The ministy of higher and secondary special education of the republic of uzbekistan state university of world languages the department of english language theory and practice


CHAPTER III COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF TERMS RELATED TO TRANSPORTATION IN DISCOURSE


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CHAPTER III COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF TERMS RELATED TO TRANSPORTATION IN DISCOURSE

3.1. Comparative analysis of terms related to transportation in English-Uzbek dictionaries

Unfortunately, at present the features of the translation into Uzbek and English-speaking technical terms have not been studied enough. There are not enough special dictionaries and glossaries of such terminology, and in the translation technical documents relating to the maintenance of cars and agricultural machinery, there are annoying errors and inaccuracies that can lead to very serious troubles and even tragedies.

The purpose of this work is to study technical terminology comparatively in two languages using dictionaries in the texts on the automotive industry and their solutions.

The study of transport terminology is not a new topic; the above vocabulary layer has already been studied by individual authors: L.I. Voskresenskaya [1980] studied the semantic structure of English technical (automotive) terms. Research N.P. Tomasevich [1984] was devoted to the terminological vocabulary of the English automotive sublanguage and its interaction with other lexical layers. V.G. Zakharova (1985) considered the terminology of the automotive industry in the Russian and Belarusian languages, namely the system of terminology of the category “processes, methods of action”. L.I. Lesnichaya [1998] examined the semantics of the syntactic structures of compound terms on the basis of the terminology of the automotive industry in modern French. Yu.A. Chuntomova (2004) studied English transport terminology. I.E. Korotaeva [2004] analyzed the lexico-semantic field "Transport" in American English. I.N. Pozdnysheva [2007] conducted a comparative analysis of automotive term systems in English, French and Russian. However, in Uzbek language no one has studied widely transport terminology yet. The major part of terms related to transportation are originated from foreign languages because the initial establishment and development of transport is related to European countries and Russia. Because of relation between Russian and Uzbek languages, many transport terms are translated from Russian , also new terms of transportation are accepted as itself.

For the analysis of the main problems of the translation of automotive vocabulary, a textbook by A.V. Gninenko "The automobile as we see it" and the texts provided by the company LLC "Tagavto Prom".

However, the study of transport terms in Uzbek language has not been carried out yet. Because of this, students are coming across some difficulties while learning transport terminology and it is creating major translation problems. While studying terms comparatively in two or more languages it should be emphasized that connection between comparative typology and translation theory shows their influence comprehensibly.

When translating texts automotive topics can be faced with four major problems.

1) Synonymy of the term.

For example, the gearbox in English can mean the words gearbox, transmission; sensor - pickoff; pickup; sensor; transducer, detecting element, sensing element.

2) The polysemy of the term.

For example, “nut” is a nut, coupling; "Pulley" - pulley; “Lead (n)” - conductor, power lead, lead (battery), thread lift, thread pitch; "Joint" - joint, seam, hinge, gasket; "Strainer" - tensioning device, filter, mesh filter (at the intake end of the suction hose); "Sensor" - sensor, sensor.

3) The choice of the translation method of the term.

The most common ways to translate terms are as follows:

1) The best way to translate is the identification of the equivalent of the original language term in the target language. The application of this method is possible in cases where countries in which the original language and the language of the translation are common have reached the same scientific, technical or social level or have passed this level at some time in their history. Another feature of these terms is that usually the terms-equivalents of different languages ​​already existed in both languages ​​at the time of translation (heater - heater, flywheel - flywheel).

2) A new term in the target language can be created by giving an existing word or phrase combination in this language under the influence of the term of the original language. This translation method can be called semantic convergence.

3) When searching for equivalent and semantic convergence in the process of translating terms, new lexical units are not created, but previous ones used in the language. The use of this translation leads to the formation of new words or phrases. This process is called tracing. There are two types of tracing:

a) if the structure of the translated lexical unit in both languages ​​coincides, we are dealing with semantic tracing paper. Semantic calking can be applied when the structure of phrases in the source language and the target language is close or identical (direct digital control is a direct digital device).

b) if the structure of a complex lexical unit is borrowed in translation along with this unit, we are dealing with structural tracing paper, or tracing paper itself. At the same time, a new word or phrase (gearbox) model appears in the target language.

4) When, in the process of translation, the lexical unit with all its substantive and formal features (semantics, derivational structure, sound composition and writing) passes from the source language to the translation language, we are dealing with borrowing. The problem of borrowing in the field of terms devoted extensive literature.

5) In some cases, the term should be translated descriptive construction. This translation method is used for non-equivalent terms reflecting the realities of a certain country (overhaul period - the interval between engine bulkheads) [4, p. 44].

4) Translation of abbreviations and abbreviations.

For example, A / C - air conditioning system; EGR - exhaust gas recirculation; NVH - noise, vibration, smooth motion; Rpm is the number of revolutions per minute; HFC-134a - freon 134a.

The classification of terms is also different for different authors. The study took the classification presented by V.M. Leichik. Terms are classified into single-word (one-component) and wordy (multi-component). In turn, one-word terms are divided into 3:

a) simple or non-derivative (single-root): wheel - wheel, fuel - fuel, clutch - clutch;

b) derivatives derived from single-root words and affixes: ventilation - ventilation system, heater - heater, cylinder - cylinder;

c) complex, having at least two roots: crankshaft – crankshaft, gearbox - gearbox, automobile - car.

Verbose (multi-component or compound) terms are divided into 2:

a) terms with contiguity, in which the attribute and some relative (mostly adverbial) components are combined with each other, as well as with the component to be defined, and form terminological phrases: steel body - steel body, power plant - power plant, rear axle - rear axle ;

b) terms with different grammatical means, among which the main role is played by prepositions: gasket of oil pump - oil pump gasket, screen of oil strainer - oil receiver grid.

As a result, one-component terms are (by subgroups):

a) 10.3%;

b) 8.6%;


c) 4.2%;

Multicomponent:

a) 74%;


b) 2.9%.

By percentage, it is clearly seen that the text is dominated by multicomponent terms with contiguity, in which the attribute and some relative (mainly adverbial) components are combined with each other and with the component being defined, forming terminological phrases.

Now let’s compare transport terminology of two languages which are being compared. To compare English and Uzbek transport discourse, one can say that the following language features are characteristic : clichés and stamps ( used to cause existing stereotypes in the mind of addressees, to make information more clear, accessible for understanding, so reducing the speed of processing documents); terms and abbreviations, accentuating the basic concepts. Transportation discourse in both languages is distinguished not only by lexical features, but also by specific structure and implementation (syntactic constructions, written design). In both languages it is possible to differentiate the historical usage of transport terms and their origination which is connected the way of life of nations. Besides these similarities, as transport discourse is a collection of speech works created within the transportation sphere of communication, which is regulated by certain rules, traditions and experience, which is reflected in the choice of language tools. In analyzing discourse, the values and attitudes of the given social institution, the social status and personal characteristics of the author are taken into account. Now, in order to analyze some basic public transport terms, we should separate the terms according to their place of usage. For example, while learning basic public transport terms we can differentiate the terms connected with these spheres: service, cost, output.

In this table, we can learn basic terms of public transport service comparatively with the help of translation:



Route alignment – yo’nalish chizig’i ( path over which bus travels);

Terminal – aftobus qatnovining bosh yoki so’ngi bekati ( the end of route);

Garage (Parking or Maintenance) – transport asosiy to’xtash joyi;

*Garage is terms which is used to not on only as a parking place but also as:

- Daily, routine servicing;

- Vehicle repair;

- Driver assignment;

Span of service – qatnov vaqti boshlanishi va yakuni ( total clock hours over which public transport service is operated);

Common spans of service:


  • Work days – ish kunlari( haftaning besh kuni):


All day ( covers both peak commuting periods) ,

AM,PM peak commuting hours only,

“Owl” ( early morning) service.


  • Saturday service – shanba qatnov xizmati;


  • Sunday and holiday service – yakshanba va ta’til qatnov xizmati.




Interval(Frequency) – qatnovlar orasidagi vaqt ( time in minutes between two arrivals( or departures) of buses or trains;

Running time – Qatnov bosh bekatidan qatnov oxirgi bekatiga borish uchun ketadigan vaqt(travel time from one terminal to the other terminal). In a sentence:

In English: The running time for a bus that leaves Terminal A at 7:00 AM and arrives at Terminal B at 7:50 AM is 50 minutes.

In Uzbek: 7:00 da “A” qatnov bekatidan chiqib ketgan aftobusning “B” qatnov bekatiga 7:50 da yetib kelish uchun ketadigan belgilangan vaqt 50 daqiqadir.

Terminal time – belgilangan transportning oxirgi yoki bosh bekatda qolish muddati( Time scheduled for a respective vehicle between when it arrives at a terminal and when it departs for its next trip);

Cycle time – belgilangan transportning bosh bekatdan chiqib to unga qaytib kelguncha ketadigan vaqt(total time required for a vehicle to make a complete round to trip on a route);

Bus requirements- bir kunlik qatnov ta’minoti uchun yetarli avtobuslar soni(number of buses(vehicles) required to operate a transport route for a given interval= buses in service).

The given English terms have not equivalent terms in Uzbek language. Most transport vocabulary used in this sphere is connected with Russian transport terms which can be equivalent with English words given above. While comparing these terms we can define them using translation.

When we are learning transport terms we can not dismiss terms related to the cost of public transport. Below given some basic terms of cost according to its types:

Capital – kapital pul mablag”I ( acquisition of assets such as vehicles, stops, terminals, and garages);

Operating/maintenance – boshqaruv ( umumiy) mablag”I (e.g., wages, benefits, fuel, and parts);

Life-cycle costing -umumiy va kapital pul xarajatlari jamlanmasi(both operating and capital expenses over the lives of assets);

Short term “Immediate” costing -boshqaruv harajatlari ( only operating/maintenance expenses(immediate)).

Researching terms comparatively helps us to comprehend the system of terms, and to find equivalents of them which means that is one of the main ways of learning languages comprehensibly. So, it is also essential to determine the terms connected with public transport output:

Ridership – haydovchilar soni ( the number of people who ride a system of public transportation);

Commercial hours and kilometers (effective hours) – transportning umumiy qatnov vaqti ( hours and kilometers operated when transport vehicles available to public);

Dead hours and kilometers -transportning qatnovga kirmagan faoliyat vaqti (hours and kilometers traveled by transport vehicle when not in revenue service);

Vehicle hours or kilometers – transport kun davomidagi umumiy faoliyat vaqti (hours and kilometers travelled from pull-out from garage to pull-in: includes commercial and dead time);

Occupancy (load) factor – joy egallanganlik (transport hajmi)ning darajasi ( passengers onboard expressed as a percent of available seats);

Capacity utilization – ruhsat etilgan umumiy yo’lovchilar soni (percent of vehicle capacity used);

Importance of capacity utilization (occupancy factor) – joy egallanganlik darajasining ahamiyati (key input for scheduling vehicles to adequately serve passenger demand);

Passengers at the maximum load point – eng yuqori miqdordagi yo’lovchilar soni (number of passengers on-board a transit vehicle as it passes the location on the route with the maximum passengers on-board).

The given English terms above is used widely in Great Britain, but when it comes to Uzbek lexemes the usage of transport vocabulary is being described with mor than two words, that is, in Uzbek transport system there are some difficulties to give translation with brief terms.

A glance at the differences between English and Uzbek transport discourse demonstrates that English transport discourse is full of multi-component attributive phrases. They can be considered as a result of the reduction of the proposition, since the constructions can be transformed and expanded into sentences.

During the investigation, it was cleared that In English transport terminology-transport terms are polysemous and homonyms, rather than Uzbek transport terms. To analyze transport terms, we compared more than fifty transport terms in both languages with the help of “Dictionary of Transport and Logistics” and “English-Russian and Russian-English transport dictionary”.

At the time of investigation, the followings were the center of attention: how terms in English and Uzbek are alike; what kind of differences exists in both languages; whether the structure of the words is similar; does the meaning of the terms have similarities; are the words discussed polysemous, monosemantic or homonyms?. Here we can see the common terms that are used in transport system around the world:

Main transport types



English


Russian (translation


Uzbek (translation


ground-underground

Automobile


Автомобиль


Avtomashina


bulldozer


Бульдозер


Buldozer


Bus

Автобус

Avtobus

Catafalque

Катафалк


Katafalk


combine

Комбайн

Kombayn

dust-cart

Мусоровоз


axlat yuk mashinasi


excavator


Экскаватор


Ekskavator


Loader

Погрузчик

yuk mashina


lorry

грузовой автомобиль

yuk mashina


motor bike


Мопед

Moped

Motorcycle


Мотоцикл


Mototsikl


Electrotrain


Электропоезд


elektr poezd


hand car


Дрезина

Drezina

local train


пригородный поезд


shaharlararo poezd


Bicycle

Велосипед

Velosoped


Train

Поезд

Poezd

Car

Автомобиль


Avtomashina


Landrover


Вездеход


har yerda yuruvchi mashina


petrol tanker


Бензовоз


yonilg'i yuk mashinasi


push-cycle


Самокат

Samakat

Tram

Трамвай

Tramvay

trolley bus

Троллейбус


Troleybus


Truck

Грузовик

yuk mashina


diesel locomotive


Тепловоз


dizel lokomotivi


electric locomotive


Электровоз


elektr lokomotivi


Locomotive


Локомотив


Lokomotiv


steam locomotive


Паровоз

bug 'lokomotivi

suburban train


Электричка


elektr poezd


Tram

Трамвай

Tramvay

Skateboard

Скейтборд


Skeytbord




Sea

Dinghy

Мотор.лодка

Motorlodka


Icebreaker


ледокол

Muzyorar

Steamship


пароход

bug' poezd

steam-ship


Теплоход


bug' poezd


Yacht

Яхта

Kema

Tanker

Танкер

Tanker

Tow

Буксир

Buksir

Raft

Плот

Plot

Sailer

Парусник

yelkenli qayiq




Air

Aviation


авиация

Aviatsiya

Aerobus

аэробус

Ayrobus

Helicopter

вертолет


Vertolyot


Plane

Самолет

Samolyot


hang-glider


Дельтаплан


Deltaplan


Fighter

Истребитель

Qiruvchi



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