The period of time in a person's life when they are developing into an adult


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335

Nostalgic

Feeling happy and sometimes slightly sad at the same time as you think about things that happened in the past

336

Prehistoric

1. Describing the period before there were written records

2. Informal disapproving very old-fashioned



337

Prior

Slightly formal existing or happening before something else, or before a particular time

338

Punctual

Arriving, doing something or happening at the expected, correct time; not late

Eg: He's fairly punctual (= He usually arrives on time)



339

Time consuming




340

Erode

1. To rub or be rubbed away gradually

2. To slowly reduce or destroy




341

Infer

To form an opinion or guess that something is true because of the information that you have

342

Predate

To have existed or happened before another thing

Eg: These cave paintings predate any others which are known.



343

Span

He period of time that sometimes exists or happens

Eg: He has a short attention/concentration span.



344

Lose track of time




345

Formerly

In the past

Eg: The European Union was formerly called the European Community.



346

Agriculture

Farming

Eg: Agriculture is still largely based on traditional methods in some countries.



347

Animal kingdom




348

Burrow

A hole in the ground dug by an animal such as a rabbit, especially to live in

349

Climate

General weather conditions usually found in a particular place

Eg: When we retire, we're going to move to a warmer climate.



350

Crops

(the total amount collected of) a plant such as a grain, fruit or vegetable grown in large amounts

351

Decline

To gradually become less, worse, or lower

Eg: The party's popularity has declined in the opinion polls.



352

Den

The home of particular types of wild animal

353

Disaster

(an event which results in) great harm, damage or death, or serious difficulty

Eg: It would be a disaster for me if I lost my job.



354

Ecological balance




355

Evolution

1. The way in which living things change and develop over millions of years

2. A gradual process of change and development



356

Gentically-modified




357

Extinct

Not now existing

Eg: There is concern that the giant panda will soon become extinct



358

Endangered

Animals or plants which may soon not exist because there are very few now alive

359

Domesticated

Belonging or relating to the home, house or family

360

Arid

Very dry and without enough rain for plants

Eg: The desert is so arid that nothing can grow there.



361

Catastrophic

An unchecked increase in the use of fossil fuels could have catastrophic results for the planet.

362

Weed

Any wild plant which grows in an unwanted place, especially in a garden or field where it prevents the cultivated plants from growing freely

363

Vermin

Small animals and insects that can be harmful and which are difficult to control when they appear in large numbers

364

Vegetation

Plants in general or plants which are found in a particular area

Eg: Much of the region's native vegetation has been damaged by developers who are building hotels along the coa



365

Soil

Material on the surface of the ground in which plants grow

366

Species

A set of animals or plants in which the members have similar characteristics to each other and can breed with each other

367

Scent

A pleasant natural smell

Eg: the scent of roses



368

Repercussions

The effect that an action, event or decision has on something, especially a bad effect

369

Prey

An animal that is hunted and killed for food by another animal

Eg: A hawk hovered in the air before swooping on its prey.



370

Predator

An animal that hunts, kills and eats other animals

Eg: lions, wolves and other predators



371

Pesticides

A chemical substance used to kill harmful insects, small animals, wild plants and other unwanted organisms

372

Insect

A type of very small animal with six legs, a body divided into three parts and usually two pairs of wings, or, more generally, any similar very small animal

373

Habitat

The natural environment in which an animal or plant usually lives

Eg: With so many areas of woodland being cut down, a lot of wildlife is losing its natural habitat



374

Genetics

Belonging or relating to genes (= parts of the DNA in cells) received by each animal or plant from its parents

375

Flora

All the plants of a particular place or from a particular time in history

Eg: the flora of the Balearic Islands



376

Fauna

All the animals that live wild in a particular area

Eg: an expedition to explore the flora and fauna of Hornchurch Wood



377

Naive

Too willing to believe that someone is telling the truth, that people's intentions in general are good, or that life is simple and fair.

378

Resistant

Not wanting to accept something, especially changes or new ideas

379

Tropical

From or relating to the area between the two tropics

380

Vulnerable

Able to be easily physically, emotionally, or mentally hurt, influenced or attacked

Eg: I felt very vulnerable, standing there without any clothes on.



381

Wild

Uncontrolled, violent or extreme

Eg: The audience burst into wild applause



382

Adapt

To change something to suit different conditions or uses

383

Combat

A fight, especially during a war

Eg: The soldiers were engaged in hand-to-hand combat.



384

Cultivate

To prepare land and grow crops on it, or to grow a particular crop

385

Eradicate

To get rid of completely or destroy something bad

Eg: The government claims to be doing all it can to eradicate corruption.



386

Hibernate

(of some animals) to spend the winter sleeping

Eg: The turtle hibernates in a shallow burrow for six months of the year.



387

Evolve

To develop gradually, or to cause something or someone to develop gradually

Eg: Humans evolved from apes.



388

Tolerate

To accept behaviour and beliefs which are different from your own, although you might not agree with or approve of them

389

Asteroid

One of many rocky objects, with widths from over 900 kilometres to less than one kilometre, which circle the sun

390

Astronaut

A person who has been trained for travelling in spacecraft

391

Atmosphere

The mixture of gases around the Earth

Eg: These factories are releasing toxic gases into the atmosphere.



392

Cosmos

The universe considered as a system with an order and pattern

393

Crater

The round hole at the top of a volcano, or a hole

394

Debris

Broken or torn pieces of something larger

Eg: Debris from the aircraft was scattered over a large area.



395

Earth

The planet third in order of distance from the Sun, between Venus and Mars; the world on which we live

396

Exploration

When you search and find out about something

Eg: We need to carry out a full exploration (= examination) of all the alternatives.



397

Galaxy

One of the independent groups of stars in the universe

398

Gas

Substance in a form like air that is neither solid nor liquid

Eg:Oxygen, hydrogen and nitrogen are all gases.



399

Gravity

The force which attracts objects towards one another, especially the force that makes things fall to the ground

400

Horizon

The line at the farthest place which you can see, where the sky seems to touch the land or sea

401

Launch

An event to celebrate or introduce something new

Eg: How much champagne will we need for the launch?



402

Meteor

A piece of rock or other matter from space that produces a bright light as it travels through the Earth's atmosphere

403

Moon

The round object which moves in the sky around the Earth and can be seen at night

404

Ocean

A very large area of sea

405

Orbit

The curved path through which objects in space move around a planet or star

406

Outer space

The part of space that is very far away from Earth

407

Lunar

Of or relating to the moon

408

Inevitable

Certain to happen and unable to be avoided or prevented

Eg: The accident was the inevitable



409

Horizontal

Flat or level; parallel to the ground or to the bottom or top edge of something

410

Extreme

Very large in amount or degree

411

Commercial

Related to buying and selling things

Eg: The commercial future of the company looks very promising.



412

Weightlessness

Having or appearing to have no weight

413

Universe

Everything that exists, especially all physical matter, including all the stars, planets, galaxies, etc. In space

414

Surface

The outer or top part or layer of something

Eg: Tropical rain forests used to cover 10% of the Earth's surface.



415

Space station

A vehicle in which people can travel round the Earth, outside its atmosphere, doing scientific tests

416

Space shuttle

A vehicle in which people travel into space and back again, sometimes carrying a satellite or other equipment into orbit (= a curved path through space)

417

Spacecraft

A vehicle used for travel in space

418

Solar system

The sun and the group of planets which move around it

419

Simulator

A piece of equipment which is designed to represent real conditions, for example in an aircraft or spacecraft

420

Satellite

A device sent up into space to travel round the Earth, used for collecting information or communicating by radio, television, etc.

421

Rocket

A large cylindrical object which moves very fast by forcing out burning gases, and which is used for space travel or as a weapon

422

Radiation

A form of energy that comes from a nuclear reaction and that can be very dangerous to health

423


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