanova Olga and Agapova Galina.1974]
At the turn of the twentieth and twenty-first centuries, a process of colossal global transformation was actively underway, affecting all spheres of industry. One of the leading engineering industries in many countries of the world is the automotive industry. The terminology of the industry is becoming increasingly popular and is of paramount importance in the current situation.
The terms associated with the automotive industry, with the technical equipment of the car, as well as various machines and mechanisms used both in everyday life, in personal use, and in production, are constantly found in our lives. The knowledge of these terms today becomes obligatory not only for specialists, but also for ordinary people who have personal cars or agricultural equipment. Currently, the most popular cars and agricultural equipment of foreign manufacturers. It is not surprising that the flow of technical documentation, various recommendations for the repair and maintenance of the car and other mechanical and electrical technical devices written in English is growing.
In this research paper I intend to determine the peculiarities of transport terms of two compared languages. However, before giving more details about the transport terminology, I should mention the notion what the transport is itself, its types and its importance. Below given some information about notion of transport:
Transport ( lat. transporto - moving) is a combination of means and ways of communication, the activity of which provides all the activities of people. Ways of communication is the road. [https//ru.m.wikipediya.org]
Technical facilities - refueling, communication facilities, workshops. Transportation is the most important strategic resource. Distinguish ground, water and air transport.
-land species: rail, road and pipeline;
-water - sea and river;
-air - aviation. [https//ru.m.wikipediya.org]
A tenth of individuals engaged on transport.
The transport system is a combination of all types of transport connected technologically, technically, economically and regulatory legal acts.
In this paper, before defining the terms of transport we should know about the kinds of transport, transport means and the all information about transportation There are several types of transport. Below given their temporary description:
Railway transport in many industrialized countries, among other types of transport, occupies one of the leading places. This is due to its versatility - the ability to serve the producing sectors of the economy and to meet the needs of the population in transportation, regardless of the weather: in all climatic conditions and at any time of the year.
Having modern types of locomotives and cars, a powerful rail track, using modern means of automation, telemechanics and computer technology, railway transport, along with other sectors of industrial production, is included in the economic potential of each country.
During its existence, the length of the world's railways has reached almost 1.3 million km; while they are unparalleled in terms of carrying capacity and continuity of operation.
1825- First railway in England. [https//ru.m.wikipediya.org]
Road transport provides:
1) relatively high speed of movement;
2) delivery of goods to areas where there are no other modes of transport.
It is most convenient because it allows you to deliver goods directly from the sender to the recipient without overloading; it is effective on intracity and long-distance transportations of passengers. However, the cost of freight and passenger transport by road is higher compared to other types. There are 31 million km in the world, and the length of roads in Russia is 1 million km.
Sea transport provides mass transportation to foreign countries, as well as between ports in the country, located on the coast of the seas. Sea transportation is most effective in areas where sea routes are shorter than land routes, and where there are no other types of mass transport. For Russia, the importance of sea transport in servicing the northern regions of Siberia and the Far East, where there are no railways, is especially great. The cost of maritime transport of goods is lower than other modes of transport, and especially for long-distance transport.
River transport provides local and long-distance transport on routes that coincide with the location of navigable rivers and canals. It has a high carrying capacity, especially when using heavy-duty vessels on deep-sea rivers, as well as on river-sea routes. The cost of river transport is lower than other modes of transport. However, a significant drawback of river transport in Russia is the short duration of navigation during the year and low speeds.
Air transport is the most high-speed mode of transport, by means of which mainly passenger transport over short and long distances is carried out. The proportion of freight traffic is low. The work of air transport is very influenced by weather conditions. The cost of air travel is much higher than other modes of transport.
Pipeline transport. It is used to transport mainly oil, oil products and natural gas and almost does not depend on weather conditions, is able to transport liquid and gaseous products over very long distances, is a relatively cheap form of transport.
Industrial transport moves the objects and products of labor in production.
Public transport includes rail, road, sea, river, air and pipeline.
Urban transport provides transportation within the city and includes the metro, trolleybus, tram, bus, taxi, truck, etc.
In order to analyze the common terms of transport system we should also research the main components of transport systems: Here given the main elements of transport systems:
The unified transport system ensures the coordinated development and operation of all types of transport in order to maximize the satisfaction of transport needs at the lowest possible cost. The transport process is a combination of means and means of communication, as well as various technical devices and structures ensuring their normal operation.
Transport system components are: means of communication, means of communication, technical devices and facilities in transport (repair factories, gas stations, services); reserves - carrying capacity and bandwidth. The subject of the impact of transport - cargo or passengers. Means of impact - rolling stock. The object of impact - economical. Or administrator. Transport system is one of the most important means of transportation. Here it is emphasized in different ways.
Economic, state, social, cultural and military importance of transport:
Economic - is to ensure the development, communication and coordination of all sectors of the economy.
State-is that the transport connects individual areas of the state.
Social provision of work for the population, relief of labor and increase of its productivity.
Cultural is the ability to spread with its aesthetic values, which increases the culture and education of the population. Military - provides transportation of troops and military equipment, as well as the supply of troops with all necessary. Maintaining the front now without transport is impossible.
Every day we encounter at least one of the types of devices for movement - bicycles, train, bus, car. Therefore, the topic of transport in English is very important.
The vehicle connects nations, countries and continents. In the US and the UK, such modes of transport as the underground and land electric train, taxis, buses, airplanes and, of course, a private car are very popular. They offer residents of large cities an efficient, convenient and fast way to travel. But such a vehicle as a trolley bus and tram in western cities are rare, mainly in museums.
Now we should give the little description of development of transport terminology in the world globalization:
It is known that automotive vocabulary emerged at the turn of the XIX-XX centuries in the period of powerful development of technology and general industrialization. In English, the term “automobile” was borrowed first as an adjective from French in 1883. And only by 1890 a noun appeared, denoting "self-propelled vehicle". Historically, the period of formation of the automotive terminology can be divided into four periods.
The first period includes terms that appeared before the first cars appeared in 1889. During this period, attempts were made to create prototypes of cars, and the basic components and assemblies were invented, which gave impetus to the emergence of the first full-fledged vehicles. In this period, the terms referring to the components and assemblies that make up the primary basis of the car prevail. In particular, more than half of the concepts of this period are related to the design features, or parts and parameters of an internal combustion engine, for example, pressing force — pressing force, twisted spring — coil spring, odometer — odometer, nozzle — electric fuel injector, gasoline engine — petrol engine.
The second period (1889-1934) is the time of development and improvement of the basic systems of a car, characterized by the growth of auto production. It is noted that during this period, more than half of the terms were formed. This is explained by the fact that during these years the design of the car was formed. By the end of the period, the layout and layout become more similar to modern vehicles. If in the first period the largest number of terms is nominated for concepts related to an internal combustion engine, in the second one concepts that characterize the evolution of a car prevail. Terms such as alternating current generator, transmission - transmission, spark plug - sparking plug, drive shaft - etc., appear. At the same time, the level of comfort and appearance of the car are improved. This is facilitated by the development of such systems as power steering - power-assisted steering, railing - roof railing, carrier body - unitized body, etc.[ Мagtimova М. А.2016.p.2]
The appearance of the first front wheel drive car in 1934 marked the beginning of the third period of the car’s development. The end of this period should be considered the beginning of the use of electronics on production cars in 1975. It was during this period that the modern concept of the automotive industry was laid. During this period, the terms lever suspension - wishbone suspension (sports cars of the Formula class - 1, 30th years of the XX century), high pressure fuel pump - high-pressure fuel injection pump, ball joint - ball joint, etc. appeared.
The fourth period (1975 to the present) is characterized by the growing role of safety and comfort .
Now, we can specially determine the peculiarities of terms related to transport in English language.
"Transport" vocabulary. Types of transport in English. In addition to the vocabulary, denoting the types of vehicles themselves, there are many more words whose topic is related to this vocabulary. For example, you may need to buy a ticket, refuel, change a wheel, or park. To do this, you need to know how these words are written and pronounced.
Types of vehicles in English as you know, transport is divided into several types and subspecies:
Ground-underground (railway, special, personal, etc.)
Air (military, passenger, cargo)
Marine (military, passenger, cargo) [Мagtimova М. А.2016.p.4]
The objective processes which are passing now in system of scientific knowledge, lead to origination and wide development of applied scientific disciplines of difficult character. It creates requirement for development of new type of the terms combining reflexing of scientific and practical concepts of different branches of knowledge. Specificity of each concrete scientific discipline finds the reflexing in a terminology, and specificity revealing terminology different branches of scientific knowledge allows bringing in new refinement to problems, as terminology, and terms as a whole. The English-speaking terminology of a pipe-line transport is formed taking into account the structurally-language factors caused by laws of language, and the extra linguistic factors influencing development of a terminology of given scientific and technical activity owing to what is not static formation, and language as a whole is exposed to constant transformations, as well as. The observed terminology reflects as a language condition in a concrete period, and is the tool of its subsequent development. The English transport terminology, different centuries-old history, and also prompt development now, finds fuller reflexing both in English, and in Uzbek general dictionaries. Thus, the attention is deserved by that fact that as a whole, the English general dictionary fixes more quantity of transport terms, representing more than hierarchical levels of 137 logo-conceptual schemes of the given systems. Before to a common word to become the term, it should undergo to semantic specialization through its use in special contexts. These terms bring with themselves from everyday lexicon such signs which can already be expressed in new concept and are taken as a principle metaphorical carrying over. Thus, the form known already speaks about «the new» maintenance. «The metaphor is a transfer of meaning on similarity of external or internal signs, and also functions».
The Major factors promoting hyphenation as terminological names from common-literary language:
1) the logic factor when at different concepts reveals identical signs;
2) the psychological factor, consisting that names are given to new objects on the basis of associative communication between available signs at already known and signs of new objects;
3) the linguistic factor, connected with semantic, grammatical,
4) the sociological factor, consisting that a considerable quantity of terms undertakes from the system of terms, the areas most developed for everyone epoch. Term is engaged in studying of the special lexicon used by people in the professional work. Definition of the basic lines of special lexicon and methods of work with it has features of replenishment and models of its formation as the theoretical value connected with the decision of problems of purely linguistic character. At work with terms it is necessary to observe such cases quite often, when as the term with widely embrace value are called objects, having concrete designations that also can slow down in what -that degrees dialogue process in the situations demanding exact, concrete and the fast information.
«vehicle» — any transportation means;
«transportation» — any kind of conveyance, transportation.
Concept «the mixed message» — «combine transportation» (a transportation of freight in the mixed message) it is concretized by the words specifying in it different production engineering — «multimodal» («multimodal» — conveyance on to one deed). [David Lowe.2002.p.113]
Multimodal cargo transportation. At such conveyances the transport company organizes delivery of a cargo by means of several aspects of transport facilities, for example, automobile and a railway transportation or automobile and air transport. Each transport company but only skilled and large firm as they demand constant control of a location of a cargo, necessity to make out a considerable quantity of deeds, to co-ordinate harmonious work of transport at each stage of delivery can offer multimodal conveyances not. Multimodal conveyances are actual on delivery a cargo in other country or on other continent.
“Intermodal» («intermodal» — cargo conveyance in cargo units: containers, trailers etc.).[David Lowe.2002.p.96] Intermodal conveyances. They are similar to the multimodal. Difference consists that the cargo all road is in one transport means. For example, initially the cargo is located in the car which then calls in in the transport or on the vessel. With their help the car is forwarded to a certain place, whence continues traffic under the own steam. As at intermodal conveyances there is no necessity some times to overload a cargo from one transport in other, given aspect of conveyances provides high preservation of a cargo.
While translating these terms can mix up that leads to errors in understanding concrete material. In a transport terminology it is not always possible already fixed though, maybe, not absolutely «successful» term to replace to other, meeting installed demands. Existence at once two terms can create known inconveniences, lead to mess. Thus, scientists recommend replacing the term only then, «When the new term has obvious and indisputable advantages before the old terms. A heading of transportations of freight in «the mixed message», operations personifying logistical sequence, led to that the English term «forwarder» («forwarding agent») recently, It began to be replaced with the term «logistics provider», and it is true. The big role in term creation is played by its motivation, i.e. «Its semantic transparency, property of its form to give representation about concept named the term».[Lotte.D.S.1980]
Terminological structure of the term, defined elements of terms and term — models, a definition inform us on its motivation, induct into the concrete notional area. Founders always reflected and think of, how to define term structure that in it have been considered as it is possible more expressively the basic, essential signs of concept, that in the term maintenance the certain system were most full reflected. Communications and a place in concrete notional system. Probably therefore, some official English names for specialized carriages on a railway transportation were gained too long, but correctly orienting and system.
For example, the term «a gondola car for conveyance technological crampon and short-length wood», in it is really full reflected both patrimonial, and specific signs: system communication with patrimonial concept is shown «The specialized carriage», distinctive features are specified, defining its appointment. But at the same time this term will not be to meet other demands. In spite of the fact that at standardization to it did not pay attention, railroaders, being oriented on the English alternative, for a long time already the gondola cars name. Thus, we agree with V. P. Danileko, confirming on our instance that all demands made to the term unequal. If such demands as uniqueness, brevity, introduction is possible to refer to obligatory as they provide achievement of a main objective of standardization of a nomenclature, the others are only desirable.
In development of the English transport system of terms the opposite trend to brevity acts also designations. To professional lexicon in process formation of terms is widely adopted.
Abbreviation — any abbreviation used by specialists for Sweeping message transfer over communication channels, for example:
“A and A” — Adjustments and Allowances,” .[David Lowe.2002.p.23]
“CCS” — Cargo Community System. .[David Lowe.2002.p.35]
For the purpose of training of experts to difficult language of abbreviations special branch dictionaries of reductions are created. The majority abbreviation units are the uniform accepted variants in the entire world; therefore, possessing concrete semantics, they do not cause the special difficulties while translating on other languages. It is necessary to note that use of abbreviations, as a way abbreviation of transfer of the verbal information, extended for the account abbreviation, and then transfers of processes.
English transport terminology is not just a set, series or set of terms denoting the concepts of this industry, but a system of standardized notation, built on the interrelation of the concepts referred to, which manifests itself in the process of general communicative activity in a given area. Consider a specific material.
In determining the composition of the English transport terminology relating to the commercial exploitation of transport, and the concepts that it forms, it is necessary to rely on the principle of genus proximum et different specifications. This technique makes it possible to establish system connections between terminological fields and thematic groups in the terminology in question: how are the concepts related to each other, how do they interact, assuming that these concepts are fundamental and fundamental for this sphere. We define, for example, the terminological field for the word "ship" and set approximately its boundaries. By definition, T.L. Kandelaki, “the meaning of the term appears as a sum, a bundle of some elementary semantic units, but this bundle consists of two signs, with uneven signs that are in a definite relationship - the sign - the closest kind and the sign - specific difference” [Kandelaki.T.L.1977, p.26 ]. The scientific definition of the word "ship" - "a floating vessel, which is self-propelled and capable of carrying cargo or passengers"[[David Lowe.2002.p.438] - precisely defines the place of this concept in the system of scientific concepts relating to marine means of transportation. Included in this definition is an inclusive parameter (genus proximum), which gives the term a generic meaning.
With the help of inclusive communication, the term receives a special generic concept that can serve as the basic elements for creating new terms that form a specific system or a specific field. The status of this word as pivotal is determined by the frequency of use and semantic neutrality.
The basic concepts of transport as they become more complex, develop new signs and properties, which is reflected in the emergence of species concepts. Thus, the generic term "ship" is detailed by specific terms: bulk carrier, Handymax, Panamax, tanker, containership, cargoliner, combiship, etc. - while its value is narrowed, it becomes more special.
Download 191 Kb.
Do'stlaringiz bilan baham:
ma'muriyatiga murojaat qiling