The ministy of higher and secondary special education of the republic of uzbekistan state university of world languages the department of english language theory and practice
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- Container ship
- 2.2. The peculiarities of terms related to transport in Uzbek
- English Russian (equivalent) Uzbek (equivalent)
Bulk carrier (bulker) - single deck ship designed to carry homogeneous unpacked dry cargoes. Hopper sides and wing tanks. Carriage of grain, other bulk cargoes or water ballast. Bulkers are built in a wide range of sizes and are generally gearless, although you can have your own gear.
Tanker - ship in it for many people. Tankers, including gas, oil and gas. Size and capacity of the tank. The tankers are discharged using their own pumps. [David Lowe.2002.p. 233].
Container ship-ship specially designed and built to carry ISO containers
in 20 ft and 40 ft modules in cells (ie cellular ship*). [David Lowe.2002.p.56]
All in all, the creation of updated terms of transport system is achieved wherever the development of the lifestyle is obtained. In conclusion, it should be mentioned that the peculiarities of English transport terminology lie on follows:
1. The logical correlation of terms, their interaction and interdependence indicate that English transport terminology is a clearly defined terminological system, subject to certain classification rules. Nowadays, it is intensively expanding and updating, as the transport sectors that we study are booming.
2. In English transport vocabulary, there are certain ways to form transport terms: lexico-semantic, morphological, syntactic. Borrowing plays a large role in the expansion of the term system. They are important in the formation and formation of modern international transport terminology based on English terms.
3. In the development of English transport terminology, there is, on the one hand, a striving for accuracy and completeness of the notation, which is expressed in the creation of multi-component terms, terminological phrases, and on the other, a striving for brevity, codification of the notation, which leads to the wide use of abbreviated names.
4. Since at present the transport service of all sectors of the national economy and population includes not only sea, but also other types of transport, the vocabulary of international transport communication is replenished with terms that in the past were considered to be strictly industry-specific.
2.2. The peculiarities of terms related to transport in Uzbek
The modern world is not conceivable without vehicles. Since ancient times, people have been looking for ways to make their movements faster and easier. The vehicle gradually evolved - from horses, deer and dogs to airplanes and helicopters.
Transport is a branch of production that provides the vital need of society for the transport of goods and passengers. So we can not imagine the development of mankind without means of transportation. In Uzbekistan there were different kinds of transport system as other countries of the globe from ancient times.
Transport is part of the production infrastructure serving the main sectors of the economy: the mining, processing industry and agriculture.
The infrastructure also includes communications, energy, logistics system. Transport as a branch of production is a combination of means and means of communication, the normal activity of which is provided by various technical devices and structures.
Means of communication are rolling stock (cars, trailers, semi-trailers in road transport; locomotives, railroad cars; vessels, barges in water transport, etc.).
Routes of communication are the tracks specifically designed and equipped for the movement of rolling stock of this type of transport (roads, railways, river routes, etc.).
Technical devices and facilities are a complex of freight and passenger stations, terminals, loading and unloading points, repair shops, filling stations, communications and alarm systems, control systems, etc.
The concept of "transport" also includes individual elements (rolling stock, roads, terminals, etc.) that interact with each other to perform certain work, therefore it is necessary to consider transport as a system.
A system is a unity of naturally located and interrelated parts (elements) subordinate to a certain principle. Transport is considered as an element of a large system — the economy as a whole — or as a subsystem of the economy designed to serve economic relations in the sphere of circulation by all modes of transport, including urban, industrial (technological) and specialized.
There is a public transport, departmental and personal use. General use is the use of all types of transport, except for industrial, any enterprise with any form of ownership, as well as urban transport - by the population. The departmental includes industrial transport serving a particular enterprise and is on the balance sheet of this enterprise. In the current market conditions after the liquidation of production ministries, the concepts of general and non-general transport were not strictly demarcated. Private use is the use of a vehicle (car, bicycle, yacht, airplane, etc.) by an individual (family).
At all stages of economic development, transport provides the needs of its industries and population in the rapid movement of goods and passengers. With the development of market relations, the question of the observance of the terms of relocation established by the customer of transportation is particularly acute.
The main feature of the transport is the intangible nature of the products. Transport ensures the normal functioning of the production and non-production sectors of the economy, meets the needs of the population and, therefore, is a service industry.
Hence, its specific role in ensuring (indirectly) the growth of the social product and national income and the improvement of the work of the branches producing material goods. This role consists in the timely delivery of the required products from the manufacturer to consumers, reduction of losses and damage to finished products and raw materials, reduction of the time of deactivation of tangible assets on transport, improvement of transport services to the population through quick delivery in comfortable conditions.
Transport at the same time acts as a consumer and as an employer, as it uses vehicles, fuel and other products of various sectors of the economy, as well as labor resources.
The pace of development of transport should somewhat outpace the needs for the transport of goods and passengers. Transport reserves are considered the most appropriate types of reserves, since the lack of movement of goods and passengers is a serious obstacle to the development of the economy.
As it is mentioned above that the development of transport means created different terms from time to time. The group of terms used in transport system is enlarging day by day because of change in the cycle of life.
The main purpose of covering the issue of the formation of the first cars in Uzbekistan. One of the main tasks of the Republic of Uzbekistan is to explain to students the importance of the role of transport and transport terms in an independent environment. The diversity of the natural and geographical position of the Republic of Uzbekistan has determined its motives and types of transport.
The diversity of the natural and geographical conditions of Uzbekistan has determined the motives and types of its vehicles. Highland areas between the West and the East, steep deserts and steppes, limited waterways, a large Silk Road and long-term most important transport links were established. According to researchers, this caravan route played an important role in strengthening international relations in the twentieth century. Its length is about 7000 kilometers and covers a very large area: some of them are from ancient Rome and Greece to Mesopotamia, others through Asia and Dashti, as well as China and India. During this period, the Kushan Empire, which ruled the Middle East, was in contact with the Roman Empire and was considered its “bridge” between the East and West.
Railway, aviation, urban electric transport (tram, trolley buses, metro), river, pipe, transport, as well as general-purpose (industrial) transport, road, strip transport and crane transport.
From the history we can observe the means of transport is somehow different from several countries. So, it should be mentioned both the old and modern types of transport means. While analyzing terms connected with transportation, we take several old words connected with it:
“arava, aroba” - is an old mode of transport used to transport goods and people. It consists of main parts, such as a shuttle, a cart (wheel) and a bullet. Shoots - two horses 4.5 m long, eight horsemen, two hawks and a hatch. Plows are made of wonderful poles. The shot (range from 70 to 80 cm) has one hole, which serves to fix the horse's neck.[Ensyclopedia.2013.p.23]
“ot-arava” – horse-drawn carriage. This means of transportation was widely used from long history till the first cars was invented.
“aravakash” to the word means the person who rides “arava”. Its specificity should be mentioned that it is made adding suffix ‘kash” to the word “arava”.
“otliq”- a person who rides a horse. In Uzbek there are several synonyms to this word : ot mingan, suvori. .[Ensyclopedia.2013.p.24]
Let’s see in examples:
◆ Ikkovga birov botol-mas, otliqqa yayov yetolmas. Maqol .
◆ sht Koʻcha-ning bir tomonida bulutga oʻxshash chang-toʻ-zon koʻtarildi va hademay bir toʻda otliq koʻrindi. S. Zunnunova, «Olov» .
“g’ildirak” -the wheel is a circular converter around the axis of a mechanical worker in different machines.
After Uzbekistan gained independence, Uzbekistan Airways (1992), Uzbek Automobile Transportation (UzAvtotrans), to radically improve transport and public services and public transport services,), State Joint-Stock Corporation (1993), State Joint-Stock Company "Uzbek Railways" "and other agencies.
The growth of industrial and agricultural production was also moderate due to large-scale capital construction and an increase in the transport and logistics base. Most of the industrial traffic and freight passengers in general use road transport (70% of cargo in 1995: 1819, 6 million passengers).
Transport in the republic provides economic links between economic regions and enterprises, between people, and also between countries.
The first cars in Uzbekistan. There is also a traffic on densely populated cities and villages. These were red soils, very clay and winter in winter, and some sandy, hard-to-reach routes in summer. Local and public transport, convenient and adaptable on these roads. As already mentioned, there are two ancient wheelchairs in Uzbekistan: one - two large wheelchairs. The second car is brown, mostly concentrated in the central areas of the Fergana and Zerafshan valleys. The first cars are the oldest in terms of archaeological and written sources. The second car, which has its own car, is in the valley of Khorezmian, and they are still there. According to ancient Chinese sources, only Asian regions of middle age existed only in Khorezm, with two crushed cars with twisted rope, which traders used in their travels. The Khorezm carriage handle is larger and heavier than the brown beater, which is located on the front of the chariot mounted on zigzag boards. The cart is in the cart and the driver is in the saddle. If a person travels a long way, there is a special umbrella for cars, and large baskets for transportation (especially melons and watermelons) are fitted. The carts were smaller than the animals attached to it (horses, donkeys, donkeys). There is a trunk, in which there is a trunk and stroller for the field. Catering establishments in large cities and villages are associated with special associations.
The most common horses and donkeys in the city are considered, and in some places camels and roosters are also used.
The transport system in the republic forms a complex society, including railways, highways equipped with modern equipment, station warehouses, intact wagons, large air terminals and infrastructure units.
Railway transport. In public transport, rail passengers can also carry cargo.
In 1995, the length of railways in Uzbekistan was 6.6 thousand km, including the total length of the railway - 3.5 km, and the length of railways, mainly to industrial enterprises, was 3.1 km.
In Uzbekistan, the first railway line was built from Farab station to Samarkand from 1886 to 1888 (a continuation of the Krasnodar-Chorsu railway). This railway was laid to the bridge between 1895-1897 and to Tashkent in 1899. In 1906, the Tashkent-Orenburg railway was commissioned.
The independence of the Republic of Uzbekistan is of great importance for the economy. The Republic of Uzbekistan takes part in the construction of the Trans-Asian Railway (Istanbul, Tashkent, Almaty, Beijing), which connects China, Korea, Japan, Iran, Turkey with the south of Europe. Druzhba station in Kazakhstan, Tajana-Sarakhs in Turkmenistan and parts of Sarah-Mashhad in Iran (1996, May 13) began to service trains.
Automobile transport. The national economy is engaged in industry, agriculture, construction, water management, communications, trade, health care. There are large automotive companies specializing in communal agriculture, education, defense and other industries.
In 1995 in the republic there were 14.7 buses for public passenger transport and more than 5,000 passenger cars for taxis. There were 2,892 buses throughout the country (including 593 cities, 1.1768 urban centers, and 532 urban buses). Every day, about 5 million passengers are transported by bus. There are 27 bus stations and 120 bus stations in the country. Only bus routes in the city. In 1995, buses transported 1,819.6 million passengers.
In the national economy of Uzbekistan there are about 200,000 trucks for various purposes. In the country, 788.2 thousand. Cars that are owned by citizens.
After independence, the Republic of Uzbekistan pays more and more attention to the adaptation of existing roads to international standards, road construction and maintenance, road construction, the connection of newly created industrial zones with international highways. In this regard, Uzbekistan launched the Andijan-Osh highway, Ergashtam-Kashkar (July 21, 1997), which will give China the opportunity to connect with China and Pakistan with the construction of the China-Karachi Termez road, and others. A large highway is intensively built in the republic in the Fergana Valley, which connects the Tashkent oasis with a narrow passage and the Denay Highway. 95.6% of the total number of roads are covered with heavy pavements, including 0.8% (336 km) roads with cement concrete pavement, 49.6% (21819 km) with asphalt concrete pavement, Alli and black stripes make up 40.6% ( 17769 km).
Air Transport. Uzbekistan connects airports with capitals of many countries of the world, industrial cities of large cities.
The development of the country new technologies started to enter with their names –“terms”. Because of this most of transport terms are the same with their original terms as in other countries. Below given the terms widely used in every day life:
To conclude, it should be mentioned that most of transport terms which are used in Uzbek language are borrowed from other languages, like Russian, English, French and so on. For example:
“transport”, “aqualang”, “station”, “pedal”, “transit” – these words are the same in three languages because of being borrowed from other languages.
The words like “stoyanka”, “tormoz”, “bamper”, “kabina” are almost same in two languages : Russian and Uzbek. It means that terms related to different subjects, aspects , especially ,when it comes to terms of technological process , are borrowed from the language of country which one adopted a new technology and new term.
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